Search results for 'Humanity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Holly Lawford-Smith (2012). The Motivation Question: Arguments From Justice, and From Humanity. British Journal of Political Science 42:661-678.
    Which of the two dominant arguments for duties to alleviate global poverty, supposing their premises were generally accepted, would be more likely to produce their desired outcome? I take Pogge's argument for obligations grounded in principles of justice, a "contribution" argument, and Campbell's argument for obligations grounded in principles of humanity, an "assistance" argument, to be prototypical. Were people to accept the premises of Campbell's argument, how likely would they be to support governmental reform in policies for international aid, (...)
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  2. Richard Dean (2006). The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. Oxford University Press.
    The humanity formulation of Kant's Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of Kant's moral philosophy leaves them cold. Moreover, some prominent specialists in Kant's ethics have recently turned to the humanity formulation as the most theoretically central and promising principle of Kant's ethics. Nevertheless, it has received less attention (...)
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  3.  35
    N. Ann Davis, Richard Keshen & Jeff McMahan (eds.) (2010). Ethics and Humanity: Themes From the Philosophy of Jonathan Glover. Oxford University Press.
    Ethics and Humanity pays to tribute to Jonathan Glover, a pioneering figure whose thought and personal influence have had a significant impact on applied ...
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  4.  68
    Adam Cureton (2013). A Contractualist Reading of Kant's Proof of the Formula of Humanity. Kantian Review 18 (3):363-386.
    Kant offers the following argument for the formula of humanity (FH): Each rational agent necessarily conceives of her own rational nature as an end in itself and does so on the same grounds as every other rational agent, so all rational agents must conceive of one another's rational nature as an end in itself. As it stands, the argument appears to be question-begging and fallacious. Drawing on resources from the formula of universal law (FUL) and Kant's claims about the (...)
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  5.  47
    Sven Nyholm (2013). On Kant's Idea of Humanity as an End in Itself. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2).
    Writers like Christine Korsgaard and Allen Wood understand Kant's idea of rational nature as an end in itself as a commitment to a substantive value. This makes it hard for them to explain the supposed equivalence between the universal law and humanity formulations of the categorical imperative, since the former does not appear to assert any substantive value. Nor is it easy for defenders of value-based readings to explain Kant's claim that the law-giving nature of practical reason makes all (...)
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  6. James A. Stieb (2007). On “Bettering Humanity” in Science and Engineering Education. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):265-273.
    Authors such as Krishnasamy Selvan argue that “all human endeavors including engineering and science” have a single primary objective: “bettering humanity.” They favor discussing “the history of science and measurement uncertainty.” This paper respectfully disagrees and argues that “human endeavors including engineering and science” should not pursue “bettering humanity” as their primary objective. Instead these efforts should first pursue individual betterment. One cannot better humanity without knowing what that means. However, there is no one unified theory of (...)
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  7.  7
    G. E. R. Lloyd (2012). Being, Humanity, and Understanding: Studies in Ancient and Modern Societies. Oxford University Press.
    Humanity between gods and beasts? -- Error -- Ancient understandings reassessed and the consequences for ontologies -- Language and audiences -- Philosophical implications.
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  8.  15
    Ivana Zagorac (2015). Hume's Humanity and the Protection of the Vulnerable. Diametros 44:189-203.
    It is well known that Hume excluded inferior rational beings, who are incapable of resistance and weak resentment, from his concept of justice. This resulted in a critique of Hume’s theory of justice, as it would not protect those who were the most vulnerable against ill treatment. The typical answer to this critique is that Hume excluded inferior rational beings from the concept of justice, but not from that of morality, and that he considered their protection to be the task (...)
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  9.  32
    Paul Formosa (2014). Dignity and Respect: How to Apply Kant's Formula of Humanity. Philosophical Forum 45 (1):49-68.
