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Howard Brody [94]Howard Allan Brody [1]
  1.  4
    Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2003). A Critique of Clinical Equipoise: Therapeutic Misconception in the Ethics of Clinical Trials. Hastings Center Report 33 (3):19-28.
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  2.  5
    Howard Brody (2007). Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession, and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book explores the controversial relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, identifies the ethical tensions and controversies, and proposes numerous reforms both for medicine's own professional integrity and for effective public regulation of the industry.
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  3.  21
    Howard Brody (2011). Clarifying Conflict of Interest. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):23 - 28.
    As the debate over how to manage or discourage physicians? financial conflicts of interest with the drug and medical device industries has become more heated, critics have questioned or dismissed the concept of ?conflict of interest? itself. A satisfactory definition relates conflict of interest to concerns about maintaining social trust and distinguishes between breaches of ethical duty and temptations to breach duty. Numerous objections to such a definition have been offered, none of which prevails on further analysis. Those concerned about (...)
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  4. Howard Brody, Sarah Leonard, Jing-bao Nie & Paul Weindling (2014). U.S. Responses To Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation After World War Ii: National Security and Wartime Exigency. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):220-230.
    In 1945–46, representatives of the U.S. government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the United States, influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the United States played an equally key role in concealing information about (...)
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  5.  41
    Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2002). What Makes Placebo-Controlled Trials Unethical? American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):3 – 9.
    The leading ethical position on placebo-controlled clinical trials is that whenever proven effective treatment exists for a given condition, it is unethical to test a new treatment for that condition against placebo. Invoking the principle of clinical equipoise, opponents of placebo-controlled trials in the face of proven effective treatment argue that they (1) violate the therapeutic obligation of physicians to offer optimal medical care and (2) lack both scientific and clinical merit. We contend that both of these arguments are mistaken. (...)
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  6.  4
    Howard Brody (2011). Defining the Medical Humanities: Three Conceptions and Three Narratives. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (1):1-7.
    The definition of ‘medical humanities’ may be approached via three conceptions—the humanities as a list of disciplines, as a program of moral development, and as a supportive friend. The conceptions are grounded by linking them to three narratives—respectively, the history of the modern liberal arts college; the history of Petrarch and the studia humanitatis of the early Renaissance; and the life of Sir William Osler. The three conceptions are complementary, each filling gaps in one or more of the others. Getting (...)
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  7.  18
    Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller (2003). The Clinician-Investigator: Unavoidable but Manageable Tension. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):329-346.
    : The "difference position" holds that clinical research and therapeutic medical practice are sufficiently distinct activities to require different ethical rules and principles. The "similarity position" holds instead that clinical investigators ought to be bound by the same fundamental principles that govern therapeutic medicine—specifically, a duty to provide the optimal therapeutic benefit to each patient or subject. Some defenders of the similarity position defend it because of the overlap between the role of attending physician and the role of investigator in (...)
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  8. Howard Brody (2009). The Future of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
    Bioethics' interdisciplinary base -- Patient-centered care -- Evidence-based medicine and pay-for-performance -- Community dialogue -- Overview : bioethics, power, and learning to see -- Cross-cultural concerns -- Race and health disparities -- Disabilities -- Environmental and global issues -- New technologies -- Conclusion.
     
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  9. Howard Brody (2014). Economism and the Commercialization of Health Care. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (4):501-508.
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  10. Howard Brody & Franklin Miller (forthcoming). The Internal Morality of Medicine. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics.
     
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  11.  8
    Howard Brody & Eric N. Avery (2009). Medicine's Duty to Treat Pandemic Illness: Solidarity and Vulnerability. Hastings Center Report 39 (1):40-48.
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  12.  33
    Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2001). The Internal Morality of Medicine: An Evolutionary Perspective. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):581 – 599.
    A basic question of medical ethics is whether the norms governing medical practice should be understood as the application of principles and rules of the common morality to medicine or whether some of these norms are internal or proper to medicine. In this article we describe and defend an evolutionary perspective on the internal morality of medicine that is defined in terms of the goals of clinical medicine and a set of duties that constrain (...)
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  13.  1
    Howard Brody (2014). Economism and the Commercialization of Health Care. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42 (4):501-508.
    Those concerned over the excessive commercialization of health care, to the detriment of both professional and patient-centered values, commonly propose remedies that assume that meaningful change can occur largely within the health care sector. I argue instead that a major shift in the public culture and political discourse of the U.S. will be required if the commercialization of health care is to be adequately addressed. The notion that health and health care are commodities to be bought and sold in the (...)
