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  1. Hub Zwart (forthcoming). What Is Nature? In Advance. Teaching Philosophy.
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  2. Hub Zwart (2013). The Genome as the Biological Unconscious – and the Unconscious as the Psychic 'Genome': A Psychoanalytical Rereading of Molecular Genetics. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):198-222.
    1900 was a remarkable year for science. Several ground-breaking events took place, in physics, biology and psychology. Planck introduced the quantum concept, the work of Mendel was rediscovered, and Sigmund Freud published The Interpretation of Dreams . These events heralded the emergence of completely new areas of inquiry, all of which greatly affected the intellectual landscape of the 20 th century, namely quantum physics, genetics and psychoanalysis. What do these developments have in common? Can we discern a family likeness, a (...)
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  3. Hub Zwart (2012). On Decoding and Rewriting Genomes: A Psychoanalytical Reading of a Scientific Revolution. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):337-346.
    In various documents the view emerges that contemporary biotechnosciences are currently experiencing a scientific revolution: a massive increase of pace, scale and scope. A significant part of the research endeavours involved in this scientific upheaval is devoted to understanding and, if possible, ameliorating humankind: from our genomes up to our bodies and brains. New developments in contemporary technosciences, such as synthetic biology and other genomics and “post-genomics” fields, tend to blur the distinctions between prevention, therapy and enhancement. An important dimension (...)
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  4. Hub Zwart (2011). Towards an Eco-Centric View of Human Existence: Implications of Genomics for the Environmental Zone. Genomics, Society and Policy 6 (2):40-55.
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  5. Hub Zwart & Bart Penders (2011). Genomics and the Ark An Ecocentric Perspective on Human History. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):217-231.
    In 1990 the Human Genome Project (HGP) was launched as an important historical marker, a pivotal contribution to the time-old quest for human self-knowledge. However, when in 2001 two major publications heralded its completion, it seemed difficult to make out how the desire for self-knowledge had really been furthered by this endeavor (IHGSC 2001; Venter et al. 2001). In various ways mankind seems to stand out from other organisms as a unique type of living entity, developing a critical perspective on (...)
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  6. Mairi Levitt & Hub Zwart (2010). Reply to Udo Schuklenk. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):89-90.
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  7. Hub Zwart (2010). The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (3):299-312.
    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, (...)
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  8. Mairi Levitt & Hub Zwart (2009). Bioethics: An Export Product? Reflections on Hands-on Involvement in Exploring the “External” Validity of International Bioethical Declarations. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):367-377.
    As the technosciences, including genomics, develop into a global phenomenon, the question inevitably emerges whether and to what extent bioethics can and should become a globalised phenomenon as well. Could we somehow articulate a set of core principles or values that ought to be respected worldwide and that could serve as a universal guide or blueprint for bioethical regulations for embedding biotechnologies in various countries? This article considers one universal declaration, the UNESCO Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights ( 2005a (...)
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  9. Hub Zwart (2009). Biotechnology and Naturalness in the Genomics Era: Plotting a Timetable for the Biotechnology Debate. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (6):505-529.
    Debates on the role of biotechnology in food production are beset with notorious ambiguities. This already applies to the term “biotechnology” itself. Does it refer to the use and modification of living organisms in general, or rather to a specific set of technologies developed quite recently in the form of bioengineering and genetic modification? No less ambiguous are discussions concerning the question to what extent biotechnology must be regarded as “unnatural.” In this article it will be argued that, in order (...)
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  10. Hub Zwart (2009). From Utopia to Science: Challenges of Personalised Genomics Information for Health Management and Health Enhancement. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 1 (2):155-166.
    From 1900 onwards, scientists and novelists have explored the contours of a future society based on the use of “anthropotechnologies” (techniques applicable to human beings for the purpose of performance enhancement ranging from training and education to genome-based biotechnologies). Gradually but steadily, the technologies involved migrated from (science) fiction into scholarly publications, and from “utopia” (or “dystopia”) into science. Building on seminal ideas borrowed from Nietzsche, Peter Sloterdijk has outlined the challenges inherent in this development. Since time immemorial, and at (...)
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  11. Hub Zwart (2009). Genomics and Identity: The Bioinformatisation of Human Life. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (2):125-136.
    The genomics “revolution” is spreading. Originating in the molecular life sciences, it initially affected a number of biomedical research fields such as cancer genomics and clinical genetics. Now, however, a new “wave” of genomic bioinformation is transforming a widening array of disciplines, including those that address the social, historical and cultural dimensions of human life. Increasingly, bioinformation is affecting “human sciences” such as psychiatry, psychology, brain research, behavioural research (“behavioural genomics”), but also anthropology and archaeology (“bioarchaeology”). Thus, bioinformatics is having (...)
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  12. Hub Zwart (2009). Michel Foucault als psycholoog: Verdringing en terugkeer van de dimensie van het zelf. Wijsgerig Perspectief 49 (2):8.
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  13. Hub Zwart (2008). Challenges of Macro-Ethics: Bioethics and the Transformation of Knowledge Production. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (4):283-293.
