Search results for 'Human experimentation in medicine Government policy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    Social Policy (1999). Human Needs, Consumption, and Social Policy. Economics and Philosophy 15:187-208.
    From its early origins to the present, the development of mainstream economic theory has taken a direction which has excluded the analysis of human needs as a basis for social policy. The problems associated with this orientation are increasingly recognized both by economists and non-economists. As Sen (1985) points out, it is indeed strange for a discipline concerned with the well-being of people to neglect the question of needs. Currently, some writers such as Doyal and Gough (1991), post-Keynesian (...)
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  2.  41
    Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.) (2006). Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner.
    Mit Beitragen von: Wolfgang U. Eckart, Christian Bonah, Wolfgang U. Eckart / Andreas Reuland, Alexander Neumann, Peter Steinkamp, Volker Roelcke, Anne ...
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  3.  35
    Delon Human (2002). Conflicts of Interest in Science and Medicine: The Physician's Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):273-276.
    The various statements and declarations of the World Medical Association that address conflicts of interest on the part of physicians as (1) researchers, and (2) practitioners, are examined, with particular reference to the October 2000 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki. Recent contributions to the literature, notably on conflicts of interest in medical research, are noted. Finally, key provisions of the American Medical Association’s Code of Medical Ethics (2000–2001 Edition) that address the various forms of conflict of interest that can (...)
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  4.  4
    Thomas A. Faunce (2007). Nanotechnology in Global Medicine and Human Biosecurity: Private Interests, Policy Dilemmas, and the Calibration of Public Health Law. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (4):629-642.
    This paper considers how best to approach dilemmas posed to global health and biosecurity policy by increasing advances in practical applications of nanotechnology. The type of nano-technology policy dilemmas discussed include: expenditure of public funds, public-funded research priorities, public confidence in government and science and, finally, public safety. The article examines the value in this context of a legal obligation that the development of relevant public health law be calibrated against less corporate-infuenced norms issuing from bioethics and (...)
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  5.  7
    Laura Jeanine Morris Stark (2012). Behind Closed Doors: Irbs and the Making of Ethical Research. The University of Chicago Press.
    IRBs in action -- Everyone's an expert? Warrants for expertise -- Local precedents -- Documents and deliberations: an anticipatory perspective -- Setting IRBs in motion in Cold War America -- An ethics of place -- The many forms of consent -- Deflecting responsibility -- Conclusion: the making of ethical research.
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  6. David N. Weisstub (ed.) (1998). Research on Human Subjects: Ethics, Law, and Social Policy. Pergamon.
    There have been serious controversies in the latter part of the 20th century about the roles and functions of scientific and medical research. In whose interests are medical and biomedical experiments conducted and what are the ethical implications of experimentation on subjects unable to give competent consent? From the decades following the Second World War and calls for the global banning of medical research to the cautious return to the notion that in controlled circumstances, medical research on human (...)
     
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  7. George J. Annas & Michael A. Grodin (1992). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  8.  50
    Oonagh Corrigan (ed.) (2009). The Limits of Consent: A Socio-Ethical Approach to Human Subject Research in Medicine. Oxford University Press.
    Since its inception as an international requirement to protect patients and healthy volunteers taking part in medical research, informed consent has become the primary consideration in research ethics. Despite the ubiquity of consent, however, scholars have begun to question its adequacy for contemporary biomedical research. This book explores this issue, reviewing the application of consent to genetic research, clinical trials, and research involving vulnerable populations. For example, in genetic research, information obtained from an autonomous research participant may have significant bearing (...)
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  9. Thomas A. Faunce (2007). Nanotechnology in Global Medicine and Human Biosecurity: Private Interests, Policy Dilemmas, and the Calibration of Public Health Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (4):629-642.
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  10. Bradford H. Gray (1981). Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation: A Sociological Study of the Conduct and Regulation of Clinical Research. R.E. Krieger Pub. Co..
     
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  11. García San José & I. Daniel (2010). International Bio Law: An International Overview of Developments in Human Embryo Research and Experimentation. Ediciones Laborum.
     
