Search results for 'Human genetics Government policy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    Social Policy (1999). Human Needs, Consumption, and Social Policy. Economics and Philosophy 15:187-208.
    From its early origins to the present, the development of mainstream economic theory has taken a direction which has excluded the analysis of human needs as a basis for social policy. The problems associated with this orientation are increasingly recognized both by economists and non-economists. As Sen (1985) points out, it is indeed strange for a discipline concerned with the well-being of people to neglect the question of needs. Currently, some writers such as Doyal and Gough (1991), post-Keynesian (...)
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  2.  9
    Mavis Jones (2004). Policy Legitimation, Expert Advice, and Objectivity: 'Opening' the UK Governance Framework for Human Genetics. Social Epistemology 18 (2 & 3):247 – 270.
    In response to political pressures arising from controversial science policy decisions, the United Kingdom (UK) government conducted a review of its biotechnology governance framework in 1999, identifying best practices of open government and creating strategic bodies to adopt them. Drawing from empirical data on the context and nature of the open government framework, this paper argues that the framework may be interpreted as elasticizing objectivity. Value-neutral scientific objectivity is essentially 'stretched' into a pluralist objectivity that purports (...)
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  3.  11
    G. Anderson & M. V. Rorty (2001). Key Points for Developing an International Declaration on Nursing, Human Rights, Human Genetics and Public Health Policy. Nursing Ethics 8 (3):259-271.
    Human rights legislation pertaining to applications of human genetic science is still lacking at an international level. Three international human rights documents now serve as guidelines for countries wishing to develop such legislation. These were drafted and adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the Human Genome Organization, and the Council of Europe. It is critically important that the international nursing community makes known its philosophy and practice-based knowledge relating to ethics and (...) rights, and contributes to the globalization of genetics. Nurses have particular expertise because they serve in a unique role at grass roots level to mediate between genetic science and its application to public health policies and medical interventions. As a result, nurses worldwide need to focus a constant eye on human rights ideals and interpret these within social, cultural, economic and political contexts at national and local levels. The purpose of this article is to clarify and legitimate the need for an international declaration on nursing, human rights, human genetics and public health policy. Because nurses around the world are the professional workforce by which genetic health care services and genetic research protocols will be delivered in the twenty-first century, members of the discipline of nursing need to think globally while acting locally. Above all other disciplines involved in genetics, nursing is in a good position to articulate an expanded theory of ethics beyond the principled approach of biomedical ethics. Nursing is sensitive to cultural diversity and community values; it is sympathetic to and can introduce an ethic of caring and relational ethics that listen to and accommodate the needs of local people and their requirements for public health. (shrink)
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  4.  13
    Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner (ed.) (2009). Human Genetic Biobanks in Asia: Politics of Trust and Scientific Advancement. Routledge.
    This volume investigates human genetic biobanking and its regulation in various Asian countries and areas, including Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, ...
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  5.  14
    Alexander H. Leighton (1948). Human Nature and Government Policy. Philosophical Review 57 (1):27-38.
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  6.  9
    Sheila Faith Weiss (2006). Human Genetics and Politics as Mutually Beneficial Resources: The Case of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics During the Third Reich. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (1):41 - 88.
    This essay analyzes one of Germany's former premier research institutions for biomedical research, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics (KWIA) as a test case for the way in which politics and human heredity served as resources for each other during the Third Reich. Examining the KWIA from this perspective brings us a step closer to answering the questions at the heart of most recent scholarship concerning the biomedical community under the swastika: (1) How do (...)
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  7.  23
    Antonio Marturano & Ruth Chadwick (2004). How the Role of Computing is Driving New Genetics' Public Policy. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):43-53.
    In this paper we will examine some ethical aspects of the role that computers and computing increasingly play in new genetics. Our claim is that there is no new genetics without computer science. Computer science is important for the new genetics on two levels: from a theoretical perspective, and from the point of view of geneticists practice. With respect to , the new genetics is fully impregnate with concepts that are basic for computer science. Regarding , (...)
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  8. David B. Resnik (2000). The Moral Significance of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in Human Genetics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (3):365-377.
    The therapy-enhancement distinction occupies a central place in contemporary discussions of human genetics and has been the subject of much debate. At a recent conference on gene therapy policy, scientists predicted that within a few years researchers will develop techniques that can be used to enhance human traits. In thinking about the morality of genetic interventions, many writers have defended somatic gene therapy, and some have defended germline gene therapy, but only a handful of writers defend (...)