    Kant’s Formula of Humanity (FH) is considered by many, Kant included, to be the most intuitively appealing formulation of the categorical imperative. FH tells us that to treat persons with dignity and respect we must always treat them as ends in themselves and never as mere means. One set of issues raised by FH revolves around how FH is to be justified or grounded and how it relates to the other formulations of the categorical imperative. This set of issues, (...)
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  10.  37
    Richard Dean (2013). Humanity as an Idea, as an Ideal, and as an End in Itself. Kantian Review 18 (2):171-195.
    Kant emphasizes that moral philosophy must be divided into two parts, a metaphysics of morals, and an empirical application to individuals, which Kant calls 'moral anthropology'. But Kant gives humanity (die Menschheit) a prominent role even in the purely rational part of ethics – for example, one formulation of the categorical imperative is a demand to treat humanity as an end in itself. This paper argues that the only concepts of humanity suited to play such a role (...)
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  11.  7
    Antoon De Baets (2012). Does Inhumanity Breed Humanity? Investigation of a Paradox. History and Theory 51 (3):451-465.
    ABSTRACTThis essay investigates the thesis that inhumanity breeds humanity. Many questions arise when we try to corroborate it: Can we say anything at all about the inhumanity of human beings? Why did large‐scale inhumanity occurring before 1700 not elicit a human rights regime? Was the human rights take‐off from 1760 to 1800 triggered by instances of inhumanity, and why did the take‐off not last? Why did the human rights idea eclipse after 1800 only to reemerge after 1945? Were war (...)
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  12.  2
    Samuel Kahn (2013). Reconsidering RGV, AA 06: 26n and the Meaning of ‘Humanity’. In Margit Ruffing, Claudio La Rocca, Alfredo Ferrarin & Stefano Bacin (eds.), Kant Und Die Philosophie in Weltbürgerlicher Absicht: Akten des Xi. Kant-Kongresses 2010. De Gruyter 307-316.
    At 6:26n Kant famously (or infamously) claims that humanity and personality are not necessarily coextensional. This claim has been characterized in the secondary literature as Kant's worst mistake and as an unnecessary repudiation of his earlier (and more plausible) ethical thought. I argue that this characterization of 6:26n rests on a misinterpretation of the term `humanity'. I try to show that Kant's claim at 6:26n not only is not problematic; it constitutes a powerful reminder of the kind of (...)
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  13.  31
    Ilana Feldman & Miriam Iris Ticktin (eds.) (2010). In the Name of Humanity: The Government of Threat and Care. Duke University Press.
    "In a complex world where competing groups claim to be speaking on behalf of incommensurate versions of 'humanity, ' the authors represented in "In the Name of ...
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  14.  3
    Steve Fuller (2013). Preparing for Life in Humanity 2. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Philosophy for Humanity 2.0 -- Political economy for Humanity 2.0 -- Anthropology for Humanity 2.0 -- Ethics for Humanity 2.0 -- Epilogue: General education for Humanity 2.0: a focus on the brain.
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  15. Bruce Mazlish (2009). The Idea of Humanity in a Global Era. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The result of a lifetime of research and contemplation on global phenomena, this book explores the idea of humanity in the modern age of globalization. Tracking the idea in the historical, philosophical, legal, and political realms, this is a concise and illuminating look at a concept that has defined the twentieth century.
     
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  16.  25
    Thierry Meynard (ed.) (2006). Teilhard and the Future of Humanity. Fordham University Press.
    Fifty years after his death, the thought of the French scientist and Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) continues to inspire new ways of understanding humanity’s future. Trained as a paleontologist and philosopher, Teilhard was an innovative synthesizer of science and religion, developing an idea of evolution as an unfolding of material and mental worlds into an integrated, holistic universe at what he called the Omega Point. His books, such as the bestselling The Phenomenon of Man, have influenced generations (...)
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  17. Sven Nyholm (2012). On the Universal Law and Humanity Formulas. Dissertation, University of Michigan
    Whereas the universal law formula says to choose one’s basic guiding principles (or “maxims”) on the basis of their fitness to serve as universal laws, the humanity formula says to always treat the humanity in each person as an end, and never as a means only. Commentators and critics have been puzzled by Kant’s claims that these are two alternative statements of the same basic law, and have raised various objections to Kant’s suggestion that these are the most (...)
