Search results for 'Human Experimentation ethics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Paul M. McNeill (1993). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. Cambridge University Press.score: 152.0
    This book focuses on experimentation that is carried out on human beings, including medical research, drug research and research undertaken in the social sciences. It discusses the ethics of such experimentation and asks the question: who defends the interests of these human subjects and ensures that they are not harmed? The author finds that ethical research depends on the adequacy of review by committee. Indeed most countries now rely on research ethics committees for the (...)
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  2. David N. Weisstub (ed.) (1998). Research on Human Subjects: Ethics, Law, and Social Policy. Pergamon.score: 127.0
    There have been serious controversies in the latter part of the 20th century about the roles and functions of scientific and medical research. In whose interests are medical and biomedical experiments conducted and what are the ethical implications of experimentation on subjects unable to give competent consent? From the decades following the Second World War and calls for the global banning of medical research to the cautious return to the notion that in controlled circumstances, medical research on human (...)
     
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  3. Zbigniew Bańkowski & Norman Howard-Jones (eds.) (1982). Human Experimentation and Medical Ethics: Proceedings of the Xvth Cioms Round Table Conference, Manila, 13-16 September 1981. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre Usa [Distributor].score: 115.0
  4. William A. Silverman (1985). Human Experimentation: A Guided Step Into the Unknown. Oxford University Press.score: 114.0
    Spectacular treatment disasters in recent years have made it clear that informal "let's-try-it-and-see" methods of testing new proposals are more risky now than ever before, and have led many to call for a halt to experimentation in clinical medicine. In this easy-tp-read, philosophical guide to human experimentation, William Silverman pleads for wider use of randomized clinical trials, citing many examples that show how careful trials can overturn preconceived or ill-conceived notions of a therapy's effectiveness and lead to (...)
     
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  5. Paul Abraham Freund (1972). Experimentation with Human Subjects. London,Allen and Unwin.score: 94.0
     
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  6. Bradford H. Gray (1981). Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation: A Sociological Study of the Conduct and Regulation of Clinical Research. R.E. Krieger Pub. Co..score: 94.0
     
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  7. Norman Howard-Jones & Zbigniew Bańkowski (eds.) (1979). Medical Experimentation and the Protection of Human Rights: Proceedings of the Xiith Cioms Round Table Conference, Cascais, Portugal, 30 November-1 December, 1978. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre [Distributor].score: 94.0
  8. Eugene C. Kennedy (ed.) (1975). Human Rights and Psychological Research: A Debate on Psychology and Ethics: Based on the Loyola Symposium on Psychology and Ethics, May 2, 1973. Crowell.score: 94.0
     
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  9. R. G. Frey (1996). The Ethics of Animal and Human Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (4):252-253.score: 90.0
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  10. P. J. Lewis (1985). Human Experimentation and Medical Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 11 (1):50-50.score: 90.0
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  11. Dennis John Mazur (2007). Evaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on Humans: A Guide for Irb Members. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 90.0
    Biomedical research on humans is an important part of medical progress. But, when lives are at risk, safety and ethical practices need to be the top priority. The need for the committees that regulate and oversee such research -- institutional review boards, or IRBs -- is growing. IRB members face difficult decisions every day. Evaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on Humans is a guide for new and veteran members of IRBs that will help them better understand the (...)
     
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  12. R. P. A. Rivers (1995). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (1):59-60.score: 90.0
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  13. D. W. Vere (1981). Ethics in Human Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (3):161-161.score: 90.0
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  14. K. G. Davey (2009). Reflections on My Experience in Human Research Ethics. Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (1-2):27-31.score: 87.0
    This paper was delivered at the 2009 annual conference of the National Council on Ethics in Human Research. It is a reflective piece based on many years of experience with human research ethics and the role of Research Ethics Boards in human participant research.