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  9.  14
    Jonathan R. Macey (2006). Government as Investor: Tax Policy and the State. Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):255-286.
    This article analogizes the state, in its role as tax collector, to that of an investor, or to be more precise, that of a residual claimant on the earnings of all of the people and firms subject to the taxing power of the state. The relationship between modern democracy and its citizens would be strengthened if this analogy were more widely acknowledged because it recognizes citizen-taxpayers as contracting partners with the state. Unlike other libertarian conceptions of the state's taxing authority, (...)
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  10.  2
    T. Caulfield (2004). Law and Policy in the Era of Reproductive Genetics. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (4):414-417.
    The extent to which society utilises the law to enforce its moral judgments remains a dominant issue in this era of embryonic stem cell research, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and human reproductive cloning. Balancing the potential health benefits and diverse moral values of society can be a tremendous challenge. In this context, governments often adopt legislative bans and prohibitions and rely on the inflexible and often inappropriate tool of criminal law. Legal prohibitions in the field of reproductive genetics are (...)
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  11.  4
    Thomas A. Faunce (2007). Nanotechnology in Global Medicine and Human Biosecurity: Private Interests, Policy Dilemmas, and the Calibration of Public Health Law. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 35 (4):629-642.
    This paper considers how best to approach dilemmas posed to global health and biosecurity policy by increasing advances in practical applications of nanotechnology. The type of nano-technology policy dilemmas discussed include: expenditure of public funds, public-funded research priorities, public confidence in government and science and, finally, public safety. The article examines the value in this context of a legal obligation that the development of relevant public health law be calibrated against less corporate-infuenced norms issuing from bioethics and (...)
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  12.  13
    Christian Byk (1992). The Human Genome Project and the Social Contract: A Law Policy Approach. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (4):371-380.
    For the first time in history, genetics will enable science to completely identify each human as genetically unique. Will this knowledge reinforce the trend for more individual liberties or will it create a ‘brave new world’? A law policy approach to the problems raised by the human genome project shows how far our democratic institutions are from being the proper forum to discuss such issues. Because of the fears and anxiety raised in the population, and also (...)
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  13.  12
    Michael Lane, Indigenous Peoples Tribal Self Government: Legal History and Public Policy Manifestations in Canada, New Zealand and the United States.
    Contemporary notions of what constitutes tribal self government for Indigenous Peoples in the legal systems of the nation-states Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America have their origins in philosophies and theories developed by European nation-states generally, in relation to their colonial expansion into what is now called the Americas. This thesis examines the nature of these theories, and how they have formed the basis for legal precedent and public policy in the three nation-states. A representative (...)
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  14.  41
    Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.) (2006). Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body as an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner.
    Mit Beitragen von: Wolfgang U. Eckart, Christian Bonah, Wolfgang U. Eckart / Andreas Reuland, Alexander Neumann, Peter Steinkamp, Volker Roelcke, Anne ...
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  15.  14
    David A. Cleveland, Fred Bowannie Jr, Donald F. Eriacho, Andrew Laahty & Eric Perramond (1995). Zuni Farming and United States Government Policy: The Politics of Biological and Cultural Diversity in Agriculture. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (3):2-18.
    Indigenous Zuni farming, including cultural values, ecological and biological diversity, and land distribution and tenure, appears to have been quite productive and sustainable for at least 2000 before United States influence began in the later half of the 18th century. United States Government Indian agriculture policy has been based on assimilation of Indians and taking of their resources, and continues in more subtle ways today. At Zuni this policy has resulted in the degradation and loss of natural (...)
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  16. Anne Cottebrune (2006). The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Found) and the "Backwardness" of German Human Genetics After World War II : Scientific Controversy Over a Proposal for Sponsoring the Discipline. In Wolfgang Uwe Eckart (ed.), Man, Medicine, and the State: The Human Body As an Object of Government Sponsored Medical Research in the 20th Century. Steiner
     
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  17.  4
    Elisa Eiseman (2003). The National Bioethics Advisory Commission: Contributing to Public Policy. Rand.
    Details goverment, private, and international response to the policy recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
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  18.  9
    Melinda Gormley (2009). Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33 - 72.
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's primary concern (...)
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  19. Barbara Allen (ed.) (2010). The Quest to Understand Human Affairs: Natural Resources Policy and Essays on Community and Collective Choice. Lexington Books.
    The Quest to Understand Human Affairs presents fifty previously unpublished essays by Vincent Ostrom on the U.S. Government's environmental problems and resource governance and span the six decades of Ostrom's career in political science and public administration. Including everything from a 1947 essay on Western issues in national politics to ending with a 2004 manuscript on Constitutional foundations and federal institutional forms, these essays examine significant developments in administration, constitutional design, and the evolution of theory and practice in (...)
