Search results for 'Human genetics Government policy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Social Policy (1999). Human Needs, Consumption, and Social Policy. Economics and Philosophy 15:187-208.score: 1500.0
    From its early origins to the present, the development of mainstream economic theory has taken a direction which has excluded the analysis of human needs as a basis for social policy. The problems associated with this orientation are increasingly recognized both by economists and non-economists. As Sen (1985) points out, it is indeed strange for a discipline concerned with the well-being of people to neglect the question of needs. Currently, some writers such as Doyal and Gough (1991), post-Keynesian (...)
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  2. Mavis Jones (2004). Policy Legitimation, Expert Advice, and Objectivity: 'Opening' the UK Governance Framework for Human Genetics. Social Epistemology 18 (2 & 3):247 – 270.score: 758.0
    In response to political pressures arising from controversial science policy decisions, the United Kingdom (UK) government conducted a review of its biotechnology governance framework in 1999, identifying best practices of open government and creating strategic bodies to adopt them. Drawing from empirical data on the context and nature of the open government framework, this paper argues that the framework may be interpreted as elasticizing objectivity. Value-neutral scientific objectivity is essentially 'stretched' into a pluralist objectivity that purports (...)
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  3. Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner (ed.) (2009). Human Genetic Biobanks in Asia: Politics of Trust and Scientific Advancement. Routledge.score: 564.0
    This volume investigates human genetic biobanking and its regulation in various Asian countries and areas, including Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, ...
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  4. G. Anderson & M. V. Rorty (2001). Key Points for Developing an International Declaration on Nursing, Human Rights, Human Genetics and Public Health Policy. Nursing Ethics 8 (3):259-271.score: 513.0
    Human rights legislation pertaining to applications of human genetic science is still lacking at an international level. Three international human rights documents now serve as guidelines for countries wishing to develop such legislation. These were drafted and adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Human Genome Organization, and the Council of Europe. It is critically important that the international nursing community makes known its philosophy and practice-based knowledge relating to ethics and (...) rights, and contributes to the globalization of genetics. Nurses have particular expertise because they serve in a unique role at grass roots level to mediate between genetic science and its application to public health policies and medical interventions. As a result, nurses worldwide need to focus a constant eye on human rights ideals and interpret these within social, cultural, economic and political contexts at national and local levels. The purpose of this article is to clarify and legitimate the need for an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy. Because nurses around the world are the professional workforce by which genetic health care services and genetic research protocols will be delivered in the twenty-first century, members of the discipline of nursing need to think globally while acting locally. Above all other disciplines involved in genetics, nursing is in a good position to articulate an expanded theory of ethics beyond the principled approach of biomedical ethics. Nursing is sensitive to cultural diversity and community values; it is sympathetic to and can introduce an ethic of caring and relational ethics that listen to and accommodate the needs of local people and their requirements for public health. (shrink)
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  5. Alexander H. Leighton (1948). Human Nature and Government Policy. Philosophical Review 57 (1):27-38.score: 427.5
  6. Daniel L. Hartl (1982). The Role of Government in Human Genetics The Political Implications of Human Genetic Technology Robert H. Blank. BioScience 32 (5):358-358.score: 427.5
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  7. Lizette Weilbach & Elaine Byrne (2010). A Human Environmentalist Approach to Diffusion in ICT Policies: A Case Study of the FOSS Policy of the South African Government. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 8 (1):108-123.score: 405.0
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  8. Sheila Faith Weiss (2006). Human Genetics and Politics as Mutually Beneficial Resources: The Case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics During the Third Reich. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):41 - 88.score: 306.0
    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do (...)
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  9. David B. Resnik (2000). The Moral Significance of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in Human Genetics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (03):365-377.score: 288.0
    The therapy-enhancement distinction occupies a central place in contemporary discussions of human genetics and has been the subject of much debate. At a recent conference on gene therapy policy, scientists predicted that within a few years researchers will develop techniques that can be used to enhance human traits. In thinking about the morality of genetic interventions, many writers have defended somatic gene therapy, and some have defended germline gene therapy, but only a handful of writers defend (...)
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  10. Jonathan R. Macey (2006). Government as Investor: Tax Policy and the State. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):255-286.score: 270.0
    This article analogizes the state, in its role as tax collector, to that of an investor, or to be more precise, that of a residual claimant on the earnings of all of the people and firms subject to the taxing power of the state. The relationship between modern democracy and its citizens would be strengthened if this analogy were more widely acknowledged because it recognizes citizen-taxpayers as contracting partners with the state. Unlike other libertarian conceptions of the state's taxing authority, (...)