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  15. David E. Tanner (2000). Narrative, Ethics, and Human Experimentation in Richard Selzer's "Alexis St. Martin": The Miraculous Wound Re-Examined. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 12 (2):149-160.score: 87.0
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  16. Ronald L. Numbers (1979). William Beaumont and the Ethics of Human Experimentation. Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1):113 - 135.score: 87.0
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  17. Charles Weijer, The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation.score: 87.0
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  18. Priscilla Alderson (1995). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. By P. M. McNeill. Pp. 315. (Cambridge University Press, 1993.) £35.00/US$ 59.95. [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 27 (1):121-123.score: 87.0
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  19. D. McCaughey (1995). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation, by Paul M. McNeill. Bioethics 9 (5):437-443.score: 87.0
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  20. P. Riis (1993). Medical Ethics in the European Community. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (1):7-12.score: 82.0
    Increasing European co-operation must take place in many areas, including medical ethics. Against the background of common cultural norms and pluralistic variation within political traditions, religion and lifestyles, Europe will have to converge towards unity within the field of medical ethics. This article examines how such convergence might develop with respect to four major areas: European research ethics committees, democratic health systems, the human genome project and rules for stopping futile treatments.
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  21. Oonagh Corrigan (ed.) (2009). The Limits of Consent: A Socio-Ethical Approach to Human Subject Research in Medicine. Oxford University Press.score: 81.0
    Since its inception as an international requirement to protect patients and healthy volunteers taking part in medical research, informed consent has become the primary consideration in research ethics. Despite the ubiquity of consent, however, scholars have begun to question its adequacy for contemporary biomedical research. This book explores this issue, reviewing the application of consent to genetic research, clinical trials, and research involving vulnerable populations. For example, in genetic research, information obtained from an autonomous research participant may have significant (...)
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  22. Susan Ellenberg, Thomas Fleming & David DeMets (2008). 2006), A16. Brody, Baruch A. The Ethics of Biomedical Research: An International Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Capron, Alexander M." Experimentation with Human Beings: Light or Only Shadows?" Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law And. [REVIEW] Contemporary Issues in Bioethics 15 (1).score: 81.0
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  23. R. Ostini, G. Bammer, P. R. Dance & R. E. Goodin (1993). The Ethics of Experimental Heroin Maintenance. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (3):175-182.score: 80.0
    In response to widespread concern about illegal drug use and the associated risk of the spread of HIV/AIDS, a study was undertaken to examine whether it was, in principle, feasible to conduct a trial providing heroin to dependent users in a controlled manner. Such a trial involves real ethical issues which are examined in this paper. The general issues examined are: should a trial be an experiment or an exercise in public policy?; acts and omissions; countermobilization; termination of a trial, (...)
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  24. Bernard E. Rollin (2006). Science and Ethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 79.0
    Bernard Rollin historically and conceptually examines the ideology that denies the relevance of ethics to science. Providing an introduction to basic ethical concepts, he discusses a variety of ethical issues relevant to science and how they are ignored, to the detriment of both science and society. These issues include research on human subjects, animal research, genetic engineering, biotechnology, cloning, xenotransplantation, and stem cell research. Rollin also explores the ideological agnosticism that scientists have displayed regarding subjective experience in humans (...)
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  25. Ana Smith Iltis (ed.) (2006). Research Ethics. Routledge.score: 79.0
    Medicine in the twenty-first century is increasingly reliant on research to guarantee the safety and efficacy of medical interventions. As a result, the need to understand the ethical issues that research generates is becoming essential. This volume introduces the principal areas of concern in research on human subjects, offering a framework for understanding research ethics, and the relationship between ethics and compliance. Research Ethics brings together leading scholars in bioethics and the topics covered include the unique (...)
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  26. Arianna Ferrari, Christopher Coenen & Armin Grunwald (2012). Visions and Ethics in Current Discourse on Human Enhancement. Nanoethics 6 (3):215-229.score: 76.0
    Since it is now broadly acknowledged that ethics should receive early consideration in discourse on emerging technologies, ethical debates tend to flourish even while new fields of technology are still in their infancy. Such debates often liberally mix existing applications with technologies in the pipeline and far-reaching visions. This paper analyses the problems associated with this use of ethics as “preparatory” research, taking discourse on human enhancement in general and on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement in particular as an (...)