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  12. William A. Silverman (1985). Human Experimentation: A Guided Step Into the Unknown. Oxford University Press.
    Spectacular treatment disasters in recent years have made it clear that informal "let's-try-it-and-see" methods of testing new proposals are more risky now than ever before, and have led many to call for a halt to experimentation in clinical medicine. In this easy-tp-read, philosophical guide to human experimentation, William Silverman pleads for wider use of randomized clinical trials, citing many examples that show how careful trials can overturn preconceived or ill-conceived notions of a therapy's effectiveness and lead (...)
     
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  13.  31
    Inmaculada de Melo-martín (2011). Human Dignity in International Policy Documents: A Useful Criterion for Public Policy? Bioethics 25 (1):37-45.
    Current developments in biomedicine are presenting us with difficult ethical decisions and raising complex policy questions about how to regulate these new developments. Particularly vexing for governments have been issues related to human embryo experimentation. Because some of the most promising biomedical developments, such as stem cell research and nuclear somatic transfer, involve such experimentation, several international bodies have drafted documents aimed to provide guidance to governments when developing biomedical science policy. Here I focus on (...)
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  14. Charles Fried (1974). Medical Experimentation Personal Integrity and Social Policy. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  15.  40
    Paul M. McNeill (1993). The Ethics and Politics of Human Experimentation. Cambridge University Press.
    This book focuses on experimentation that is carried out on human beings, including medical research, drug research and research undertaken in the social sciences. It discusses the ethics of such experimentation and asks the question: who defends the interests of these human subjects and ensures that they are not harmed? The author finds that ethical research depends on the adequacy of review by committee. Indeed most countries now rely on research ethics committees for the protection of (...)
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  16. Jay Katz & Alexander Morgan Capron (1975). Catastrophic Diseases Who Decides What? : A Psychosocial and Legal Analysis of the Problems Posed by Hemodialysis and Organ Transplantation.
     
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  17.  10
    LeRoy Walters (1974). Ethical Issues in Experimentation on the Human Fetus. Journal of Religious Ethics 2 (1):33 - 54.
    This essay explores some moral problems raised by experimentation involving the human fetus. In the first part of the essay three examples of fetal experimentation from the medical literature are described in some detail. Next, the ethical and legal arguments employed in the two major existing public policy-documents on fetal experimentation are analyzed. Finally, the author seeks to identify four fundamental presuppositions which underlie divergent normative positions on the problem of fetal experimentation.
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  18.  12
    Michael Lane, Indigenous Peoples Tribal Self Government: Legal History and Public Policy Manifestations in Canada, New Zealand and the United States.
    Contemporary notions of what constitutes tribal self government for Indigenous Peoples in the legal systems of the nation-states Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America have their origins in philosophies and theories developed by European nation-states generally, in relation to their colonial expansion into what is now called the Americas. This thesis examines the nature of these theories, and how they have formed the basis for legal precedent and public policy in the three nation-states. A representative (...)
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  19.  14
    David A. Cleveland, Fred Bowannie Jr, Donald F. Eriacho, Andrew Laahty & Eric Perramond (1995). Zuni Farming and United States Government Policy: The Politics of Biological and Cultural Diversity in Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (3):2-18.
    Indigenous Zuni farming, including cultural values, ecological and biological diversity, and land distribution and tenure, appears to have been quite productive and sustainable for at least 2000 before United States influence began in the later half of the 18th century. United States Government Indian agriculture policy has been based on assimilation of Indians and taking of their resources, and continues in more subtle ways today. At Zuni this policy has resulted in the degradation and loss of natural (...)
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  20.  16
    Valerie Gutmann Koch (2014). A Policy in Flux: New York State's Evolving Approach to Human Subjects Research Involving Individuals Who Lack Consent Capacity. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 42 (3):383-388.
    American history has been rife with human subjects research scandals, particularly those that involve “vulnerable” populations. State and federal laws and regulations often do not provide any special oversight mechanisms or protections to ensure the ethical and safe inclusion of cognitively impaired adults in research. At the New York State level, repeated efforts have been made to regulate research involving individuals who lack consent capacity. In January 2014, the New York State Task Force on Life and the Law released (...)
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  21. Robert Veatch (1988). The Patient as Partner: A Theory of Human Experimentation Ethics. Journal of Religious Ethics 16 (1):190-190.
     