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  11. Benjamin Mason Meier, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Georgia Kayser, Urooj Amjad & Jamie Bartram (2014). Translating the Human Right to Water and Sanitation Into Public Policy Reform. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.score: 269.0
    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international (...)
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  12. Robert H. Blank (1982). Public Policy Implications of Human Genetic Technology: Genetic Screening. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (4):355-374.score: 267.0
    As rapid advances in human genetic research are transferred into new areas of genetic technology, questions relatingto the use of these techniques will escalate. This paper examines some of the policy concerns surrounding recent developments in genetic screening. It discusses the impetus and implications of genetic screening in general, examines various applications, and analyzes the costs and benefits of screening programs currently in existence. Special emphasis is placed on whether or not screening should be considered a matter of (...)
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  13. Melinda Gormley (2009). Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33 - 72.score: 267.0
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's primary concern (...)
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  14. Christian Byk (1992). The Human Genome Project and the Social Contract: A Law Policy Approach. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):371-380.score: 261.0
    For the first time in history, genetics will enable science to completely identify each human as genetically unique. Will this knowledge reinforce the trend for more individual liberties or will it create a ‘brave new world’? A law policy approach to the problems raised by the human genome project shows how far our democratic institutions are from being the proper forum to discuss such issues. Because of the fears and anxiety raised in the population, and also (...)
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  15. Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.) (2006). Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner.score: 252.0
    Mit Beitragen von: Wolfgang U. Eckart, Christian Bonah, Wolfgang U. Eckart / Andreas Reuland, Alexander Neumann, Peter Steinkamp, Volker Roelcke, Anne ...
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  16. David A. Cleveland, Fred Bowannie Jr, Donald F. Eriacho, Andrew Laahty & Eric Perramond (1995). Zuni Farming and United States Government Policy: The Politics of Biological and Cultural Diversity in Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (3):2-18.score: 247.5
    Indigenous Zuni farming, including cultural values, ecological and biological diversity, and land distribution and tenure, appears to have been quite productive and sustainable for at least 2000 before United States influence began in the later half of the 18th century. United States Government Indian agriculture policy has been based on assimilation of Indians and taking of their resources, and continues in more subtle ways today. At Zuni this policy has resulted in the degradation and loss of natural (...)
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  17. Graham Riches (1999). Advancing the Human Right to Food in Canada: Social Policy and the Politics of Hunger, Welfare, and Food Security. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):203-211.score: 246.0
    This article argues that hunger in Canada, while being an outcome of unemployment, low incomes, and inadequate welfare, springs also from the failure to recognize and implement the human right to food. Food security has, however, largely been ignored by progressive social policy analysis. Barriers standing in the way of achieving food security include the increasing commodification of welfare and the corporatization of food, the depoliticization of hunger by governments and the voluntary sector, and, most particularly, the neglect (...)
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  18. Antoinette Rouvroy (2008). Human Genes and Neoliberal Governance: A Foucauldian Critique. Routledge-Cavendish.score: 242.0
    The production of genetic knowledge -- Scientific and economic strength of genetic reductionism -- Policy implications : discourses of genetic enlightenment as new disciplinary devices -- Genetic conceptualizations of normality and the idea of genetic justice -- Beyond genetic universality and authenticity, the lure of the genetic underclass -- Previews of the future as background -- Economic and actuarial perspective on genetics and insurance -- Practical and normative arguments against genetic exceptionalist legislation -- The changing social role of (...)
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  19. Inmaculada de Melo-martín (2011). Human Dignity in International Policy Documents: A Useful Criterion for Public Policy? Bioethics 25 (1):37-45.score: 239.0
    Current developments in biomedicine are presenting us with difficult ethical decisions and raising complex policy questions about how to regulate these new developments. Particularly vexing for governments have been issues related to human embryo experimentation. Because some of the most promising biomedical developments, such as stem cell research and nuclear somatic transfer, involve such experimentation, several international bodies have drafted documents aimed to provide guidance to governments when developing biomedical science policy. Here I focus on two such (...)