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  27. Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Brenda Lobb, Graham Davies, Israel Nachson & Sheila Seelau (2002). International Variation in Ethics Committee Requirements: Comparisons Across Five Westernised Nations. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-8.score: 76.0
    Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel (...)
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  28. Sonja Grover (2004). What's Human Rights Got to Do with It? On the Proposed Changes to SSHRC Ethics Research Policy. Journal of Academic Ethics 2 (3):249-262.score: 75.7
    Whats human rights got to do with it? That is, whats human rights got to do with the June 2004 report of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Ethics Special Working Committee to the Inter-Agency Advisory Panel on Research Ethics. The disturbing answer is not enough. Certain key recommendations of the working committee, it is suggested, would unacceptably weaken the researchers legal and moral accountability to research participants. Those particular recommendations rely on misguided references to academic (...)
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  29. Elizabeth H. Bassett & Kate O'Riordan (2002). Ethics of Internet Research: Contesting the Human Subjects Research Model. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (3):233-247.score: 75.0
    The human subjects researchmodel is increasingly invoked in discussions ofethics for Internet research. Here we seek toquestion the widespread application of thismodel, critiquing it through the two themes ofspace and textual form. Drawing on ourexperience of a previous piece ofresearch, we highlightthe implications of re-considering thetextuality of the Internet in addition to thespatial metaphors that are more commonlydeployed to describe Internet activity. Weargue that the use of spatial metaphors indescriptions of the Internet has shaped theadoption of the human (...)
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  30. Aaron Stalnaker (2005). Comparative Religious Ethics and the Problem of “Human Nature”. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (2):187-224.score: 75.0
    Comparative religious ethics is a complicated scholarly endeavor, striving to harmonize intellectual goals that are frequently conceived as quite different, or even intrinsically opposed. Against commonly voiced suspicions of comparative work, this essay argues that descriptive, comparative, and normative interests may support rather than conflict with each other, depending on the comparison in question, and how it is pursued. On the basis of a brief comparison of the early Christian Augustine of Hippo and the early Confucians Mencius and Xunzi (...)
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  31. Irene Oh (2008). Approaching Islam: Comparative Ethics Through Human Rights. Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (3):405-423.score: 75.0
    A dialogical approach to understanding Islamic ethics rejects objectivist methods in favor of a conversational model in which participants accept each other as rational moral agents. Hans-Georg Gadamer asserts the importance of agreement upon a subject matter through conversation as a means to gaining insight into other persons and cultures, and Jürgen Habermas stresses the importance of fairness in dialogue. Using human rights as a subject matter for engaging in dialogue with Islamic scholars, Muslim perspectives on issues such (...)
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  32. Felix Martin (2011). Human Development and the Pursuit of the Common Good: Social Psychology or Aristotelian Virtue Ethics? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 100 (S1):89-98.score: 75.0
    The encyclical proclaims the centrality of human development, which includes acting with gratuitousness and solidarity in pursuing the common good. This paper considers first whether such relationships of gratuitousness and solidarity can be analysed through the prism of traditional theories of social psychology, which are highly influential in current management research, and concludes that certain aspects of those theories may offer useful tools for analysis at the practical level. This is contrasted with the analysis of such relationships through Aristotelian (...)
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  33. Sumner B. Twiss (2005). Comparative Ethics, a Common Morality, and Human Rights. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (4):649-657.score: 75.0
    This essay is a brief attempt to summarize and evaluate the contributions that "Democracy and Tradition" makes to the field of comparative ethics. It is argued that the potential impact of these contributions would be strengthened by engagement with the common morality already imbedded in international human rights norms.
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  34. Marc Lampe (2012). Science, Human Nature, and a New Paradigm for Ethics Education. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):543-549.score: 75.0
    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to “self-deception” and “personal bias.” Through (...)
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  35. Paul Ramsey (1975). The Ethics of Fetal Research. Yale University Press.score: 74.0
    "The Ethics of Fetal Research" distinguishes between the legal and ethical questions raised by experimentation on still-living human fetuses.