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  22. Zbigniew Bańkowski & Norman Howard-Jones (eds.) (1982). Human Experimentation and Medical Ethics: Proceedings of the Xvth Cioms Round Table Conference, Manila, 13-16 September 1981. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre Usa [Distributor].
  23.  47
    Thomas K. McElhinney & Edmund D. Pellegrino (2001). The Institute on Human Values in Medicine: Its Role and Influence in the Conception and Evolution of Bioethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 22 (4):291-317.
    For ten years, 1971–1981, the Institute onHuman Values in Medicine (IHVM) played a keyrole in the development of Bioethics as afield. We have written this history andanalysis to bring to new generations ofBioethicists information about the developmentof their field within both the humanitiesdisciplines and the health professions. Thepioneers in medical humanities and ethics cametogether with medical professionals in thedecade of the 1960s. By the 1980s Bioethics wasa fully recognized discipline. We show the rolethat IHVM programs played in defining thefield, (...)
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  24. Paul Abraham Freund (1972). Experimentation with Human Subjects. London,Allen and Unwin.
     
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  25. Norman Howard-Jones & Zbigniew Bańkowski (eds.) (1979). Medical Experimentation and the Protection of Human Rights: Proceedings of the Xiith Cioms Round Table Conference, Cascais, Portugal, 30 November-1 December, 1978. [REVIEW] Who Publications Centre [Distributor].
  26. H. ten Have, Jos V. M. Welie & Stuart F. Spicker (1998). Ownership of the Human Body Philosophical Considerations on the Use of the Human Body and its Parts in Healthcare.
     
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  27.  2
    Charles Burton (2011). Mengele in America: Human Experimentation and the Walter Reed Connection. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 2 (3):271-277.
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  28.  6
    Jocelyn Downie & Françoise Baylis (2013). Transnational Trade in Human Eggs: Law, Policy, and (In)Action in Canada. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (1):224-239.
    In this paper, we provide as accurate a picture as possible of transnational trade in human eggs involving Canadians. We explain the legal status in Canada, and call for reform in the regulation, of such trade.
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  29.  3
    Uwe Koerner (1989). Policy Positions on in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer in Human Individuals (German Democratic Republic, 1985). Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (3):355-358.
    Recommandations have been formulated in 1985 with reference to socialist morality and law and as a result of interdisciplinary discussion by the IAME (Interdisciplinary Working Party on Medical Ethics at the GDR Academy of Postgraduate Medical Education) for clinical application of in vitro fertilization and for the use of human oocytes and early embryonic stages.
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  30.  21
    Susan L. Smith (2008). Mustard Gas and American Race-Based Human Experimentation in World War II. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 36 (3):517-521.
    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.
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  31.  12
    David E. Tanner (2000). Narrative, Ethics, and Human Experimentation in Richard Selzer's "Alexis St. Martin": The Miraculous Wound Re-Examined. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 12 (2):149-160.
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  32.  3
    Barbara Mishkin (2000). Law and Public Policy in Human Studies Research. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (3):362-372.
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  33.  21
    Graham Riches (1999). Advancing the Human Right to Food in Canada: Social Policy and the Politics of Hunger, Welfare, and Food Security. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):203-211.
    This article argues that hunger in Canada, while being an outcome of unemployment, low incomes, and inadequate welfare, springs also from the failure to recognize and implement the human right to food. Food security has, however, largely been ignored by progressive social policy analysis. Barriers standing in the way of achieving food security include the increasing commodification of welfare and the corporatization of food, the depoliticization of hunger by governments and the voluntary sector, and, most particularly, the neglect (...)
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  34. Susan L. Smith (2008). Mustard Gas and American Race-Based Human Experimentation in World War II. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (3):517-521.
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  35.  5
    A. R. Holder (1993). Medical Insurance Payments and Patients Involved in Research. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 16 (1-2):19-22.
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  36. Pamela A. Andanda (2006). The Law and Regulation of Clinical Research: Interplay with Public Policy and Bioethics. Focus Publilshers.
     
