Search results for 'Heredity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2000). Darwin on Variation and Heredity. Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):425-455.
    Darwin's ideas on variation, heredity, and development differ significantly from twentieth-century views. First, Darwin held that environmental changes, acting either on the reproductive organs or the body, were necessary to generate variation. Second, heredity was a developmental, not a transmissional, process; variation was a change in the developmental process of change. An analysis of Darwin's elaboration and modification of these two positions from his early notebooks (1836-1844) to the last edition of the /Variation of Animals and Plants Under (...)
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  2. Maria Kronfeldner (2009). If There is Nothing Beyond the Organic...: Heredity and Culture at the Boundaries of Anthropology in the Work of Alfred L. Kroeber. [REVIEW] NTM - Journal of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine 17 (2):107-134.
    Continuing Franz Boas' work to establish anthropology as an academic discipline in the US at the turn of the twentieth century, Alfred L. Kroeber re-defined culture as a phenomenon sui generis. To achieve this he asked geneticists to enter into a coalition against hereditarian thoughts prevalent at that time in the US. The goal was to create space for anthropology as a separate discipline within academia, distinct from other disciplines. To this end he crossed the boundary separating anthropology from biology (...)
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  3.  16
    Carlos López-Beltrán (2004). In the Cradle of Heredity; French Physicians and L'Hérédité Naturelle in the Early 19th Century. Journal of the History of Biology 37 (1):39 - 72.
    This paper argues that our modern concept of biological heredity was first clearly introduced in a theoretical and practical setting by the generation of French physicians that were active between 1810 and 1830. It describes how from a traditional focus on hereditary transmission of disease, influential French medical men like Esquirol, Fodéré, Piorry, Lévy, moved towards considering heredity a central concept for the conception of the human bodily frame, and its set of physical and moral dispositions. The notion (...)
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  4.  23
    Michael Bulmer (1999). The Development of Francis Galton's Ideas on the Mechanism of Heredity. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):263 - 292.
    Galton greeted Darwin's theory of pangenesis with enthusiasm, and tried to test the assumption that the hereditary particles circulate in the blood by transfusion experiments on rabbits. The failure of these experiments led him to reject this assumption, and in the 1870s he developed an alternative theory of heredity, which incorporated those parts of Darwin's theory that did not involve the transportation of hereditary particles throughout the system. He supposed that the fertilized ovum contains a large number of hereditary (...)
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  5.  6
    Brad D. Hume (2008). Quantifying Characters: Polygenist Anthropologists and the Hardening of Heredity. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (1):119 - 158.
    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity - seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true (...)
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  6.  11
    Sheila Faith Weiss (2006). Human Genetics and Politics as Mutually Beneficial Resources: The Case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics During the Third Reich. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):41 - 88.
    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do (...)
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  7.  17
    Valeria Mosini (2013). Proteins, the Chaperone Function and Heredity. Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):53-74.
    In this paper I use a case study—the discovery of the chaperon function exerted by proteins in the various steps of the hereditary process—to re-discuss the question whether the nucleic acids are the sole repositories of relevant information as assumed in the information theory of heredity. The evidence I here present of a crucial role for molecular chaperones in the folding of nascent proteins, as well as in DNA duplication, RNA folding and gene control, suggests that the family of (...)
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  8.  4
    Ilana Löwy (2012). Prenatal Diagnosis and the Transformation of the Epistemic Space of Human Heredity. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):99-104.
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  9.  10
    Sara Eigen Figal (2008). Heredity, Race, and the Birth of the Modern. Routledge.
    This book places under sustained scrutiny some of our most basic modern assumptions about inheritance, genealogy, blood relations, and racial categories. It has at its core a deceptively simple question, one too often taken for granted: what constitutes good bonds among humans, and what compels us to determine them so across generations as both a physical and a metaphysical attribute? Answering this question is complex and involves a foray into a seemingly disparate array of early modern sources: from adages, common (...)
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  10.  7
    Carlos López-Beltrán (2012). Exploring Heredity: Diachronic and Synchronic Connections. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 35 (1):45-50.
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  11.  4
    Phillip Thurtle (2002). Harnessing Heredity in Gilded Age America: Middle Class Mores and Industrial Breeding in a Cultural Context. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (1):43 - 78.
    By investigating the practices and beliefs of Gilded Age trotting horse breeders, this article demonstrates the relationship between industrial economic development and the growth of genetic reasoning in the United States. As most historians of biology already know, E.H. Harriman, Leland Stanford, and John D. Rockefeller not only transformed American business practice, they donated heavily to institutions that promoted eugenic research programs. What is not widely known, however, is that these same industrialists were accomplished trotting horse breeders with well-developed theories (...)