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  20. Anne Cottebrune (2006). The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Found) and the "Backwardness" of German Human Genetics After World War II : Scientific Controversy Over a Proposal for Sponsoring the Discipline. In Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.), Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body As an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner.score: 238.5
     
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  21. Jose Sanmart�N. (1995). The New World of Human Genetic Technologies: The Policy Environment and Impacts of Genetic Screening Tests. [REVIEW] AI and Society 9 (1):105-114.score: 231.5
    Today it is possible to screen for mutated DNA sequences which do not induce any diseases but predispose to develop diseases under certain environmental condition. These latter disorders are called multifactorial since they result from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Among multifactorial disorders there are job-related diseases whose genetic component can be identified by genetic screening tests. The use of these tests to predict occupational disorders, to cut down on them, and to save costs—in particular for absenteeism, health (...)
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  22. Elisa Eiseman (2003). The National Bioethics Advisory Commission: Contributing to Public Policy. Rand.score: 225.0
    Details goverment, private, and international response to the policy recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
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  23. Antonio Marturano & Ruth Chadwick (2004). How the Role of Computing is Driving New Genetics' Public Policy. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):43-53.score: 220.5
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  24. Walter Glannon (2001). Genes and Future People: Philosophical Issues in Human Genetics. Westview Press.score: 213.0
    Advances in genetic technology in general and medical genetics in particular will enable us to intervene in the process of human biological development which extends from zygotes and embryos to people. This will allow us to control to a great extent the identities and the length and quality of the lives of people who already exist, as well as those we bring into existence in the near and distant future. Genes and Future People explores two general philosophical questions, (...)
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  25. D. Schroeder & J. Lucas (eds.) (2013). Benefit Sharing From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer.score: 211.5
    After setting out the legal, ethical and conceptual frameworks for benefit sharing, this collection analyses seven historical cases to identify the ethical and policy challenges that arise in relation to benefit sharing.
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  26. Zuni Farming (1995). United States Government Policy: The Politics of Cultural and Biological Diversity. Agriculture and Human Values 12:2-18.score: 211.5
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  27. Bruno S. Frey & Jana Gallus (2013). Subjective Well-Being and Policy. Topoi 32 (2):207-212.score: 198.0
    This paper analyses whether the aggregation of individual happiness scores to a National Happiness Index can still be trusted once governments have proclaimed their main objective to be the pursuit—or even maximization—of this National Happiness Index. The answer to this investigation is clear-cut: as soon as the National Happiness Index has become a policy goal, it can no longer be trusted to reflect people’s true happiness. Rather, the Index will be systematically distorted due to the incentive for citizens to (...)
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  28. John Dietrich & Caitlyn Witkowski (2012). Obama's Human Rights Policy: Déjà Vu with a Twist. Human Rights Review 13 (1):39-64.score: 198.0
    In US history, much human rights policy developed in four waves during the twentieth century. These waves were triggered by similar circumstances, but all proved short-lived as structural constraints such as limited US power over other countries’ domestic actions, competing US policy priorities, a US hesitance to join multilateral institutions, and the continued domestic political weakness of human rights advocates led to setbacks. As Barack Obama took office, his campaign comments and the past patterns led to (...)
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  29. Federico Merke & Gino Pauselli (2013). Foreign Policy and Human Rights Advocacy: An Exercise in Measurement and Explanation. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 14 (2):131-155.score: 198.0
    This article addresses three questions: How can we define and measure what constitutes a foreign policy in human rights? How is it possible to explain both the activism of a state and its ideological orientation in the international promotion of human rights? What is the empirical evidence found when we try to answer these questions in intermediate states? Research done on four cases (Argentina, Australia, Brazil and South Africa) suggests a correlation between domestic efforts in the promotion (...)
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  30. David B. Resnik (2009). Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 17 (3):261-276.score: 198.0
    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political (...)
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  31. Françoise Baylis & Matthew Herder (2009). Policy Design for Human Embryo Research in Canada: A History (Part 1 of 2). [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (1):109-122.score: 197.0
    This article is the first in a two-part review of policy design for human embryo research in Canada. In this article we explain how this area of research is circumscribed by law promulgated by the federal Parliament (the Assisted Human Reproduction Act ) and by guidelines issued by the Tri-Agencies (the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans and Updated Guidelines for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Research ). In so doing, we provide the (...)
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  32. Tina D. Beuchelt & Detlef Virchow (2012). Food Sovereignty or the Human Right to Adequate Food: Which Concept Serves Better as International Development Policy for Global Hunger and Poverty Reduction? [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 29 (2):259-273.score: 196.0
    The emerging concept of food sovereignty refers to the right of communities, peoples, and states to independently determine their own food and agricultural policies. It raises the question of which type of food production, agriculture and rural development should be pursued to guarantee food security for the world population. Social movements and non-governmental organizations have readily integrated the concept into their terminology. The concept is also beginning to find its way into the debates and policies of UN organizations and national (...)