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  37.  7
    Sverine Mathieu, Anne Fagot-Largeault & Philippe Amiel (2001). Acculturating Human Experimentation: An Empirical Survey in France. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (3):285-298.
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  38.  10
    Philippe Amiel, Sverine Mathieu & Anne Fagot-Largeault (2001). Acculturating Human Experimentation: An Empirical Survey in France. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (3):285 – 298.
  39.  1
    Gregory T. Halbert (1979). The Public's Role in Developing a Government Policy on Mutagen and Teratogen Regulation. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 7 (4):12-13.
  40. Gregory T. Halbert (1979). The Public's Role in Developing a Government Policy on Mutagen and Teratogen Regulation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 7 (4):12-13.
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  41.  4
    Federico Merke & Gino Pauselli (2013). Foreign Policy and Human Rights Advocacy: An Exercise in Measurement and Explanation. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 14 (2):131-155.
    This article addresses three questions: How can we define and measure what constitutes a foreign policy in human rights? How is it possible to explain both the activism of a state and its ideological orientation in the international promotion of human rights? What is the empirical evidence found when we try to answer these questions in intermediate states? Research done on four cases (Argentina, Australia, Brazil and South Africa) suggests a correlation between domestic efforts in the promotion (...)
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  42. Wolfgang U. Eckart & Andreas Reuland (2006). First Principles : Julius Moses and Medical Experimentation in the Late Weimar Republic. In Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.), Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body As an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner
     
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  43. Jocelyn Downie & Françoise Baylis (2013). Transnational Trade in Human Eggs: Law, Policy, and Action in Canada. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):224-239.
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  44. Susan Ellenberg, Thomas Fleming & David DeMets (2008). "(2006), A16. Brody, Baruch A. The Ethics of Biomedical Research: An International Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Capron, Alexander M." Experimentation with Human Beings: Light or Only Shadows?" Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law And. [REVIEW] Contemporary Issues in Bioethics 15 (1).
     
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  45. Richard M. Hare (1994). Embryo Experimentation: Public Policy in a Pluralist Society. In K. W. M. Fulford, Grant Gillett & Janet Martin Soskice (eds.), Medicine and Moral Reasoning. Cambridge University Press 3--29.
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  46. Valerie Gutmann Koch (2014). A Policy in Flux: New York State's Evolving Approach to Human Subjects Research Involving Individuals Who Lack Consent Capacity. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (3):383-388.
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  47.  6
    David B. Resnik (2009). Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 17 (3):261-276.
    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political (...)
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  48.  5
    Luciano Kay (2012). Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Innovation Prizes as a Government Policy Instrument. Minerva 50 (2):191-196.
    Inducement prizes have been long used to stimulate individuals and groups to accomplish diverse goals. Lately, governments have become more and more interested in these prizes and sought to include this kind of incentives within the set of policy tools available to promote science, technology, and innovation. To date, however, there has been little empirically-based scientific knowledge on how to design, manage, and evaluate innovation prizes. This note discusses aspects of the prize phenomenon and the opportunities and challenges related (...)
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  49.  6
    Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen (1998). One Medicine: The Dynamic Relationship Between Animal and Human Medicine in History and at Present. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 15 (2):115-120.
    The relation and collaboration of human and animal medicine had its ups and downs throughout history. The interaction between these two disciplines has been especially fruitful in the broad areas of patho-physiology and of epidemiology. An exploration of the interaction between the two disciplines, using historical and contemporary examples in comparative medicine, zoonoses, zooprophylaxis, and human-animal bond, reveals that a better understanding of animal and human disease, as well as societal changes such as interest in (...)
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  50.  6
    Hannah E. Britton & Laura A. Dean (2014). Policy Responses to Human Trafficking in Southern Africa: Domesticating International Norms. Human Rights Review 15 (3):305-328.
    Human trafficking is increasingly recognized as an outcome of economic insecurity, gender inequality, and conflict, all significant factors in the region of southern Africa. This paper examines policy responses to human trafficking in southern Africa and finds that there has been a diffusion of international norms to the regional and domestic levels. This paper finds that policy change is most notable in the strategies and approaches that differ at each level: international and regional agreements emphasize prevention (...)
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