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  12.  9
    Diane B. Paul (1998). The Politics of Heredity: Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate. State University of New York Press.
    Explores the political forces underlying shifts in thinking about the respective influence of heredity and environment in shaping human behavior, and the feasibility and morality of eugenics.
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  13. Jean Gayon & Matthew Cobb (1999). Darwin's Struggle for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis of Natural Selection. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):413-415.
    In Darwinism's Struggle for Survival Jean Gayon offers a philosophical interpretation of the history of theoretical Darwinism. He begins by examining the different forms taken by the hypothesis of natural selection in the nineteenth century and the major difficulties which it encountered, particularly with regard to its compatibility with the theory of heredity. He then shows how these difficulties were overcome during the seventy years which followed the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, and he concludes by analysing the (...)
     
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  14.  26
    Ute Deichmann (2010). Gemmules and Elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's Concepts and Methods in Heredity. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):85-112.
    Inheritance and variation were a major focus of Charles Darwin’s studies. Small inherited variations were at the core of his theory of organic evolution by means of natural selection. He put forward a developmental theory of heredity (pangenesis) based on the assumption of the existence of material hereditary particles. However, unlike his proposition of natural selection as a new mechanism for evolutionary change, Darwin’s highly speculative and contradictory hypotheses on heredity were unfruitful for further research. They attempted to (...)
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  15.  18
    John C. Waller (2001). Ideas of Heredity, Reproduction and Eugenics in Britain, 1800–1875. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (3):457-489.
    In this paper I begin by arguing that there are significant intellectual and normative continuities between pre-Victorian hereditarianism and later Victorian eugenical ideologies. Notions of mental heredity and of the dangers of transmitting hereditary ‘taints’ were already serious concerns among medical practitioners and laymen in the early nineteenth century. I then show how the Victorian period witnessed an increasing tendency for these traditional concerns about hereditary transmission and the integrity of bloodlines to be projected onto the level of national (...)
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  16.  72
    Paul Griffiths (2003). Beyond the Baldwin Effect: James Mark Baldwin's 'Social Heredity', Epigenetic Inheritance, and Niche Construction. In Bruce H. Weber & David J. Depew (eds.), Evolution and Learning: The Baldwin Effect Reconsidered. MIT Press 193--215.
    I argue that too much attention has been paid to the Baldwin effect. George Gaylord Simpson was probably right when he said that the effect is theoretically possible and may have actually occurred but that this has no major implications for evolutionary theory. The Baldwin effect is not even central to Baldwin's own account of social heredity and biology-culture co-evolution, an account that in important respects resembles the modern ideas of epigenetic inheritance and niche-construction.
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  17.  15
    Stephen G. Brush (2002). How Theories Became Knowledge: Morgan's Chromosome Theory of Heredity in America and Britain. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):471-535.
    T. H. Morgan, A. H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller and C. B. Bridges published their comprehensive treatise "The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity" in 1915. By 1920 Morgan 's "Chromosome Theory of Heredity" was generally accepted by geneticists in the United States, and by British geneticists by 1925. By 1930 it had been incorporated into most general biology, botany, and zoology textbooks as established knowledge. In this paper, I examine the reasons why it was accepted as part of a (...)
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  18.  6
    M. Eileen Magnello (1998). Karl Pearson's Mathematization of Inheritance: From Ancestral Heredity to Mendelian Genetics (1895–1909). Annals of Science 55 (1):35-94.
    Summary Long-standing claims have been made for nearly the entire twentieth century that the biometrician, Karl Pearson, and his colleague, W. F. R. Weldon, rejected Mendelism as a theory of inheritance. It is shown that at the end of the nineteenth century Pearson considered various theories of inheritance (including Francis Galton's law of ancestral heredity for characters underpinned by continuous variation), and by 1904 he ?accepted the fundamental idea of Mendel? as a theory of inheritance for discontinuous variation. Moreover, (...)
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  19.  9
    Marsha L. Richmond (2006). The 'Domestication' of Heredity: The Familial Organization of Geneticists at Cambridge University, 1895-1910. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (3):565 - 605.
    In the early years of Mendelism, 1900-1910, William Bateson established a productive research group consisting of women and men studying biology at Cambridge. The empirical evidence they provided through investigating the patterns of hereditary in many different species helped confirm the validity of the Mendelian laws of heredity. What has not previously been well recognized is that owing to the lack of sufficient institutional support, the group primarily relied on domestic resources to carry out their work. Members of the (...)
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  20.  3
    Paul Weindling (1985). Weimar Eugenics: The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Social Context. Annals of Science 42 (3):303-318.