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  14.  2
    Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (1995). Professional Integrity and Physician‐Assisted Death. Hastings Center Report 25 (3):8-17.
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  15.  1
    Howard Brody (1989). Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care. Hastings Center Report 19 (5):5-9.
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  16.  15
    Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller (1998). The Internal Morality of Medicine: Explication and Application to Managed Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (4):384 – 410.
    Some ethical issues facing contemporary medicine cannot be fully understood without addressing medicine's internal morality. Medicine as a profession is characterized by certain moral goals and morally acceptable means for achieving those goals. The list of appropriate goals and means allows some medical actions to be classified as clear violations of the internal morality, and others as borderline or controversial cases. Replies are available for common objections, including the superfluity of internal morality for ethical (...)
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  17.  53
    Franklin G. Miller, Howard Brody & Kevin C. Chung (2000). Cosmetic Surgery and the Internal Morality of Medicine. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):353-364.
    Cosmetic surgery is a fast-growing medical practice. In 1997 surgeons in the United States performed the four most common cosmetic procedures443,728 times, an increase of 150% over the comparable total for 1992. Estimated total expenditures for cosmetic surgery range from $1 to $2 billion. As managed care cuts into physicians' income and autonomy, cosmetic surgery, which is not covered by health insurance, offers a financially attractive medical specialty.
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  18. Howard Brody (1993). [Book Review] the Healer's Power. [REVIEW] Hastings Center Report 23:42-43.
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  19.  6
    Howard Brody, Franklin G. Miller & Elizabeth Bogdan-Lovis (2005). Evidence-Based Medicine: Watching Out for Its Friends. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48 (4):570-584.
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  20.  8
    Howard Brody & Susan S. Night (2007). The Pharmacist's Personal and Professional Integrity. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):16 – 17.
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  21. Howard Brody & Franklin G. Miller (2013). The Research‐Clinical Practice Distinction, Learning Health Systems, and Relationships. Hastings Center Report 43 (5):41-47.
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  22. Howard Brody (1998). Bringing Clarity to the Futility Debate: Don't Use the Wrong Cases. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):269-273.
    Among those who criticize the concept of a common refrain is that we really have no idea what futility means. For example, physicians seem to disagree on whether a treatment being futile means that it has a less than 5% chance of working or a 20% chance of working. If the concept is so unclear, then it seems a thin reed upon which to base a momentous ethical decision—namely, that the physician's judgment should be allowed to override the wishes of (...)
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  23. Howard Brody (1980). Placebos and the Philosophy of Medicine: Clinical, Conceptual, and Ethical Issues. University of Chicago Press.
     
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  24.  18
    Howard Brody (2006). Family Medicine, the Physician-Patient Relationship, and Patient-Centered Care. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):38 – 39.
  25.  7
    Howard Brody (1997). Who Gets to Tell the Story? Narrative in Postmodern Bioethics. In Hilde Lindemann (ed.), Stories and Their Limits: Narrative Approaches to Bioethics. Routledge 18--30.
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  26.  2
    Howard Brody & M. Wayne Cooper (2015). Binding and Hoche's "Life Unworthy of Life": A Historical and Ethical Analysis. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (4):500-511.
    Ulf Schmidt, writing on “Medical Ethics and Nazism” in the recently published Cambridge World History of Medical Ethics, states:In 1920, the lawyer Karl Binding and the psychiatrist Alfred Hoche published their tract Permission for the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Life. … Their positivistic theory was a combination of legal norms and medical arguments that granted the state fundamental rights while overriding the rights of individuals. The traditional moral belief system that advocated care and compassion for the weak and unproductive (...)
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  27.  10
    Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2005). Enhancement Technologies and Professional Integrity. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):15 – 17.
    *The opinions expressed are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the policy of the National Institutes of Health, the Public Health Service, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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  28.  7
    Howard Brody (2009). Medicine's Continuing Quest for an Excuse to Avoid Relationships with Patients. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (12):13-15.
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  29.  1
    Howard Brody (2003). Pens and Other Pharmaceutical Industry Gifts. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):58-60.
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  30.  6
    Howard Brody & Andrew M. Childress (2009). Understanding Randomization: Helpful Strategies. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):14 – 15.
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  31.  10
    Howard Brody (1999). Narrative Ethics and Institutional Impact. HEC Forum 11 (1):46-51.
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  32.  12
    Howard Brody (2007). Transparency and Self-Censorship in Shared Decision-Making. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (7):44-46.
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  33.  19
    Howard Brody (1985). Philosophy of Medicine and Other Humanities: Toward a Wholistic View. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (3).
