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Howard Rachlin [44]Howard C. Rachlin [1]
  1. Howard Rachlin, Matthew L. Locey & Vasiliy Safin (2013). Biological Evolution and Behavioral Evolution: Two Approaches to Altruism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):96-96.
    Altruism may be learned (behavioral evolution) in a way similar to that proposed in the target article for its biological evolution. Altruism (over social space) corresponds to self-control (over time). In both cases, one must learn to ignore the rewards to a particular (person or moment) and behave to maximize the rewards to a group (of people or moments).
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  2. Howard Rachlin (2005). Problems with Internalization. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):658-659.
    Ainslie's Breakdown of Will contains important insights into real world self-control problems, but it loses testability to the extent that it internalizes concepts whose meaning lies in overt behavior and its consequences.
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  3. Howard Rachlin (2003). Autonomy From the Viewpoint of Teleological Behaviorism. Social Philosophy and Policy 20 (2):245-264.
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  4. Howard Rachlin (2002). Altruism and Selfishness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):239-250.
    Many situations in human life present choices between (a) narrowly preferred particular alternatives and (b) narrowly less preferred (or aversive) particular alternatives that nevertheless form part of highly preferred abstract behavioral patterns. Such alternatives characterize problems of self-control. For example, at any given moment, a person may accept alcoholic drinks yet also prefer being sober to being drunk over the next few days. Other situations present choices between (a) alternatives beneficial to an individual and (b) alternatives that are less beneficial (...)
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  5. Howard Rachlin (2002). Altruism is a Form of Self-Control. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):284-291.
    Some commentators have argued that all particular altruistic acts are directly caused by or reinforced by an internal emotional state. Others argue that rewards obtained by one person might reinforce another person's altruistic act. Yet others argue that all altruistic acts are reinforced by social reciprocation. There are logical and empirical problems with all of these conceptions. The best explanation of altruistic acts is that – though they are themselves not reinforced (either immediately, or delayed, or conditionally, or internally) – (...)
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  6. Howard Rachlin (2000). Two Cheers for Behavioral Momentum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):110-111.
    Behavioral momentum is a useful metaphor reminding us that with constant conditions, ongoing behavior – in the form of response rate – would be expected to remain constant. But despite an impressive array of behavioral experiments, the concept has not yet been applied in a way that would make it useful as a general behavioral law.
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  7. Howard Rachlin (1997). The Teleological Science of Self-Control. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):367-369.
    In response to Ainslie & Gault: The value of a temporally extended behavioral pattern depends on relationships inherent in the pattern itself. It is not possible to express that value as the simple sum of the discounted present values of the pattern's component acts.
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  8. Howard Rachlin & Marvin Frankel (1997). The Uses of Self-Deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):124-125.
    The essence of a mental event such as self-deception lies in its function – its place in the life of an animal. But the function of self-deception corresponds to that of interpersonal deception. Therefore self-deception, contrary to Mele's thesis, is essentially isomorphic with interpersonal deception.
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  9. Howard Rachlin (1995). Self-Control: Beyond Commitment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):109-121.
    Self-control, so important in the theory and practice of psychology, has usually been understood introspectively. This target article adopts a behavioral view of the self (as an abstract class of behavioral actions) and of self-control (as an abstract behavioral pattern dominating a particular act) according to which the development of self-control is a molar/molecular conflict in the development of behavioral patterns. This subsumes the more typical view of self-control as a now/later conflict in which an act of self-control is a (...)
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  10. Howard Rachlin (1995). Self-Control Observed. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):148-159.
    Complex cases of self-control involve processes such as guilt-avoidance, inhibition, self-punishment, conscious thought, free will, and imagination. Such processes, conceived as internal mediating mechanisms, serve the function in psychological theory of avoiding teleological causation. Acceptance of the scientific legitimacy of teleological behaviorism would obviate the need for internal mediation, redefine the above processes in terms of temporally extended patterns of overt behavior, and clarify their relation to selfcontrol.
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  11. Howard Rachlin (1995). The Elusive Quale. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):692.
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  12. Howard Rachlin (1994). Behavior and Mind: The Roots of Modern Psychology. Oxford University Press.
