The essays in this volume critically analyze and revitalize agrarian philosophy by tracing its evolution in the classical American philosophy of key figures such as Franklin, Jefferson, Emerson, Thoreau, Dewey, and Royce.
The field of global health has reached a critical juncture, where both its visibility and the complexity of its challenges are unprecedented. The World Health Organization, as the only global health actor possessing both democratic and formal legal legitimacy, is best positioned to capitalize on this new, precarious situation in public health and respond with the governance innovation that is needed to bring the increasingly chaotic network of activities and entities affecting health outcomes under the fold of a centralized, standard-setting (...) agency. One such proposed innovation to guide normative and strategic coordination in global health is the creation of a Committee C of the World Health Assembly that would promote consensus building and multi-stakeholder decision-making within the unique convening power of the World Health Organization. (shrink)
In a series of recent papers, Randall and Foulis have developed a generalized theory of probability (operational statistics) which is based on the notion of a physical operation. They have shown that the quantum logic description of quantum mechanics can be naturally imbedded into this generalized theory of probability. In this paper we shall investigate the role of entropy (in the sense of Shannon's theory of information) in operational statistics. We shall find that there are several related entropy concepts in (...) operational statistics. We shall examine the relationships between these different entropy concepts and examine their implications for the foundations of quantum theory. We shall also examine the extension of the Jaynes inference scheme to the operational statistics formalism, and apply the latter to the case of quantum statistical mechanics. (shrink)
In a series of recent papers, Randall and Foulis report the development of a generalized theory of probability which is based on the concept of a physical operation. A central concept in this theory is that of a generalized sample space. In this paper, we introduce a generalized sample space, which for historial reasons we shall call the Poincaré sphere sample space. We investigate the relationship between this nonclassical sample space and its classical analogs, and find that the key to (...) this relationship is found in the use of idealized (Gedanken) experiments. The Poincaré sphere sample space is seen to describe a “photon” description of polarization, and the classical analogs represent different classical descriptions. We also discuss superposition and entropy for the Poincaré sphere sample space and its classical analogs, and we comment on the application of this generalized theory of probability to problems in the foundations of quantum theory. (shrink)
This article explores the use of walking interviews as a research method. In spite of a wave of interest in methods which take interviewing out of the "safe," stationary environment, there has been limited work critically examining the techniques for undertaking such work. Curiously for a method which takes an explicitly spatial approach, few projects have attempted to rigorously connect what participants say with where they say it. The article reviews three case studies where the authors have used different techniques, (...) including GPS, for locating the interview in space. The article concludes by arguing that researchers considering using walking interviews need to think carefully about what kinds of data they wish to generate when deciding which approach to adopt. (shrink)
Foucault's discussion of the panopticon is the best-known engagement with visual epistemology, the relationship of sight and knowledge. Yet the panopticon is only one form of visual epistemology and all technologies of perspective position and situate their subjects. As a colloquial statement of visual epistemology we might say: you are how you see. This essay focuses on the cinematic episteme or how the technology of cinema configures a way of seeing and way of knowing. Specifically this essay takes up a (...) narrower question of visual alterity. Beginning from Hegel's discussion of consciousness, it asks how within and through film we recognise our self and how can we see the other? To carry out the analysis, the essay attends in particular to two films Baby I will Make You Sweat (1994) and La Moderna Poesia (2000) by experimental and underground artist Birgit Hein. These films combine incongruous and even conflicting representational strategies that particularly enable an exploration of visual alterity. Both films on the one hand narrate a highly subjective experience of self/other relations within the context of a travel narrative: a woman seeking to recapture some sense of life, travels to an unfamiliar destination, enters into new environments and takes up relationships, sometimes intimate, with strangers. On the other hand they both rely on a form of aesthetic abstraction that leaves the film without renaissance perspective, panoptic organizing, shot-reverse shot, continuity editing, i.e. an of the typical representational strategies of alterity found in narrative films. (shrink)
„Corpus non est Substantia se modus tantum Entis“: Leibniz de mundo materiali ut mero phaenomenoFinis huiusce dissertationis est, argumentationes ac discursus praecipuos, quibus Leibniz usus est ad sententiam suam stabiliendam circa „statum ontologicum“ rerum materialium (seu corporum) necnon ipsam materiam, prae oculis ponere atque analysi subicere. Duo accurate statuuntur ac explicantur: primo, duplex Leibnizii via argumentandi (viae scil., ut aiunt, „epistemica“ et „realistica“) pro thesi, quod nihil materiale, nec a fortiori ullum corpus, rigore metaphysico substantia vocari possit; secundo, propositiones ipsius, (...) quomodo mundus materialis ex substantiis modisque sit construendus, suadentes. Speciali praetereaindustria puncta cardinalia Leibnizii argumentationis indicantur et ita exprimuntur, uti facultas detur comparandi Leibnizii theses ad alias circa eandem materiam sententias praecipuas Leibnizii aetate.“Corpus non est Substantia sed modus tantum Entis” Leibniz on Phenomenality of the Material WorldThe aim of this article is to present and analyze the argumentative structures which are decisive for Leibniz’s position regarding the issue of the ontological status of material things (or bodies) and matter. I reconstruct and thoroughly analyze (i) two different argumentative strategies of Leibniz’s – viz. an “epistemic” and a “realistic” one – for his general thesis that nothing material (and a fortiori no body) has rigore metaphysico the status of a substance, as well as (ii) the corresponding suggestions of his as to how the material world is to be construed out of substances and their modes. Throughout, I lay special emphasis onpinpointing the real key elements of Leibniz’s arguments and on articulating them in such terms that would allow for their direct confrontation with other paradigmatic positions regarding the issue in Leibniz’s times. (shrink)
"Quod habet principium sed caret fine": this idea of the perpetual is expresssed in both the schools and courts of the twelfth-century renaissance. The philosophers conceive the perpetual as intermediate between time and eternity; according to masters of the school of Chartres, moreover, the world itself is perpetual. For the troubadour poets, the perpetual functions rhetorically. The moralist Marcabru treats the personified abstraction as perpetual, continuous in identity yet subject to change, thus achieving a satiric duality of vision. The love (...) poet Bernart de Ventadorn develops a "poetics of perpetuity", using the very tensions and instabilities of fin'amors to fashions ideal and endless courtly worlds. (shrink)