    This paper examines relations between eugenics and genetics during the Weimar Republic. Research aims and requests for funding were motivated by a sense that biology could contribute to national reconstruction after the First World War. Geneticists' participation in social policy-making is assessed, as well as the rise of interest in eugenics and racial biology among public health officials. It was important that eugenics be acceptable to the Centre Party, and a sometime Jesuit, Hermann Muckermann, took a leading role as intermediary (...)
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  21.  6
    Jane Maienschein (1987). Heredity/Development in the United States, Circa 1900. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 9 (1):79 - 93.
    Historians have emphasized the appearance of a productive research program in genetics after 1910, and philosophers and biologists have considered endorsement of genetics as a progressive move, indeed as a starting point for modern experimental biology. These efforts focus on what biology had changed to. This paper examines the condition from which biology moved, stressing the way in which Americans held heredity and development as a natural, intimately intertwined couple. Heredity accounts for likenesses, development for variation, and the (...)
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  22.  8
    Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (2008). Heredity and its Entities Around 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (3):370-374.
    This paper aims to give an impression of how biologists, at the turn of the twentieth century, came to conceptualize and define the hidden entities presumed to govern the process of hereditary transmission. With that, the stage was set for the emergence of genetics as a biological discipline that came to dominate the life sciences of the twentieth century. The annus mirabilis of 1900, with its triple re-appreciation of Gregor Mendel’s work by the botanists Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns, and (...)
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  23.  2
    William Leeming (2005). Ideas About Heredity, Genetics, and 'Medical Genetics' in Britain, 1900–1982. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):538-558.
    The aim of this paper is to understand how evolving ideas about heredity and genetics influenced new medical interests and practices and, eventually, the formation of ‘medical genetics’ as a medical specialism in Britain. I begin the paper by highlighting the social and institutional changes through which these ideas passed. I argue that, with time, there was a decisive convergence in thought that combined ideas about the familial aspects of heredity and the health needs of populations with an (...)
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  24.  28
    Frank Kannetzky (2007). What Makes Cultural Heredity Unique? On Action-Types, Intentionality and Cooperation in Imitation. Mind and Language 22 (5):592–623.
    The exploration of the mechanisms of cultural heredity has often been regarded as the key to explicating human uniqueness. Particularly early imitative learning, which is explained as a kind of simulation that rests on the infant’s identification with other persons as intentional agents, has been stressed as the foundation of cumulative cultural transmission. But the question of what are the objects of this mechanism has not been given much attention. Although this is a pivotal point, it still remains obscure. (...)
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  25.  19
    Robert Olby (2011). Staffan Müller-Wille & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (Eds): Heredity Produced. At the Crossroads of Biology, Politics, and Culture, 1500–1870. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3):327-331.
    Staffan Müller-Wille & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (Eds): Heredity Produced. At the Crossroads of Biology, Politics, and Culture, 1500–1870 Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 327-331 DOI 10.1007/s10441-011-9130-4 Authors Robert Olby, Department of the History and Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, 1017 Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, USA Journal Acta Biotheoretica Online ISSN 1572-8358 Print ISSN 0001-5342 Journal Volume Volume 59 Journal Issue Volume 59, Numbers 3-4.
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  26. C. J. (2001). Ideas of Heredity, Reproduction and Eugenics in Britain, 1800-1875. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (3):457-489.
    In this paper I begin by arguing that there are significant intellectual and normative continuities between pre-Victorian hereditarianism and later Victorian eugenical ideologies. Notions of mental heredity and of the dangers of transmitting hereditary 'taints' were already serious concerns among medical practitioners and laymen in the early nineteenth century. I then show how the Victorian period witnessed an increasing tendency for these traditional concerns about hereditary transmission and the integrity of bloodlines to be projected onto the level of national (...)
     
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  27.  5
    Author unknown (2008). Heredity and its Entities Around 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    define the hidden entities presumed to govern the process of hereditary transmissionWith that Hans-Jörg came to conceptualize, Carl Correns, its triple re-appreciation of Gregor Mendel’s work by the botanists Hugo de Vries, Erich Tschermak can be seen as the watershed after which theorizing about heredity & Pure Experimentation—Selecting.
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  28. Jean Gayon (1998). Darwinism's Struggle for Survival: Heredity and the Hypothesis of Natural Selection. Cambridge University Press.
    In Darwinism's Struggle for Survival Jean Gayon offers a philosophical interpretation of the history of theoretical Darwinism. He begins by examining the different forms taken by the hypothesis of natural selection in the nineteenth century and the major difficulties which it encountered, particularly with regard to its compatibility with the theory of heredity. He then shows how these difficulties were overcome during the seventy years which followed the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species, and he concludes by analysing the (...)