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  33. Don F. Hadwiger (1984). Incorporating Agricultural Policy and Local Government Into the Curriculum. Agriculture and Human Values 1 (2):13-16.score: 189.0
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  34. Brewster Kneen (1999). Restructuring Food for Corporate Profit: The Corporate Genetics of Cargill and Monsanto. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):161-167.score: 186.0
    It is important to talk about corporations as a class, about trade agreements, and about government policy; but without examining specific examples of how real corporations actually shape the world to suit their purposes, we stand little chance of understanding the determinative forces behind government policy and trade agreements, and even less chance of affecting them. This article uses the metaphor of “genetics” (inherent character) to examine two major transnational corporations operating at the extremes of (...)
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  35. David Albert Jones (2012). The “Special Status” of the Human Embryo in the United Kingdom: An Exploration of the Use of Language in Public Policy. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 17 (1):66-83.score: 184.0
    There is an apparent gap between public policy on embryo research in the United Kingdom and its ostensible justification. The rationale is respect for the “special status” of the embryo, but the policy actively promotes research in which embryos are destroyed. Richard Harries argues that this is consistent because, the “special status” of the human embryo is less than the absolute status of persons. However, this intermediate moral status does no evident work in decisions relating to the (...)
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  36. Roger Brownsword, W. R. Cornish & Margaret Llewelyn (eds.) (1998). Law and Human Genetics: Regulating a Revolution. Hart Pub..score: 183.0
    This special issue of the Modern Law Review addresses a range of key issues - conceptual, ethical, political and practical - arising from the regulatory ...
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  37. A. Buchanan & M. C. Kelley (2013). Biodefence and the Production of Knowledge: Rethinking the Problem. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (4):195-204.score: 183.0
    Next SectionBiodefence, broadly understood as efforts to prevent or mitigate the damage of a bioterrorist attack, raises a number of ethical issues, from the allocation of scarce biomedical research and public health funds, to the use of coercion in quarantine and other containment measures in the event of an outbreak. In response to the US bioterrorist attacks following September 11, significant US policy decisions were made to spur scientific enquiry in the name of biodefence. These decisions led to a (...)
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  38. B. M. Meier, K. N. Brugh & Y. Halima (2012). Conceptualizing a Human Right to Prevention in Global HIV/AIDS Policy. Public Health Ethics 5 (3):263-282.score: 183.0
    Given current constraints on universal treatment campaigns, recent advances in public health prevention initiatives have revitalized efforts to stem the tide of HIV transmission. Yet, despite a growing imperative for prevention—supported by the promise of behavioral, structural and biomedical approaches to lower the incidence of HIV—human rights frameworks remain limited in addressing collective prevention policy through global health governance. Assessing the evolution of rights-based approaches to global HIV/AIDS policy, this review finds that human rights have shifted (...)
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  39. Rebecca Evans (2007). Treating Poorly Healed Wounds: Partisan Choices and Human Rights Policies in Latin America. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 8 (3):249-276.score: 180.0
    Despite the common trauma of systematic human rights violations under military rule, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay have responded in markedly different ways to their troubling pasts. This paper explains differences in human rights policies over time and across countries by looking at varying domestic conditions, including the ideological orientation of the governing party and the structure of party competition, as well as constraints and opportunities presented by external events. Government support for human rights derives in part (...)
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  40. Poul Wisborg (2013). Human Rights Against Land Grabbing? A Reflection on Norms, Policies, and Power. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1199-1222.score: 179.0
    Large-scale transnational land acquisition of agricultural land in the global south by rich corporations or countries raises challenging normative questions. In this article, the author critically examines and advocates a human rights approach to these questions. Mutually reinforcing, policies, governance and practice promote equitable and secure land tenure that in turn, strengthens other human rights, such as to employment, livelihood and food. Human rights therefore provide standards for evaluating processes and outcomes of transnational land acquisitions and, thus, (...)
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  41. Luciano Kay (2012). Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Innovation Prizes as a Government Policy Instrument. Minerva 50 (2):191-196.score: 174.0
    Inducement prizes have been long used to stimulate individuals and groups to accomplish diverse goals. Lately, governments have become more and more interested in these prizes and sought to include this kind of incentives within the set of policy tools available to promote science, technology, and innovation. To date, however, there has been little empirically-based scientific knowledge on how to design, manage, and evaluate innovation prizes. This note discusses aspects of the prize phenomenon and the opportunities and challenges related (...)
