Search results for 'Human information processing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Max Velmans (1991). Is Human Information Processing Conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):651-69.score: 444.0
    Investigations of the function of consciousness in human information processing have focused mainly on two questions: (1) where does consciousness enter into the information processing sequence and (2) how does conscious processing differ from preconscious and unconscious processing. Input analysis is thought to be initially "preconscious," "pre-attentive," fast, involuntary, and automatic. This is followed by "conscious," "focal-attentive" analysis which is relatively slow, voluntary, and flexible. It is thought that simple, familiar stimuli can be (...)
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  2. Andrew Howes, Richard L. Lewis & Satinder Singh (2014). Utility Maximization and Bounds on Human Information Processing. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):198-203.score: 357.0
    Utility maximization is a key element of a number of theoretical approaches to explaining human behavior. Among these approaches are rational analysis, ideal observer theory, and signal detection theory. While some examples of these approaches define the utility maximization problem with little reference to the bounds imposed by the organism, others start with, and emphasize approaches in which bounds imposed by the information processing architecture are considered as an explicit part of the utility maximization problem. These latter (...)
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  3. George E. Briggs & James M. Swanson (1970). Encoding, Decoding, and Central Functions in Human Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):296.score: 354.0
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  4. John D. Williams (1971). Memory Ensemble Selection in Human Information Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):231.score: 354.0
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  5. Kathleen R. Gibson (2012). Human Tool-Making Capacities Reflect Increased Information-Processing Capacities: Continuity Resides in the Eyes of the Beholder. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):225-226.score: 348.0
    Chimpanzee/human technological differences are vast, reflect multiple interacting behavioral processes, and may result from the increased information-processing and hierarchical mental constructional capacities of the human brain. Therefore, advanced social, technical, and communicative capacities probably evolved together in concert with increasing brain size. Interpretations of these evolutionary and species differences as continuities or discontinuities reflect differing scientific perspectives.
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  6. Irving Biederman (1972). Human Performance in Contingent Information-Processing Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):219.score: 345.0
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  7. Shigenobu Kanba Toshihiko Maekawa, Satomi Katsuki, Junji Kishimoto, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Katsuya Ogata, Takao Yamasaki, Takefumi Ueno, Shozo Tobimatsu (2013). Altered Visual Information Processing Systems in Bipolar Disorder: Evidence From Visual MMN and P3. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 306.0
    Objective: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 are unique ERP components that provide objective indices of human cognitive functions such as short-term memory and prediction. Bipolar disorder (BD) is an endogenous psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme shifts in mood, energy, and ability to function socially. BD patients usually show cognitive dysfunction, and the goal of this study was to access their altered visual information processing via visual MMN (vMMN) and P3 using windmill pattern stimuli. Methods: Twenty patients with (...)
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  8. Susan C. Johnson & Frances S. Chen (2011). Socioemotional Information Processing in Human Infants: From Genes to Subjective Construals. Emotion Review 3 (2):169-178.score: 303.0
    This article examines infant attachment styles from the perspective of cognitive and emotional subjectivity. We review new data that show that individual differences in infants’ attachment behaviors in the traditional Strange Situation are related to (a) infants’ subjective construals of infant—caregiver interactions, (b) their attention to emotional expressions, and (c) polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We use these findings to argue that individual differences in infants’ attachment styles reflect, in part, the subjective outcomes of objective experience as filtered (...)
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  9. Hagen Lindstädt (2001). More Nonconcavities in Information Processing Functions. Theory and Decision 51 (2/4):351-365.score: 300.0
    The productivity of (human) information processing as an economic activity is a question that is raising some interest. Using Marschak's evaluation framework, Radner and Stiglitz have shown that, under certain conditions, the production function of this activity has increasing marginal returns in its initial stage. This paper shows that, under slightly different conditions, this information processing function has repeated convexities with ongoing processing activity. Even for smooth changes in the signals' likelihoods, the function is (...)
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  10. Gerald Heidegger (1992). Machines, Computers, Dialectics: A New Look at Human Intelligence. [REVIEW] AI and Society 6 (1):27-40.score: 297.0
    The more recent computer developments cause us to take a new look at human intelligence. The prevailing occidental view of human intelligence represents a very one-sided, logocentric approach, so that it is becoming more urgent to look for a more complete view. In this way, specific strengths of so-called human information processing are becoming particularly evident in a new way. To provide a general substantiation for this view, some elements of a phenomenological model for a (...)