    This book attempts to synthesize two apparently contradictory views of psychology: as the science of internal mental mechanisms and as the science of complex external behavior. Most books in the psychology and philosophy of mind reject one approach while championing the other, but Rachlin argues that the two approaches are complementary rather than contradictory. Rejection of either involves disregarding vast sources of information vital to solving pressing human problems--in the areas of addiction, mental illness, education, crime, and decision-making, to name (...)
     
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  13. Howard Rachlin (1994). From Overt Behavior to Hypothetical Behavior to Memory: Inference in the Wrong Direction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (1):147.
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  14. Howard Rachlin (1993). Optimality and Aristotle's Concept of Final Cause. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):623.
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  15. Howard Rachlin (1993). Theory-Theory Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):72.
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  16. Howard Rachlin (1991). The Cognitive Laboratory, the Library and the Skinner Box. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (3):501.
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  17. Howard Rachlin (1990). Suffering as a Behaviourist Views It. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):32.
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  18. Howard Rachlin (1989). In-Group Bias is a Kind of Egoistic Incentive. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):718.
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  19. Howard Rachlin (1988). Biological Relevance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):144.
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  20. Howard Rachlin (1988). Only External Representations Are Needed. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):261.
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  21. Howard Rachlin (1986). Is It Possible That Pain is One Thing? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):755.
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  22. Howard Rachlin (1986). Temporal Molarity in Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):711.
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  23. Howard Rachlin (1985). Ghostbusting. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):73-83.
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  24. Howard Rachlin (1985). Maximization Theory and Plato's Concept of the Good. Behaviorism 13 (1):3-20.
    Plato's dialogues may be interpreted in a number of ways. One interpretation sees Plato's concept of The Good as a precursor of maximization theory, a modern behavioral theory. Plato identifies goodness with an ideal pattern of people's overt choices under the constraints of everyday life. Correspondingly, maximization theory sees goodness (in terms of "value") as a quantifiable function of overt, constrained choices of an animal. In both conceptions goodness may be increased by expanding the temporal extent over which a behavioral (...)
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  25. Howard Rachlin (1985). Pain and Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):43-83.
    There seem to be two kinds of pain: fundamental pain, the intensity of which is a direct function of the intensity of various pain stimuli, and pain, the intensity of which is highly modifiable by such factors as hypnotism, placebos, and the sociocultural setting in which the stimulus occurs.
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  26. Howard Rachlin (1984). Learning Rules and Learning Rules. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (1):113.
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  27. Howard Rachlin (1984). Mental, Yes. Private, No. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):566.
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  28. Howard Rachlin (1983). The International Stance Faces Backward. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):373.
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  29. Howard Rachlin, Ray Battalio, John Kage & Leonard Green (1983). The Concept of Leisure in Maximization Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):330.
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  30. Howard Rachlin (1982). Minds, Pains, and Performance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):341.
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  31. Jay Moore, Edward Morris, Stanley Pliskoff, Howard Rachlin, George Reynolds, Todd Risley, William Rozeboom, Tr Sarbin, Wn Schoenfeld & Evalyn Segal (1981). Brian Lahren. Behaviorism 9:128.
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  32. Howard Rachlin (1981). Learning Theory in its Niche. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (1):155.
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  33. Howard Rachlin, Ray Battalio, John Kagel & Leonard Green (1981). Maximization Theory in Behavioral Psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):371.
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  34. Howard Rachlin, Ray Battalio, John Kagel & Leonard Green (1981). Maximization Theory Vindicated. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (3):405.
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  35. Howard Rachlin (1980). The Behaviorist Reply (Stony Brook). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (3):444.
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  36. Howard Rachlin (1979). Journey Into the Interior of the Organism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):180-181.
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  37. Howard Rachlin (1978). Who Cares If the Chimpanzee has a Theory of Mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):593.
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  38. Sandra M. Schrader & Howard Rachlin (1976). Variable-Interval and Fixed-Interval Schedule Preferences in Pigeons as a Function of Signaled Reinforcement and Schedule Length. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 8 (6):445-448.
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  39. Howard Rachlin (1974). Your Use of the JSTOR Archive Indicates Your Acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, Available At. Behaviorism 2 (1):94-107.
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  40. Leonard Green & Howard Rachlin (1973). The Effect of Rotation on the Learning of Taste Aversions. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 1 (2):137-138.
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  41. Howard C. Rachlin & Marvin Frankel (1969). Choice, Rate of Response, and Rate of Gambling. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (3p1):444.
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