The modal logic of Gödel sentences, termed as GS, is introduced to analyze the logical properties of 'true but unprovable' sentences in formal arithmetic. The logic GS is, in a sense, dual to Grzegorczyk's Logic, where modality can be interpreted as 'true and provable'. As we show, GS and Grzegorczyk's Logic are, in fact, mutually embeddable. We prove Kripke completeness and arithmetical completeness for GS. GS is also an extended system of the logic of 'Essence and Accident' proposed by Marcos (...) (Bull Sect Log 34(1):43-56, 2005). We also clarify the relationships between GS and the provability logic GL and between GS and Intuitionistic Propositional Logic. (shrink)
It is well known that the modal logic S5 can be embedded in the classical predicate logic by interpreting the modal operator in terms of a quantifier. Wajsberg  proved this fact in a syntactic way. Mints  extended this result to the quantified version of S5; using a purely proof-theoretic method he showed that the quantified S5 corresponds to the classical predicate logic with one-sorted variable. In this paper we extend Mints' result to the basic modal logic S4; we (...) investigate the correspondence between the quantified versions of S4 (with and without the Barcan formula) and the classical predicate logic (with one-sorted variable). We present a purely proof-theoretic proof-transformation method, reducing an LK-proof of an interpreted formula to a modal proof. (shrink)
In this paper, we show the equivalence between the provability of a proof system of basic hybrid logic and that of translated formulas of the classical predicate logic with equality and explicit substitution by a purely proof–theoretic method. Then we show the equivalence of two groups of proof systems of hybrid logic: the group of labelled deduction systems and the group of modal logic-based systems.
Stress and temperature dependence of the structure of the X-phase in Ni2MnGa has been investigated by neutron diffraction measurements to clarify the structural relationship among the parent (P-), intermediate (I-), martensite (M-) and X-phases. The satellite position and intensity of the X-phase differ from those of the I-phase under compressive stress, but approach those of the I-phase with increasing temperature and decreasing stress. In other words, the structure changes discontinuously with I ? X transformation under compressive stress, but continuously under (...) zero stress. On the other hand, the X ? P transformation is continuous, regardless of stress or temperature. These results suggest the existence of a multicritical point for successive P ? X ? I transformation. (shrink)
Since World War II Japanese artists have employed two seemingly contradictory ways of working, using aesthetics, materials, artistic methods technologies, and approaches that are either radically innovative and wildly experimental, or traditional/classical. Many other artists, however, in a move that seems paradoxical. have combined the two to explore the new themes of the post-atomic period. Three narrative works dealing with the effects of the World War II war effort and the atomic bombings that ended them, Yasunari Kawabata’s novel The Sound (...) of the Mountain (1952), Rio Kishida’s avant-garde play Thread Hell (1984), and the film Barefoot Gen (Hadashi no Gen), directed by Mori Masaki and written by Keiji Nakazawa (Masaki and Nakazawa 1983), exemplify this third approach. Set in the pre-War textile industry that enabled the War, during the atomic bombings, and the post-War American Occupation, all three explore the experience not only of the horrific objective effects of war but of the Japanese experience of psychic numbing, which damages the person’s sense of self and their sense of agency—their ability to act effectively in the world. All three utilize classical aesthetics to provide aesthetic experiences, for their readers/viewers, to make the experience of the work tolerable, and for their characters—to demonstrate the roles of positive aesthetic experience in making life worth while and in grounding a renewed sense of personal identity and selfhood in a self that has been shattered through trauma. (shrink)
The use of charged-particle radiation therapy (CPRT) is an increasingly important development in the treatment of cancer. One of the most pressing controversies about the use of this technology is whether randomised controlled trials are required before this form of treatment can be considered to be the treatment of choice for a wide range of indications. Equipoise is the key ethical concept in determining which research studies are justified. However, there is a good deal of disagreement about how this concept (...) is best understood and applied in the specific case of CPRT. This report is a position statement on these controversies that arises out of a workshop held at Wolfson College, Oxford in August 2011. The workshop brought together international leaders in the relevant fields (radiation oncology, medical physics, radiobiology, research ethics and methodology), including proponents on both sides of the debate, in order to make significant progress on the ethical issues associated with CPRT research. This position statement provides an ethical platform for future research and should enable further work to be done in developing international coordinated programmes of research. (shrink)