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  11. Raul Kompass (2004). Universal Temporal Structures in Human Information Processing: A Neural Principle and Psychophysical Evidence. In Christian Kaernbach, Erich Schroger & Hermann Müller (eds.), Psychophysics Beyond Sensation: Laws and Invariants of Human Cognition. Psychology Press. 451--480.score: 279.0
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  12. Richard M. Shiffrin & Walter E. Schneider (1977). Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: Perceptual Learning, Automatic Attending, and a General Theory. Psychological Review 84:128-90.score: 270.0
  13. Serences John (2012). Attention and the Efficiency of Information Processing in Human Visual Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 270.0
  14. Dale Dagenbach (1991). On the Premature Demise of Causal Functions for Consciousness in Human Information Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):675.score: 270.0
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  15. W. Trammell Neill (1993). Consciousness, Not Focal Attention, is Causally Effective in Human Information Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):406.score: 270.0
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  16. Enoch Callaway (1985). Event-Related Potentials and the Biology of Human Information Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (2):223-224.score: 270.0
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  17. T. H. Carr (1979). Consciousness in Models of Human Information Processing: Primary Memory, Executive Control, and Input Regulation. In G. Underwood & R. Stevens (eds.), Aspects of Consciousness, Volume 1. Academic Press.score: 270.0
  18. Richard E. Mayer & Russell Revlin (1978). An Information Processing Framework for Research on Human Reasoning. In Russell Revlin & Richard E. Mayer (eds.), Human Reasoning. Distributed Solely by Halsted Press.score: 270.0
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  19. Donald A. Norman & David E. Rumelhart (1981). The LNR Approach to Human Information Processing. Cognition 10 (1-3):235-240.score: 270.0
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  20. Walter E. Schneider & Richard M. Shiffrin (1977). Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: I. Detection, Search, and Attention. Psychological Review 84:1-66.score: 270.0
     
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  21. Saul Sternberg (1979). Sensory Variables and Stages of Human Information Processing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (2):282-283.score: 270.0
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  22. Doug Roberts-Wolfe, Matthew Sacchet, Elizabeth Hastings, Harold Roth & Willoughby Britton (2012). Mindfulness Training Alters Emotional Memory Recall Compared to Active Controls: Support for an Emotional Information Processing Model of Mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:15.score: 261.0
    Objectives: While mindfulness-based interventions have received widespread application in both clinical and non-clinical populations, the mechanism by which mindfulness meditation improves well-being remains elusive. One possibility is that mindfulness training alters the processing of emotional information, similar to prevailing cognitive models of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of mindfulness training on emotional information processing (i.e. memory) biases in relation to both clinical symptomatology and well-being in comparison to active (...)
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  23. W. Ross Ashby (1968). Information Processing in Everyday Human Activity. Bioscience 18 (3):190-192.score: 261.0
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  24. Michael J. Watkins (1981). Human Memory and the Information-Processing Metaphor. Cognition 10 (1-3):331-336.score: 261.0
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  25. Yuriy A. Belov, Sergiy V. Tkachuk & V. Iamborak Roman (forthcoming). Mathematical and Computer Modelling and Research of Cognitive Processes in Human Brain. Part II. Applying of Computer Toolbox to Modelling of Perception and Recognition of Mental Pattern by the Example of Odor Information Processing, XI-Th International Conference KDS-2005 Proceedings V. 1, FOI-Commerce. [REVIEW] Sophia.score: 261.0
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  26. P. Donovan Gage (1985). Preserved and Impaired Information Processing Systems in Human Bitemporal Amnesiacs and Their Infrahuman Analogues: Role of Hippocampectomy. Journal of Mind and Behavior 6 (4):515-552.score: 261.0
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  27. Pd Gage (1985). Preserved and Impaired Information-Processing Systems in Human Bitemporal Amnesiacs and Their Infrahuman Analogs-Role of Hippocampectomy. Journal of Mind and Behavior 6 (4):515-551.score: 261.0
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  28. Joseph Halpern & Leonard Poon (1971). Human Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effects: An Information Processing Development From Capaldi's Sequential Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):207-227.score: 261.0
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  29. Risto J. Ilmoniemi (1995). Magnetoencephalography-a Tool for Studies of Information Processing the Human Brain. In. In Heinz Lübbig (ed.), The Inverse Problem. Akademie Verlag Und Vch Weinheim. 89--106.score: 261.0
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  30. Markus Kiefer (2012). Executive Control Over Unconscious Cognition: Attentional Sensitization of Unconscious Information Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 261.0
    Unconscious priming is a prototypical example of an automatic process, which is initiated without deliberate intention. Classical theories of automaticity assume that such unconscious automatic processes occur in a purely bottom-up driven fashion independent of attentional control mechanisms. In contrast to these classical theories, our attentional sensitization model of unconscious information processing proposes that unconscious processing is susceptible to attentional top-down control and is only elicited if the cognitive system is configured accordingly. It is assumed that unconscious (...)