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  18.  11
    Sven Nyholm (2015). Revisiting Kant's Universal Law and Humanity Formulas. De Gruyter.
    This book offers new readings of Kant’s “universal law” and “humanity” formulations of the categorical imperative. It shows how, on these readings, the formulas do indeed turn out being alternative statements of the same basic moral law, and in the process responds to many of the standard objections raised against Kant’s theory. Its first chapter briefly explores the ways in which Kant draws on his philosophical predecessors such as Plato (and especially Plato’s Republic) and Jean-Jacque Rousseau. The second chapter (...)
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  19. Raymond Tallis (2014). Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity. Routledge.
    In a devastating critique Raymond Tallis exposes the exaggerated claims made for the ability of neuroscience and evolutionary theory to explain human consciousness, behaviour, culture and society. While readily acknowledging the astounding progress neuroscience has made in helping us understand how the brain works, Tallis directs his guns at neuroscience’s dark companion – "Neuromania" as he describes it – the belief that brain activity is not merely a necessary but a sufficient condition for human consciousness and that consequently our everyday (...)
     
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  20. Allen E. Buchanan (2011). Beyond Humanity?: The Ethics of Biomedical Enhancement. Oxford University Press.
    In Beyond Humanity a leading philosopher offers a powerful and controversial exploration of urgent ethical issues concerning human enhancement.
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  21.  5
    Martha C. Nussbaum (2006). Hiding From Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law. Princeton University Press.
    Should laws about sex and pornography be based on social conventions about what is disgusting? Should felons be required to display bumper stickers or wear T-shirts that announce their crimes? This powerful and elegantly written book, by one of America's most influential philosophers, presents a critique of the role that shame and disgust play in our individual and social lives and, in particular, in the law.Martha Nussbaum argues that we should be wary of these emotions because they are associated in (...)
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  22.  59
    Graham Oppy (2010). Nagel on Religion, Politics and Humanity. [REVIEW] Analysis 70 (3):562-567.
    Review of Nagel's book, focusing on the chapters that are specifically concerned with religion.
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  23.  4
    Aimee Bolletino (2008). Crimes Against Humanity in Colombia: The International Criminal Court's Jurisdiction Over the May 2003 Attack on the Betoyes Guahibo Indigenous Reserve and Colombian Accountability. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review 9 (4):491-511.
    The Colombian military and the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) have committed systematic attacks against the Colombian people that violate international law. One such heinous incident took place in May 2003 at the Betoyes Guahibo indigenous reserve in Colombia. Unlike other acts of terror, the attack at the Reserve is well documented. Because of this, the attack on the Reserve is an excellent case for International Criminal Court (ICC) prosecution. This article exposes acts of cruelty and makes a persuasive (...)
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  24.  15
    Zachary Hoskins (2008). Review: The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory - by Richard Dean. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 49 (2):150-152.
  25.  1
    Steven G. Smith (1989). Gender and Humanity. Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (2):67-80.
    This paper presents three theses on the kind of human kinds represented by masculinity and femininity: (1) Genders are taken to be generic realities, (2) complementary kinds of a kind, and (3) normative and valid organizations of intention in community. Analogies are considered between gender and temperament, culture, race, age, and sexual orientation.
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  26.  7
    David Brog (2010). In Defense of Faith: The Judeo-Christian Idea and the Struggle for Humanity. Encounter Books.
    Introduction: The sanctity of life and its discontents -- Our morality : selfish genes and cultural clout -- The Judeo-Christian idea : transcending our selfish genes -- The Judeo-Christian idea against genocide -- The Judeo-Christian idea against slavery -- Falling backwards : the abandonment of the Judeo-Christian idea and the return of genocide and slavery -- The rising : the Judeo-Christian idea in the post-war world -- The myth of biblical immorality -- The myth ofJudeo-Christian atrocities -- The myth of (...)