    A less analytic and more wholistic approach to philosophy, described as best overall fit or seeing how things all hang together, is defended in recent works by John Rawls and Richard Rorty and can usefully be applied to problems in philosophy of medicine. Looking at sickness and its impact upon the person as a central problem for philosophy of medicine, this approach discourages a search for necessary and sufficient conditions for being sick, and instead encourages a listing of true and (...)
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  34.  53
    Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2007). Clinical Equipoise and the Incoherence of Research Ethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (2):151 – 165.
    The doctrine of clinical equipoise is appealing because it appears to permit physicians to maintain their therapeutic obligation to offer optimal medical care to patients while conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The appearance, however, is deceptive. In this article we argue that clinical equipoise is defective and incoherent in multiple ways. First, it conflates the sound methodological principle that RCTs should begin with an honest null hypothesis with the questionable ethical norm that participants in these trials should never be randomized (...)
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  35.  13
    Howard Brody (2006). Are There Three or Four Distinct Types of Medical Practice? American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):51 – 53.
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  36.  26
    Susan D. McCammon & Howard Brody (2012). How Virtue Ethics Informs Medical Professionalism. HEC Forum 24 (4):257-272.
    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education—first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to (...)
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  37.  5
    Howard Brody (1991). Book Review. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (3).
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  38.  1
    Howard Brody (1973). The Systems View of Man: Implications for Medicine, Science, and Ethics. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 17 (1):71-92.
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  39. Howard Brody, Rita Charon, Tod Chambers, Mary Williams Clark, Dwight Davis, Richard Martinez, Robert M. Nelson & Mark J. Cherry (1996). Index to Volume 21. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21:681-684.
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  40.  3
    Howard Brody (2005). The Welcome Reassessment of Research Ethics: Is "Undue Inducement" Suspect? American Journal of Bioethics 5 (5):15 – 16.
  41.  9
    Howard Brody (1992). Causing, Intending, and Assisting Death. Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 (2):112-117.
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  42.  1
    Howard Brody, Leonard Weber & Leonard Fleck (1992). Medical Ethics Resource Network of Michigan: Development of a Statewide Ethics Network. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 1 (3):271.
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  43.  9
    Howard Brody (1982). Commentary on "Error, Malpractice, and the Problem of Universals". Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (3):251-258.
    Minogue's criticism of MacIntyre and Gorovitz's concept of medicine as a science of individuals is flawed by an assumption of the perfectibility of science that is not well supported by experience to date. More significantly, both Minogue and MacIntyre and Gorovitz have been led astray by choosing to use the malpractice issue as a philosophical point of departure for an inquiry into medical error. The problem of error in medicine, and moral culpability for error, is of great philosophical interest but (...)
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  44.  2
    Michael D. Fetters & Howard Brody (1999). The Epidemiology of Bioethics. Journal of Clinical Ethics 10 (2):107.
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  45.  13
    Howard Brody & Arlene Macdonald (2013). Religion and Bioethics: Toward an Expanded Understanding. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (2):133-145.
    Before asking what U.S. bioethics might learn from a more comprehensive and more nuanced understanding of Islamic religion, history, and culture, a prior question is, how should bioethics think about religion? Two sets of commonly held assumptions impede further progress and insight. The first involves what “religion” means and how one should study it. The second is a prominent philosophical view of the role of religion in a diverse, democratic society. To move beyond these assumptions, it helps to view religion (...)
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  46.  3
    Howard Brody (1987). Introductory Guest Editorial. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 8 (3):253-257.
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  47.  6
    Tom L. Beauchamp, Howard Brody, Franklin G. Miller, Alexander S. Curtis, Martina Darragh, Patricia Milmoe, Ronald M. U. S. Green, Sharona Hoffman, Edmund G. Howe & Jeffrey P. Kahn (2003). By Author BAGHERI, Alireza. Criticism of “Brain. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 13 (4):407-09.
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  48.  3
    Howard Brody (2001). Assisted Suicide for Those Not Terminally Ill. Hastings Center Report 31 (1):7.
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  49.  3
    Franklin G. Miller, Howard Brody & Timothy E. Quill (1996). Can Physician-Assisted Suicide Be Regulated Effectively? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 24 (3):225-232.
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  50.  23
    Howard Brody (1987). The Physician-Patient Relationship: Models and Criticisms. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2 (2).
    A review of the philosophical debate on theoretical models for the physician-patient relationship over the past fifteen years may point to some of the more productive questions for future research. Contractual models have been criticized for promoting a legalistic and minimalistic image of the relationship, such that another form of model (such as convenant) is required. Shifting from a contractual to a contractarian model (in keeping with Rawls' notion of an original position) provides an adequate response to many criticisms of (...)
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