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  31. William F. Prokasy & William C. Williams (1979). Information Processing and the Decremental Effect of Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules in Human Conditioning. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 14 (1):57-60.score: 261.0
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  32. Malcolm Acock (1985). Vision: A Computational Investigation Into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information. By David Marr. The Modern Schoolman 62 (2):141-142.score: 243.0
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  33. Peter Walla, Bernd Hufnagl, Johann Lehrner, Dagmar Mayer, Gerald Lindinger, Lüder Deecke & Wilfried Lang (2002). Evidence of Conscious and Subconscious Olfactory Information Processing During Word Encoding: A Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) Study. Cognitive Brain Research 14 (3):309-316.score: 240.0
     
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  34. Stefan Berti Matthias Gamer (2012). P300 Amplitudes in the Concealed Information Test Are Less Affected by Depth of Processing Than Electrodermal Responses. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 225.0
    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) has been used in the laboratory as well as in field applications to detect concealed crime related memories. The presentation of crime relevant details to guilty suspects has been shown to elicit enhanced N200 and P300 amplitudes of the event-related brain potentials as well as greater skin conductance responses (SCRs) as compared to neutral test items. These electrophysiological and electrodermal responses were found to incrementally contribute to the validity of the test, thereby suggesting that (...)
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  35. Max Velmans (ed.) (1996). The Science of Consciousness: Psychological, Neuropsychological, and Clinical Reviews. Routledge.score: 216.0
    Of all the problems facing science none are more challenging yet fascinating than those posed by consciousness. In The Science of Consciousness leading researchers examine how consciousness is being investigated in the key areas of cognitive psychology, neuropsychology and clinical psychology. Within cognitive psychology, special focus is given to the function of consciousness, and to the relation of conscious processing to nonconscious processing in perception, learning, memory and information dissemination. Neuropsychology includes examination of the neural conditions for (...)
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  36. Pascal Vrtička, David Sander & Patrik Vuilleumier (2012). Lateralized Interactive Social Content and Valence Processing Within the Human Amygdala. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:358-358.score: 216.0
    In the past, the amygdala has generally been conceptualized as a fear-processing module. Recently, however, it has been proposed to respond to all stimuli that are relevant with respect to the current needs, goals and values of an individual. This raises the question of whether the human amygdala may differentiate between separate kinds of relevance. A distinction between emotional (vs neutral) and social (vs nonsocial) relevance is supported by previous studies showing that the human amygdala preferentially responds (...)
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  37. N. Pisapia (2012). Unconscious Information Processing in Executive Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:21-21.score: 213.0
    Unconscious information processing in executive control.
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  38. A. Sloman & R. L. Chrisley, More Things Than Are Dreamt of in Your Biology: Information-Processing in Biologically Inspired Robots.score: 213.0
    Animals and robots perceiving and acting in a world require an ontology that accommodates entities, processes, states of affairs, etc., in their environment. If the perceived environment (...)
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  39. Aaron Sloman, Altricial Self-Organising Information-Processing Systems ∗.score: 213.0
    It is often thought that there is one key design principle or at best a small set of design principles, underlying the success of biological organisms. Candidates include neural nets, ‘swarm intelligence’, evolutionary computation, dynamical systems, particular types of architecture or use of a powerful uniform learning mechanism, e.g. reinforcement learning. All of those support types of self-organising, self-modifying behaviours. But we are nowhere near understanding the full variety of powerful information-processing principles ‘discovered’ by evolution. By attending closely (...)
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  40. Shigeko Takahashi & Yoshimichi Ejima (2013). Contextual Information Processing of Brain in Art Appreciation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):158-159.score: 213.0
    A psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation will be an experimental discipline that may shed new light on the highest capacities of the human brain, yielding new scientific ways to talk about the art appreciation. The recent findings of the contextual information processing in the human brain make the concept of the art-historical context clear for empirical experimentation.
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  41. Joseph F. Rychlak (1997). In Defense of Human Consciousness. American Psychological Association.score: 207.0
  42. Colin Kelly, Barry Devereux & Anna Korhonen (2014). Automatic Extraction of Property Norm‐Like Data From Large Text Corpora. Cognitive Science 38 (4):638-682.score: 198.0
    Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car—petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide (...)