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  27.  3
    David Cannadine (2013). The Undivided Past: Humanity Beyond Our Differences. Alfred A. Knopf.
    Religion -- Nation -- Class -- Gender -- Race -- Civilization.
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  28. Laura K. Davis & Cristina Santos (eds.) (2010). The Monster Imagined: Humanity's Recreation of Monsters and Monstrosity. Inter-Disciplinary.
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  29. J. Krishnamurti & David Bohm (1986). The Future of Humanity a Conversation. Krishnamurti Foundation India.
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  30. Marshall Marinker (ed.) (2001). Medicine and Humanity. King's Fund.
     
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  31.  15
    Sonia Sikka (2011). Herder on Humanity and Cultural Difference: Enlightened Relativism. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Note on citation style; Abbreviations and works cited by title; Introduction; 1. The question of moral relativism; 2. Happiness and the moral life; 3. History and human destiny; 4. The concept of race; 5. Language and world; 6. The place of reason; 7. Religious diversity; Conclusion; Bibliography; Index.
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  32.  4
    Nicholas Agar (2010). Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement. A Bradford Book.
    Proposals to make us smarter than the greatest geniuses or to add thousands of years to our life spans seem fit only for the spam folder or trash can. And yet this is what contemporary advocates of radical enhancement offer in all seriousness. They present a variety of technologies and therapies that will expand our capacities far beyond what is currently possible for human beings. In _Humanity's End,_ Nicholas Agar argues against radical enhancement, describing its destructive consequences. Agar examines the (...)
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  33. Ryan Preston-Roedder (2013). Faith in Humanity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (3):664-687.
    History and literature provide striking examples of people who are morally admirable, in part, because of their profound faith in people’s decency. But moral philosophers have largely ignored this trait, and I suspect that many philosophers would view such faith with suspicion, dismissing it as a form of naïvete or as some other objectionable form of irrationality. I argue that such suspicion is misplaced, and that having a certain kind of faith in people’s decency, which I call faith in (...), is a centrally important moral virtue. In order to make this view intuitively more plausible, I discuss two moral exemplars – one historical and the other literary – whose lives vividly exhibit such faith. Then I provide a rationale for the view that having such faith is morally admirable. Finally, I discuss cases in which someone’s faith in humanity can lead her to make judgments that are, to some degree, epistemically irrational. I argue that the existence of such cases does not pose a serious objection to the view that having faith in humanity is a moral virtue. Rather, it makes salient important limits on the role that epistemic, as opposed to practical, rationality should occupy in our ideals of how to live. (shrink)
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  34. Larry May (2007). Crimes Against Humanity: A Normative Account. Cambridge University Press.
    This book was the first booklength treatment of the philosophical foundations of international criminal law. The focus is on the moral, legal, and political questions that arise when individuals who commit collective crimes, such as crimes against humanity, are held accountable by international criminal tribunals. These tribunals challenge one of the most sacred prerogatives of states - sovereignty - and breaches to this sovereignty can be justified in limited circumstances, following what the author calls a minimalist account of the (...)
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  35.  27
    Daihyun Chung (2015). The Ubiquity of Humanity and Textuality in Human Experience. Humanities 4 (4):885-904.
    Abstract: The so-called “crisis of the humanities” can be understood in terms of an asymmetry between the natural and social sciences on the one hand and the humanities on the other. While the sciences approach topics related to human experience in quantificational or experimental terms, the humanities turn to ancient, canonical, and other texts in the search for truths about human experience. As each approach has its own unique limitations, it is desirable to overcome or remove the asymmetry between them. (...)
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  36.  18
    Isaiah Berlin (1990/2003). The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas. Pimlico.