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  42. Steen Vallentin (2013). Governmentalities of CSR: Danish Government Policy as a Reflection of Political Difference. Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.score: 174.0
    This paper investigates the roles that Danish government has played in the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Denmark has emerged as a first mover among the Scandinavian countries when it comes to CSR. We argue that government has played a pivotal role in making this happen, and that this reflects strong traditions of regulation, corporatism and active state involvement. However, there is no unitary “Danish model of CSR” being promoted by government. Although Danish society is often (...)
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  43. Human Genetics Commission (2003). Human Genetics Commission Calls for Tougher Rules on Use and Storage of Genetic Data. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 9 (1):3.score: 174.0
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  44. Paula Boddington & Susan Hogben (2006). Working Up Policy: The Use of Specific Disease Exemplars in Formulating General Principles Governing Childhood Genetic Testing. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 14 (1):1-13.score: 171.0
    Non-therapeutic genetic testing in childhood presents a “myriad of ethical questions”; questions which are discussed and resolved in professional policy and position statements. In this paper we consider an underdiscussed but strongly influential feature of policy-making, the role of selective case and exemplar in the production of general recommendations. Our analysis, in the tradition of rhetoric and argumentation, examines the predominate use of three particular disease exemplar (Huntington’s disease, Tay-Sachs disease and sickle cell disease) to argue for or (...)
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  45. Laura Jeanine Morris Stark (2012). Behind Closed Doors: Irbs and the Making of Ethical Research. The University of Chicago Press.score: 171.0
    IRBs in action -- Everyone's an expert? Warrants for expertise -- Local precedents -- Documents and deliberations: an anticipatory perspective -- Setting IRBs in motion in Cold War America -- An ethics of place -- The many forms of consent -- Deflecting responsibility -- Conclusion: the making of ethical research.
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  46. A. R. Holder (1993). Medical Insurance Payments and Patients Involved in Research. Irb 16 (1-2):19-22.score: 171.0
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  47. Peter Cope & John I'Anson (2003). Forms of Exchange: Education, Economics and the Neglect of Social Contingency. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (3):219 - 232.score: 166.5
    Economics is privileged in contemporary government policy such that all human transactions are seen as economic forms of exchange. Education has been discursively restructured according to the logic of the market, with education policy being increasingly colonised by economic policy imperatives. This paper explores some of the consequences of this reframing which draws upon metaphors from industrial and business domains. This paper examines a significant dimension of teaching that currently has marginal presence in official discourse: (...)
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  48. Pragna Patel (2008). Faith in the State? Asian Women's Struggles for Human Rights in the U.K. Feminist Legal Studies 16 (1):9-36.score: 166.5
    The discourse of multiculturalism provides a useful means of understanding the complexities, tensions, and dilemmas that Asian and other minority women in the U.K. grapple with in their quest for human rights. However, the adoption of multiculturalist approaches has also silenced women’s voices, obscuring, for example, the role of the family in gendered violence and abuse. Focusing on the work of Southall Black Sisters, and locating this work within current debates on the intersection of government policy, cultural (...)
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  49. Mark J. Miller & Gabriela Wasileski (2011). An Underappreciated Dimension of Human Trafficking: Battered and Trafficked Women and Public Policy. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 12 (3):301-314.score: 162.0
    Both domestic violence and trafficking in humans pose serious problems worldwide. However, there are differences in the ways in which battered immigrant women and trafficked immigrant women are responded to by governmental agencies in Greece and in the USA. Trafficking in humans has been securitized, that is, framed as an issue linked to international security risk. As such, countries that do not take legal action to stop human trafficking could face US sanctions such as loss of United States military (...)
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  50. C. D. Godwin (2002). Government Policy and the Provision of Teachers. British Journal of Educational Studies 50 (1):76 - 99.score: 159.0
    The introduction of mass public education posed unfamiliar problems for the governments of modern states, and the ways in which governments worked through those problems can reveal much about the culture and values of a state. This paper focuses on central Government officials and the Ministers they advised, with particular attention to the pivotal period 1960-1976. Trends identified include: the shift from post-War optimism to the more pessimistic view of schooling since the late 1960s; the dynamics of professional development (...)
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