This is a study of 288 Korean and 323 Japanese Business executives. The result indicates that, (1) the business executives believe basically in higher level business ethics, but (2) they occasionally have to make unethical business decisions which conflict with their personal values, because of prevailing business practices. (3) However, they think higher ethical standards is useful for long-term profit and for improving workers' attitudes, and the standards can be improved, and (4) to improve ethical standards, model setting by superiors (...) is the most important and clear-cut company policies and code of ethics are essential. (shrink)
Este trabalho apresenta a experiência de uma abordagem interdisciplinar, desenvolvida na modalidade de pesquisa-ação, no atendimento ambulatorial a um grupo de 20 pacientes em tratamento da hepatite C. As especialidades envolvidas no projeto foram: assistência social, enfermagem, gastroenterologia, ..
The ordering and antiphase boundary (APB)-like fault found in the α?-martensite of ?-Ti shape memory alloys are studied. Long-range chemical ordering was not found, but APB-like faults were observed in every martensite plate studied by transmission electron microscopy. These faults have morphology similar to the APBs observed in ordered phases. The superlattice reflections observed in some previous works were a consequence of multiple diffractions. APB-like faults were not observed in the parent phase, leading to the conclusion that the faults were (...) introduced by the martensite transformation. The fault took the form of a wavy tube running perpendicular to the habit plane. The fault was a ?transformation-induced APB? with an additional small displacement due to the pre-existing athermal ? phase. The displacement vector was determined to be [?3/50, ?23/50, 1/2]. Geometrical aspects of the formation of APB-like faults are also discussed. (shrink)
There have been two Japanese Nobel laureates in chemistry, three in physics, and one in the category of medicine or physiology. This relatively small number has been attributed to shortcomings in Japanese science. The award of the Physics Prize in 1949 to Hideki Yukawa and to his colleague Sin'itirô Tomonaga in 1965 gave public evidence of how Japanese could make outstanding individual contributions to science. Paradoxically, the Prize also reinforced a belief that such men formed part of a traditional (...) hierarchical system. This essay examines how the Nobel Prize has been represented in Japan. (shrink)
Summary The mesotrons, or mesons, were the first elementary particles observed to be inherently unstable. This essay offers a reconstruction of the stream of researches related to mesotron decay, and examines how these researches shaped some of the basic concepts and practices of the emerging field of particle physics. Mass measurements could not settle the question of whether the mesons were a homogeneous kind of particles or an assortment of particles with different masses. The assumption of a single mass prevailed (...) not on experimental grounds but because the mesons were identified tentatively with the carriers of the nuclear force according to a theory formulated by Hideki Yukawa. The identification gained currency because it entailed the prediction of meson decay, and thereby upheld the promise of a unified explanation of nuclear and cosmic-ray phenomena. In turn, the observation of decay and the measurement of the mean lifetime created the conditions for investigating the nuclear interactions of mesons at rest. Interest in these interactions was heightened, immediately after WWII, by the prospect of building and using accelerators to acquire knowledge about fundamental nuclear processes. Using decay to study nuclear capture, however, led to the realization that there exist not only different kinds of mesons but also two nuclear forces. (shrink)
One important function of emotions is to guide decision making and behaviors for survival in complex environments. In the context of such reasoning, the somatic marker hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) has argued that bodily states are represented in specific brain regions, such as the insula, and would play critical roles in decision making. However, it still remains unclear what causal roles bodily states would play in decision making, and how the bodily states would change accompanying decision making. Thus, the aim of (...) this article is to reconsider aspects of the brain and bodily states in decision making based on recent findings. Questions for future research are proposed based on such findings. (shrink)