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  20.  89
    Walter Glannon (2001). Genes and Future People: Philosophical Issues in Human Genetics. Westview Press.
    Advances in genetic technology in general and medical genetics in particular will enable us to intervene in the process of human biological development which extends from zygotes and embryos to people. This will allow us to control to a great extent the identities and the length and quality of the lives of people who already exist, as well as those we bring into existence in the near and distant future. Genes and Future People explores two general philosophical questions, (...)
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  21. Zuni Farming (1995). United States Government Policy: The Politics of Cultural and Biological Diversity. Agriculture and Human Values 12:2-18.
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  22.  1
    D. Schroeder & J. Lucas (eds.) (2013). Benefit Sharing From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer.
    After setting out the legal, ethical and conceptual frameworks for benefit sharing, this collection analyses seven historical cases to identify the ethical and policy challenges that arise in relation to benefit sharing.
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  23.  21
    Graham Riches (1999). Advancing the Human Right to Food in Canada: Social Policy and the Politics of Hunger, Welfare, and Food Security. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):203-211.
    This article argues that hunger in Canada, while being an outcome of unemployment, low incomes, and inadequate welfare, springs also from the failure to recognize and implement the human right to food. Food security has, however, largely been ignored by progressive social policy analysis. Barriers standing in the way of achieving food security include the increasing commodification of welfare and the corporatization of food, the depoliticization of hunger by governments and the voluntary sector, and, most particularly, the neglect (...)
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  24.  47
    Bruno S. Frey & Jana Gallus (2013). Subjective Well-Being and Policy. Topoi 32 (2):207-212.
    This paper analyses whether the aggregation of individual happiness scores to a National Happiness Index can still be trusted once governments have proclaimed their main objective to be the pursuit—or even maximization—of this National Happiness Index. The answer to this investigation is clear-cut: as soon as the National Happiness Index has become a policy goal, it can no longer be trusted to reflect people’s true happiness. Rather, the Index will be systematically distorted due to the incentive for citizens to (...)
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  25.  6
    David B. Resnik (2009). Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 17 (3):261-276.
    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political (...)
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  26.  4
    John Dietrich & Caitlyn Witkowski (2012). Obama's Human Rights Policy: Déjà Vu with a Twist. Human Rights Review 13 (1):39-64.
    In US history, much human rights policy developed in four waves during the twentieth century. These waves were triggered by similar circumstances, but all proved short-lived as structural constraints such as limited US power over other countries’ domestic actions, competing US policy priorities, a US hesitance to join multilateral institutions, and the continued domestic political weakness of human rights advocates led to setbacks. As Barack Obama took office, his campaign comments and the past patterns led to (...)
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  27.  4
    Federico Merke & Gino Pauselli (2013). Foreign Policy and Human Rights Advocacy: An Exercise in Measurement and Explanation. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 14 (2):131-155.
    This article addresses three questions: How can we define and measure what constitutes a foreign policy in human rights? How is it possible to explain both the activism of a state and its ideological orientation in the international promotion of human rights? What is the empirical evidence found when we try to answer these questions in intermediate states? Research done on four cases (Argentina, Australia, Brazil and South Africa) suggests a correlation between domestic efforts in the promotion (...)
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  28.  8
    Benjamin Mason Meier, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Georgia Kayser, Urooj Amjad & Jamie Bartram (2014). Translating the Human Right to Water and Sanitation Into Public Policy Reform. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (4):1-16.
    The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through forty-three interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations, this research examines interpretations of this new human right in global governance, national policy, and local practice. Exploring obstacles to the implementation of rights-based water and sanitation policy, the authors analyze the limitations of translating international (...)
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  29.  31
    Inmaculada de Melo-martín (2011). Human Dignity in International Policy Documents: A Useful Criterion for Public Policy? Bioethics 25 (1):37-45.
    Current developments in biomedicine are presenting us with difficult ethical decisions and raising complex policy questions about how to regulate these new developments. Particularly vexing for governments have been issues related to human embryo experimentation. Because some of the most promising biomedical developments, such as stem cell research and nuclear somatic transfer, involve such experimentation, several international bodies have drafted documents aimed to provide guidance to governments when developing biomedical science policy. Here I focus on two such (...)
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  30.  44
    Paolo Silvestri & Paolo Heritier (eds.) (2012). Good Government, Governance and Human Complexity. Luigi Einaudi’s Legacy and Contemporary Society. Olschki.