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  36. Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.) (2003). Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research: Readings and Commentary. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 73.0
    All investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health are now required to receive training about the ethics of clinical research. Based on a course taught by the editors at NIH, Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research is the first book designed to help investigators meet this new requirement. The book begins with the history of human subjects research and guidelines instituted since World War II. It then covers various stages and components of the clinical trial process: (...)
     
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  37. M. Hayry (1998). Ethics Committees, Principles and Consequences. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (2):81-85.score: 73.0
    When ethics committees evaluate the research proposals submitted to them by biomedical scientists, they can seek guidance from laws and regulations, their own beliefs, values and experiences, and from the theories of philosophers. The starting point of this paper is that philosophers can only be helpful to the members of ethics committees if they take into account in their models both the basic moral intuitions that most of us share and the consequences of people's choices. A moral view (...)
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  38. David Luban (2007). Legal Ethics and Human Dignity. Cambridge University Press.score: 72.0
    David Luban is one of the world's leading scholars of legal ethics. In this collection of his most significant papers from the past twenty-five years, he ranges over such topics as the moral psychology of organisational evil, the strengths and weaknesses of the adversary system, and jurisprudence from the lawyer's point of view. His discussion combines philosophical argument, legal analysis and many cases drawn from actual law practice, and he defends a theory of legal ethics that focuses on (...)
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  39. Adil E. Shamoo (2009). Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press.score: 72.0
    Scientific research and ethics -- Ethical theory and decision making -- Data acquisition and management -- Mentoring and professional relationship -- Collaboration in research -- Authorship -- Publication and peer review -- Misconduct in research -- Intellectual property -- Conflicts of interest and scientific objectivity -- The use of animals in research -- The use of human subjects in research -- The use of vulnerable subjects in research -- Genetics, cloning, and stem cell research -- International research.
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  40. Shashi Motilal (ed.) (2010). Applied Ethics and Human Rights: Conceptual Analysis and Contextual Applications. London, Anthem Press.score: 72.0
    'Applied Ethics and Human Rights: Conceptual Analysis and Contextual Applications' offers a philosophical perspective to ethical problems by providing an ...
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  41. Fuat S. Oduncu (2003). Stem Cell Research in Germany: Ethics of Healing Vs. Human Dignity. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (1):5-16.score: 72.0
    On 25 April 2002, the German Parliament has passed a strict new law referring to stem cell research. This law took effect on July 1, 2002. The so-called embryonic Stem Cell Act ( Stammzellgesetz — StZG ) permits the import of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from surplus IvF-embryos for research reasons. The production itself of ES cells from human blastocysts has been prohibited by the German Embryo Protection Act of 1990, with the exception of the use of ES (...)
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  42. Ambroise Wonkam, Marcel Azabji Kenfack, Walinjom Ft Muna & Odile Ouwe‐Missi‐Oukem‐Boyer (2011). Ethics of Human Genetic Studies in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Cameroon Through a Bibliometric Analysis. Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):120-127.score: 72.0
    Many ethical concerns surrounding human genetics studies remain unresolved. We report here the situation in Cameroon.Objectives: To describe the profile of human genetic studies that used Cameroonian DNA samples, with specific focus on i) the research centres that were involved, ii) authorship, iii) population studied, iv) research topics and v) ethics disclosure, with the aim of raising ethical issues that emerged from these studies.Method: Bibliometric Studies; we conducted a PubMed-based systematic review of all the studies on (...) genetics that used Cameroonian DNA samples from 1989 to 2009.Results and Discussion: Fifty articles were identified, involving predominantly research centres from Europe (64%) and America (32%). Only 7 (14%) Cameroonian institutions and 14 (28%) Cameroonian authors were associated with these publications.At least 52% of publications were devoted to population genetics (variation/migration patterns) amongst 30 Cameroonian ethnic groups. Very few studies concerned public health related genetic issues and only 5 (10%) references were found for hemoglobinopathies like sickle cell anaemia. Almost all DNA samples are ‘banked’ outside of the African continent.Capacity building, rights to the genetic information and benefits to the individuals, communities and populations who contribute to these studies are addressed.Conclusions: 1) Our data suggests the need for a wider debate towards building capacity and addressing ethical issues related to human genomic research in sub-Saharan Africa and specifically in Cameroon; 2) National ethical guidelines and regulations concerning the collection, use and storage of human DNA are urgently needed in Cameroon. (shrink)
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  43. Sarah Ferber (2013). Bioethics in Historical Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 72.0
    Introduction -- Bioethics as scholarship -- Language, narrative and rhetoric in bioethics -- Euthanasia, the Nazi analogy and the slippery slope -- Heredity, genes and reproductive politics -- Human experimentation -- Thalidomide.