    One interesting aspect of the Hwang-case has been the way in which this affair was assessed by academic journals such as Nature. Initially, Hwang’s success was regarded as evidence for the detrimental effects of research ethics, slowing down the pace of research in Western countries. Eventually, however, Hwang’s debacle was seen as evidence for the importance of ethics in the life sciences. Ironically, it was concluded that the West maintains its prominence in science (as a global endeavour) precisely because it (...)
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  14. Hub Zwart (2005). Comparative Epistemology: Contours of a Research Program. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (2).
    This article addresses the question whether and how literary documents can be used to further our understanding of a number of key issues on the agenda of the philosophy of biology such as “complexity” and “reductionism”. Kant already granted a certain respectability to aesthetical experiences of nature in his third Critique. Subsequently, the philosophical movement known as phenomenology often used literary sources and literary techniques to criticize and question mainstream laboratory science. The article discusses a number of literary documents, from (...)
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  15. Hub Zwart (2004). Environmental Pollution and Professional Responsibility: Ibsen's "A Public Enemy" as a Seminar on Science Communication and Ethics. Environmental Values 13 (3):349 - 372.
    Dr Stockmann, the principal character in Henrik Ibsen's A Public Enemy, is a classic example of a whistle-blower who, upon detecting and disclosing a serious case of environmental pollution, quickly finds himself transformed from a public benefactor into a political outcast by those in power. If we submit the play to a 'second reading', however, it becomes clear that the ethical intricacies of whistle-blowing are interwoven with epistemological issues. Basically, the play is about the complex task of communicating scientific (notably (...)
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  16. Hub Zwart (2003). Aquaphobia, Tulipmania, Biophilia: A Moral Geography of the Dutch Landscape. Environmental Values 12 (1):107 - 128.
    In Genesis (1:9-10) we are told that God gathered the waters into one place, in order to let the dry land appear, which He called earth, while the waters were called seas. In the Netherlands, this process took more than a single day, and it was the work of man. Gradually, a cultivated landscape emerged out of diffuse nature. In the course of centuries, the Dutch determined the conditions that allowed different aspects of nature to present themselves. This process is (...)
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  17. Hub Zwart (2001). Consensus Formation as a Basic Strategy in Ethics. In H. Ten Have & Bert Gordijn (eds.), Bioethics in a European Perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 8--281.
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  18. Hub Zwart (2000). A Short History of Food Ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):113-126.
    Moral concern with food intake is as old asmorality itself. In the course of history, however,several ways of critically examining practices of foodproduction and food intake have been developed.Whereas ancient Greek food ethics concentrated on theproblem of temperance, and ancient Jewish ethics onthe distinction between legitimate and illicit foodproducts, early Christian morality simply refused toattach any moral significance to food intake. Yet,during the middle ages food became one of theprinciple objects of monastic programs for moralexercise (askesis). During the seventeenth andeighteenth (...)
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  19. Hub Zwart (2000). From Circle to Square: Integrity, Vulnerability and Digitalization. Bioethics and Biolaw 2:141-156.
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  20. Hub Zwart (1999). All You Need is Health. In Michael Parker (ed.), Ethics and Community in the Health Care Professions. Routledge. 30.
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  21. Hub Zwart (1998). Medicine, Symbolization and the €œReal” Body €” Lacan's Understanding of Medical Science. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (2):107-117.
    Throughout the 20th century, philosophers have criticized the scientific understanding of the human body. Instead of presenting the body as a meaningful unity or Gestalt, it is regarded as a complex mechanism and described in quasi-mechanistic terms. In a phenomenological approach, a more intimate experience of the body is presented. This approach, however, is questioned by Jacques Lacan. According to Lacan, three basic possibilities of experiencing the body are to be distinguished: the symbolical (or scientific) body, the imaginary (or ideal) (...)
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  22. Hub Zwart (1996). Ethical Consensus and the Truth of Laughter: The Structure of Moral Transformations. Kok Pharos Pub. House.
    Then, all of a sudden, its vulnerability is revealed - and this is the experience of laughter. Moral criticism is preceded by laughter.
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  23. Hub Zwart (1994). The Moral Significance of Our Biological Nature. Ethical Perspectives 1 (2):71-78.
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  24. Hub Zwart (1994). The Resurgence of Nature-Speak. Health Care Analysis 2 (3):221-226.
    In contemporary bioethics, two vocabularies can be distinguished:person-speak andnature-speak. The first is built around the claim that a person's moral decisions are to be respected, while the other stands on the claim that moral decisions should comply with standards for human behaviour conveyed by nature. While most bioethicists have obtained a thorough mastery ofperson-speak, they are considerably less well-versed innature-speak. Apparently, the latter has lost much of its former ability to capture important aspects of moral existence. In this paper I (...)
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  25. Hub Zwart (1993). Rationing in The Netherlands: The Liberal and the Communitarian Perspective. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 1 (1):53-56.
    In the discussion on rationing health care in The Netherlands, a fundamental tension emerges between two ethical perspectives: liberalism and communitarianism. A Dutch government committee recently issued a report opting for a community-oriented approach. This approach proves less communitarian as compared to the views on rationing elaborated by Callahan. Moreover, the community-oriented approach is conceptualised in such a way that it seems compatible with some basic aspects of the liberal account of a just society.
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