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    Hugues Bersini, Pasquale Stano, Pier Luigi Luisi & Mark A. Bedau (2012). Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Emergence. Synthese 185 (2):165-169.
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    Hugues Bersini (2012). Emergent Phenomena Belong Only to Biology. Synthese 185 (2):257-272.
    In this philosophical paper, I discuss and illustrate the necessary three ingredients that together could allow a collective phenomenon to be labelled as “emergent.” First, the phenomenon, as usual, requires a group of natural objects entering in a non-linear relationship and potentially entailing the existence of various semantic descriptions depending on the human scale of observation. Second, this phenomenon has to be observed by a mechanical observer instead of a human one, which has the natural capacity for temporal or spatial (...)
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    Hugues Bersini (2009). How Artificial Life Relates to Theoretical Biology. In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? Edp Sciences 61--78.
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