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  44. Andreas Frewer (2010). Human Rights From the Nuremberg Doctors Trial to the Geneva Declaration. Persons and Institutions in Medical Ethics and History. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):259-268.score: 72.0
    The “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” and the “Geneva Declaration” by the World Medical Association, both in 1948, were preceded by the foundation of the United Nations in New York (1945), the World Medical Association in London (1946) and the World Health Organization in Geneva (1948). After the end of World War II the community of nations strove to achieve and sustain their primary goals of peace and security, as well as their basic premise, namely the health of (...) beings. All these associations were well aware of the crimes by medicine, in particular by the accused Nazi physicians at the Nuremberg Doctors Trial (1946/47, sentence: August 1947). During the first conference of the World Medical Association (September 1947) issues of medical ethics played a major role: and a new document was drafted concerning the values of the medical profession. After the catastrophe of the War and the criminal activities of scientists, the late 1940s saw increased scrutiny paid to fundamental questions of human rights and medical ethics, which are still highly relevant for today’s medicine and morality. The article focuses on the development of medical ethics and human rights reflected in the statement of important persons, codes and institutions in the field. (shrink)
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  45. John Harris (1992). Wonderwoman and Superman: The Ethics of Human Biotechnology. Oxford University Press.score: 72.0
    Since the birth of the first test-tube baby, Louise Brown, in 1977, we have seen truly remarkable advances in biotechnology. We can now screen the fetus for Down Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and a wide range of genetic disorders. We can rearrange genes in DNA chains and redirect the evolution of species. We can record an individual's genetic fingerprint. And we can potentially insert genes into human DNA that will produce physical warning signs of cancer, allowing early detection. In fact, (...)
     
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  46. Erik Malmqvist, Gert Helgesson, Johannes Lehtinen, Kari Natunen & Matti Lehtinen (2011). The Ethics of Implementing Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Developed Countries. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):19-27.score: 72.0
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection. It is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death in cancer among women worldwide, and is also believed to cause other anogenital and head and neck cancers. Vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing HPV types have recently become available, and different countries have taken different approaches to implementing vaccination. This paper examines the ethics of alternative HPV vaccination strategies. It (...)
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  47. Hans-Martin Sass (1983). Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.score: 71.0
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of (...)
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  48. LeRoy Walters (1974). Ethical Issues in Experimentation on the Human Fetus. Journal of Religious Ethics 2 (1):33 - 54.score: 71.0
    This essay explores some moral problems raised by experimentation involving the human fetus. In the first part of the essay three examples of fetal experimentation from the medical literature are described in some detail. Next, the ethical and legal arguments employed in the two major existing public policy-documents on fetal experimentation are analyzed. Finally, the author seeks to identify four fundamental presuppositions which underlie divergent normative positions on the problem of fetal experimentation.
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  49. Baruch A. Brody (1998). The Ethics of Biomedical Research: An International Perspective. Oxford University Press.score: 70.0
    A broad critical review of national policies on biomedical research - human, epidemiologic, clinical trials, genetic, reproductive, etc.
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  50. Patrick Lin & Fritz Allhoff (2008). Untangling the Debate: The Ethics of Human Enhancement. [REVIEW] Nanoethics 2 (3):251-264.score: 70.0
    Human enhancement, in which nanotechnology is expected to play a major role, continues to be a highly contentious ethical debate, with experts on both sides calling it the single most important issue facing science and society in this brave, new century. This paper is a broad introduction to the symposium herein that explores a range of perspectives related to that debate. We will discuss what human enhancement is and its apparent contrast to therapy; and we will begin to (...)
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