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  43. David Martel Johnson & Christina E. Erneling (eds.) (1997). The Future of the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford University Press.score: 198.0
    The basic idea of the particular way of understanding mental phenomena that has inspired the "cognitive revolution" is that, as a result of certain relatively recent intellectual and technological innovations, informed theorists now possess a more powerfully insightful comparison or model for mind than was available to any thinkers in the past. The model in question is that of software, or the list of rules for input, output, and internal transformations by which we determine and control the workings of a (...)
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  44. Alfredo Pereira Jr, Maria AliceOrnellas Pereira & FábioAugusto Furlan (2011). Recent Advances in Brain Physiology and Cognitive Processing. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):183.score: 198.0
    The discovery of participation of astrocytes as active elements in glutamatergic tripartite synapses (composed by functional units of two neurons and one astrocyte) has led to the construction of models of cognitive functioning in the human brain, focusing on associative learning, sensory integration, conscious processing and memory formation/retrieval. We have modelled human cognitive functions by means of an ensemble of functional units (tripartite synapses) connected by gap junctions that link distributed astrocytes, allowing the formation of intra- and (...)
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  45. S. Leeuwen, W. Singer & L. Melloni (2011). Meditation Increases the Depth of Information Processing and Improves the Allocation of Attention in Space. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:133-133.score: 195.0
    During meditation, practitioners are required to center their attention on a specific object for extended periods of time. When their thoughts get diverted, they learn to quickly disengage from the distracter. We hypothesized that learning to respond to the dual demand of engaging attention on specific objects and disengaging quickly from distracters enhances the efficiency by which meditation practitioners can allocate attention. We tested this hypothesis in a global-to-local task while measuring electroencephalographic activity from a group of eight highly trained (...)
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  46. Valérie Goffaux & Steven C. Dakin (2010). Horizontal Information Drives the Behavioral Signatures of Face Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 1:143-143.score: 195.0
    Recent psychophysical evidence indicates that the vertical arrangement of horizontal information is particularly important for encoding facial identity. In this paper we extend this notion to examine the role that information at different (particularly cardinal) orientations might play in a number of established phenomena each a behavioural “signature” of face processing. In particular we consider (a) the face inversion effect (FIE), (b) the facial identity after-effect, (c) face-matching across viewpoint, and (d) interactive, so-called holistic, processing of (...)
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  47. Sara Van Leeuwen, Wolf Singer & Lucia Melloni (2012). Meditation Increases the Depth of Information Processing and Improves the Allocation of Attention in Space. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 195.0
    During meditation, practitioners are required to center their attention on a specific object for extended periods of time. When their thoughts get diverted, they learn to quickly disengage from the distracter. We hypothesized that learning to respond to the dual demand of engaging attention on specific objects and disengaging quickly from distracters enhances the efficiency by which meditation practitioners can allocate attention. We tested this hypothesis in a global-to-local task while measuring electroencephalographic activity from a group of eight highly trained (...)
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  48. William Ramsey, Stephen P. Stich & D. M. Rumelhart (eds.) (1991). Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 189.0
    The philosophy of cognitive science has recently become one of the most exciting and fastest growing domains of philosophical inquiry and analysis. Until the early 1980s, nearly all of the models developed treated cognitive processes -- like problem solving, language comprehension, memory, and higher visual processing -- as rule-governed symbol manipulation. However, this situation has changed dramatically over the last half dozen years. In that period there has been an enormous shift of attention toward connectionist models of cognition that (...)
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  49. Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck (2007). Information Processing as One Key for a Unification? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):40-40.score: 183.0
    The human information-acquisition process is one of the unifying mechanisms of the behavioral sciences. Three examples (from psychology, neuroscience, and political science) demonstrate that through inspection of this process, better understanding and hence more powerful models of human behavior can be built. The target method for this – process tracing – could serve as a central player in this building process of a unified framework. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  50. Masao Itō, Y. Miyashita & Edmund T. Rolls (eds.) (1997). Cognition, Computation, and Consciousness. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
    Understanding consciousness is a truly multidisciplinary project, attracting intense interest from researchers and theorists from diverse backgrounds. Thus, we now have computational scientists, neuroscientists, and philosophers all engaged in the same effort. This book draws together the work of leading researchers around the world, providing insights from these three general perspectives. The work is highlighted by a rare look at work being conducted by Japanese researchers.
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