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  29.  3
    Douglas Wahlsten (1990). Insensitivity of the Analysis of Variance to Heredity-Environment Interaction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):109-120.
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  30.  37
    Eugene Earnshaw-Whyte (2012). Increasingly Radical Claims About Heredity and Fitness. Philosophy of Science 79 (3):396-412.
  31.  7
    Gregory Radick (2011). Physics in the Galtonian Sciences of Heredity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (2):129-138.
    Physics matters less than we once thought to the making of Mendel. But it matters more than we tend to recognize to the making of Mendelism. This paper charts the variety of ways in which diverse kinds of physics impinged upon the Galtonian tradition which formed Mendelism’s matrix. The work of three Galtonians in particular is considered: Francis Galton himself, W. F. R. Weldon and William Bateson. One aim is to suggest that tracking influence from physics can bring into focus (...)
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  32.  43
    William C. Wimsatt (1999). Genes, Memes, and Cultural Heredity. Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):279-310.
  33.  31
    Stephen M. Downes, Heredity and Heritability. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  34.  89
    B. S. Bosanquet (1934). Heredity and Environment: Studies in the Genesis of Psychological Characteristics. The Eugenics Review 26 (1):63.
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  35.  8
    Jenny Bangham & Soraya de Chadarevian (2014). Human Heredity After 1945: Moving Populations Centre Stage. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47:45-49.
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  36.  48
    Dugald Baird (1951). Heredity and Environment in the Determination of Stature. The Eugenics Review 43 (3):163.
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  37.  12
    Jean Gayon & Doris T. Zallen (1998). The Role of the Vilmorin Company in the Promotion and Diffusion of the Experimental Science of Heredity in France, 1840-1920. Journal of the History of Biology 31 (2):241 - 262.
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  38.  7
    Charles Spearman (1914). The Heredity of Abilities. The Eugenics Review 6 (3):219.
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  39.  18
    R. T. Bodey (1912). Heredity and Education: A Plea for a National Policy. The Eugenics Review 3 (4):312.
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  40.  21
    Cuthbert Dukes (forthcoming). Heredity and Environment. Eugenics Review.
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  41.  5
    Jan Sapp (1983). The Struggle for Authority in the Field of Heredity, 1900-1932: New Perspectives on the Rise of Genetics. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 16 (3):311 - 342.
  42.  12
    Gregory Radick (2012). Should “Heredity” and “Inheritance” Be Biological Terms? William Bateson's Change of Mind as a Historical and Philosophical Problem. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):714-724.
  43.  1
    Celeste Michelle Condit (1999). The Meanings of the Gene: Public Debates About Human Heredity. University of Wisconsin Press.
    The work of scientists and doctors in advancing genetic research and its applications has been accompanied by plenty of discussion in the popular press—from Good Housekeeping and Forbes to Ms. and the Congressional Record—about such ...
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  44.  19
    G. Sergi (1901). Some Ideas Concerning Biological Heredity. The Monist 12 (1):1-20.
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  45.  16
    Sister Mary Ellen O'Hanlon (1947). Heredity, Race and Society. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):191-192.
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  46.  22
    Ute Deichmann (2014). The Concept of the Causal Role of Chromosomes and Genes in Heredity and Development: Opponents From Darwin to Lysenko. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):57-77.
    A recent cover of the German news magazine Der Spiegel announced: “Victory over Genes. Smarter, healthier, happier: How we can outwit our genome” (2010). The magazine’s article, instead, emphasizes the importance of epigenetics. According to Florian Maderspacher (2010), who reprinted the cover in his editorial in Current Biology, the relief or “schadenfreude” about the apparent victory over genes—which the cover, the article, and commentaries to it reveal—is, in part, a German phenomenon. It echoes “a latent anti-scientific attitude in parts of (...)
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  47.  1
    Federica Turriziani Colonna (2016). Heredity, Evolution and Development in Their Environment at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century. British Journal for the History of Science 49 (1):107-113.
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  48.  1
    Heiko Stoff (2014). Cheryl A. Logan.Hormones, Heredity, and Race: Spectacular Failure in Interwar Vienna. 245 Pp., Index. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2013. $68. [REVIEW] Isis 105 (1):238-239.
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  49. Staffan Müller-Wille & Hans-jörg Rheinberger (2008). Heredity Produced: At the Crossroads of Biology, Politics, and Culture, 1500–1870. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (3):582-585.
     
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  50.  15
    Leonard Darwin (1916). Heredity and Environment: A Warning to Eugenists. The Eugenics Review 8 (2):93.
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