    The book presents an interdisciplinary exploration aimed at renewing interest in Luigi Einaudi’s search for “good government”, broadly understood as “good society”. Prompted by the Einaudian quest, the essays - exploring philosophy of law, economics, politics and epistemology - develop the issue of good government in several forms, including the relationship between public and private, public governance, the question of freedom and the complexity of the human in contemporary societies.
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  31. Henry David Aiken, Bruce Hilton, the Life Sciences John E. Fogarty International Center for Advanced Study in the Health Sciences & Ethics Institute of Society (1973). Ethical Issues in Human Genetics: Genetic Counseling and the Use of Genetic Knowledge. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  32.  3
    Don F. Hadwiger (1984). Incorporating Agricultural Policy and Local Government Into the Curriculum. Agriculture and Human Values 1 (2):13-16.
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  33.  5
    Jonathan D. Moreno (2003). Human Experiments and National Security: The Need to Clarify Policy. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (2):192-195.
    On September 4, 2001, press reports indicated that the Defense Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense planned to reproduce a strain of anthrax virus suspected of being held in Russian laboratories. According to the same reports, the Central Intelligence Agency, under the auspices of Project Clear Vision, is engaged in building replicas of bomblets believed to have been developed by the former Soviet Union. These small bombs were designed to disperse biological agents, including anthrax. Government attorneys were (...)
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  34.  6
    Brewster Kneen (1999). Restructuring Food for Corporate Profit: The Corporate Genetics of Cargill and Monsanto. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (2):161-167.
    It is important to talk about corporations as a class, about trade agreements, and about government policy; but without examining specific examples of how real corporations actually shape the world to suit their purposes, we stand little chance of understanding the determinative forces behind government policy and trade agreements, and even less chance of affecting them. This article uses the metaphor of “genetics” (inherent character) to examine two major transnational corporations operating at the extremes of (...)
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  35.  16
    Roger Brownsword, W. R. Cornish & Margaret Llewelyn (eds.) (1998). Law and Human Genetics: Regulating a Revolution. Hart Pub..
    This special issue of the Modern Law Review addresses a range of key issues - conceptual, ethical, political and practical - arising from the regulatory ...
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  36.  5
    A. R. Holder (1993). Medical Insurance Payments and Patients Involved in Research. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 16 (1-2):19-22.
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  37.  6
    Steen Vallentin (2013). Governmentalities of CSR: Danish Government Policy as a Reflection of Political Difference. Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):1-15.
    This paper investigates the roles that Danish government has played in the development of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Denmark has emerged as a first mover among the Scandinavian countries when it comes to CSR. We argue that government has played a pivotal role in making this happen, and that this reflects strong traditions of regulation, corporatism and active state involvement. However, there is no unitary “Danish model of CSR” being promoted by government. Although Danish society is often (...)
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  38. Evan Fales, Susan C. Lawrence & Robert F. Weir (1994). Genes and Human Self-Knowledge Historical and Philosophical Reflections on Modern Genetics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  39.  5
    Luciano Kay (2012). Opportunities and Challenges in the Use of Innovation Prizes as a Government Policy Instrument. Minerva 50 (2):191-196.
    Inducement prizes have been long used to stimulate individuals and groups to accomplish diverse goals. Lately, governments have become more and more interested in these prizes and sought to include this kind of incentives within the set of policy tools available to promote science, technology, and innovation. To date, however, there has been little empirically-based scientific knowledge on how to design, manage, and evaluate innovation prizes. This note discusses aspects of the prize phenomenon and the opportunities and challenges related (...)
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  40.  7
    Laura Jeanine Morris Stark (2012). Behind Closed Doors: Irbs and the Making of Ethical Research. The University of Chicago Press.
    IRBs in action -- Everyone's an expert? Warrants for expertise -- Local precedents -- Documents and deliberations: an anticipatory perspective -- Setting IRBs in motion in Cold War America -- An ethics of place -- The many forms of consent -- Deflecting responsibility -- Conclusion: the making of ethical research.
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  41.  1
    Human Genetics Commission (2003). Human Genetics Commission Calls for Tougher Rules on Use and Storage of Genetic Data. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 9 (1):3.
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  42.  12
    Peter Cope & John I'Anson (2003). Forms of Exchange: Education, Economics and the Neglect of Social Contingency. British Journal of Educational Studies 51 (3):219 - 232.
    Economics is privileged in contemporary government policy such that all human transactions are seen as economic forms of exchange. Education has been discursively restructured according to the logic of the market, with education policy being increasingly colonised by economic policy imperatives. This paper explores some of the consequences of this reframing which draws upon metaphors from industrial and business domains. This paper examines a significant dimension of teaching that currently has marginal presence in official discourse: (...)
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  43. Ted Peters (1997). Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom. Routledge.
    Since the original publication of _Playing God?_ in 1996, three developments in genetic technology have moved to the center of the public conversation about the ethics of human bioengineering. Cloning, the completion of the human genome project, and, most recently, the controversy over stem cell research have all sparked lively debates among religious thinkers and the makers of public policy. In this updated edition, Ted Peters illuminates the key issues in these debates and continues to make deft (...)
     
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  44. Adam Briggle (ed.) (2010). A Rich Bioethics: Public Policy, Biotechnology, and the Kass Council. University of Notre Dame Press.
    Several presidents have created bioethics councils to advise their administrations on the importance, meaning and possible implementation or regulation of rapidly developing biomedical technologies. From 2001 to 2005, the President's Council on Bioethics, created by President George W. Bush, was under the leadership of Leon Kass. The Kass Council, as it was known, undertook what Adam Briggle describes as a more rich understanding of its task than that of previous councils. The council sought to understand what it means to advance (...)
     
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  45.  18
    Antoinette Rouvroy (2008). Human Genes and Neoliberal Governance: A Foucauldian Critique. Routledge-Cavendish.
    The production of genetic knowledge -- Scientific and economic strength of genetic reductionism -- Policy implications : discourses of genetic enlightenment as new disciplinary devices -- Genetic conceptualizations of normality and the idea of genetic justice -- Beyond genetic universality and authenticity, the lure of the genetic underclass -- Previews of the future as background -- Economic and actuarial perspective on genetics and insurance -- Practical and normative arguments against genetic exceptionalist legislation -- The changing social role of (...)
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  46.  5
    M. Mwagiru (2010). Re-Inventing the Future: Linkages Between Human Rights, Foreign Policy and Regional Integration. Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya 1 (2):73-86.
    This paper raises questions concerning the emerging trends of regional and international relations. In this endeavour, it examines new insights from traditional perspectives. The paper explores the outer contours of the conceptual linkages between human rights, foreign policy and regional integration in the East African context. Its central argument is that the major debates in the discipline of international relations a re ultimatelycontroversies about its theoretical basis.
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  47.  7
    Jay Joseph (2011). A Human Genetics Parable. Journal of Mind and Behavior 32 (3):209.
    Human genetics research appears to be approaching a period of re-examination due to the decades-long failure of molecular genetic research to uncover the genes presumed to underlie psychiatric disorders, psychological traits, and some common medical conditions. As currently dominant theories of genetic causation come more into question, we will see a renewed interest in reassessing the potential roles of genes and environment in these areas. To illustrate the potentially harmful and diversionary impact of emphasizing genetics over the (...)
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  48.  6
    Mark J. Miller & Gabriela Wasileski (2011). An Underappreciated Dimension of Human Trafficking: Battered and Trafficked Women and Public Policy. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 12 (3):301-314.
    Both domestic violence and trafficking in humans pose serious problems worldwide. However, there are differences in the ways in which battered immigrant women and trafficked immigrant women are responded to by governmental agencies in Greece and in the USA. Trafficking in humans has been securitized, that is, framed as an issue linked to international security risk. As such, countries that do not take legal action to stop human trafficking could face US sanctions such as loss of United States military (...)
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  49. Ludger Honnefelder (2001). Bioethics and Human Genetics: Consensus Formation in Europe. Etica E Politica 3 (1).
    Mankind is nowadays faced with many different challenges brought about by the exploration of the molecular basis of heredity. Many entwined questions arise: is genetic knowledge relevant to the comprehension of nature in general and of man’s vision of himself in particular? Faced with the new possibilities of insight and intervention in human genom, how should we conceive nature ? Modern molecular biology has demonstrated that our genetic patrimony must not be considered throughly and completely determined; on the contrary (...)
     
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  50. Ricki Lewis (2017). Human Genetics: The Basics. Routledge.
    Human genetics has blossomed from an obscure biological science and explanation for rare disorders to a field that is profoundly altering health care for everyone. This thoroughly updated new edition of _Human Genetics: The Basics_ provides a concise background of gene structure and function through the lens of real examples, from families living with inherited diseases to population-wide efforts in which millions of average people are learning about their genetic selves. The book raises compelling issues concerning: • (...)
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