    "Out of the crooked timber of humanity, no straight thing was ever made."--Immanuel Kant Isaiah Berlin was one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century--an activist of the intellect who marshaled vast erudition and eloquence in defense of the endangered values of individual liberty and moral and political pluralism. In the Crooked Timber of Humanity he exposes the links between the ideas of the past and the social and political cataclysms of our present century: between the (...)
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  37. Joe Hoover (2013). Towards a Politics for Human Rights: Ambiguous Humanity and Democratizing Rights. Philosophy and Social Criticism 39 (9):0191453713498390.
    Human rights are a suspect project – this seems the only sensible starting point today. This suspicion, however, is not absolute and the desire to preserve and reform human rights persists for many of us. The most important contemporary critiques of human rights focus on the problematic consequences of the desire for universal rights. Some defenders of human rights accept elements of this critique in their reformulations, but opponents remain wary of the desire to think and act in human rights (...)
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  38.  8
    Jochem Zwier, Vincent Blok, Pieter Lemmens & Robert-Jan Geerts (2015). The Ideal of a Zero-Waste Humanity: Philosophical Reflections on the Demand for a Bio-Based Economy. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):353-374.
    In this paper we inquire into the fundamental assumptions that underpin the ideal of the Bio-Based Economy as it is currently developed . By interpreting the BBE from the philosophical perspective on economy developed by Georges Bataille, we demonstrate how the BBE is fully premised on a thinking of scarcity. As a result, the BBE exclusively frames economic problems in terms of efficient production, endeavoring to exclude a thinking of abundance and wastefulness. Our hypothesis is that this not only entails (...)
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  39. Simon Caney (2011). Humanity, Associations and Global Justice: A Defence of Humanity-Centred Cosmopolitan Egalitarianism. The Monist 94 (4):506-534.
    This paper defends an egalitarian conception of global justice against two kinds of criticism. Many who defend egalitarian principles of justice do so on the basis that all humans are part of a common 'association' of some kind. In this paper I defend the humanity-centred approach which holds that persons should be included within the scope of distributive justice simply because they are fellow human beings. The paper has four substantive sections - the first addresses Andrea Sangiovanni's reciprocity-based argument (...)
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  40.  41
    Raimond Gaita (1999/2000). A Common Humanity: Thinking About Love and Truth and Justice. Routledge.
    Powerful and timely, A Common Humanity asks why the language of morality has failed us. Drawing on examples of the Holocaust, the David Irving affair, the case of Mary Bell and the treatment of the Aborigines in Australia, Raimond Gaita challenges our received thinking about evil in this provocative exploration of what makes an ethical society.
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  41. Nicholas Maxwell (2013). Does Philosophy Betray Both Reason and Humanity? The Philosophers' Magazine (62):17-18.
    A bad philosophy of inquiry, built into the intellectual/institutional structure of universities round the world, betrays both reason and humanity.
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  42.  16
    John Stewart (2012). The Future of Life and What It Means for Humanity. Foundations of Science 17 (1):47-50.
    Vidal’s (Found Sci, 2010 ) and Rottiers’s (Found Sci, 2010 ) commentaries on my (2010) paper raised a number of important issues about the possible future trajectory of evolution and its implications for humanity. My response emphasizes that despite the inherent uncertainty involved in extrapolating the trajectory of evolution into the far future, the possibilities it reveals nonetheless have significant strategic implications for what we do with our lives here and now, individually and collectively. One important implication is the (...)
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  43.  6
    Christopher Southgate (1999). God, Humanity and the Cosmos. Http://Www.Meta-Library.Net/Ghc/Index-Frame.Html.
    This fully revised and updated edition of God, Humanity and the Cosmos is an essential companion to the field, with exercises for the student, a comprehensive bibliography, and suggestions for further reading.
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  44.  3
    Douglas Hochstetler & Peter Matthew Hopsicker (2012). The Heights of Humanity: Endurance Sport and the Strenuous Mood. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39 (1):117-135.
    In his article, ?Recovering Humanity: Movement, Sport, and Nature?, Doug Anderson addresses the place of endurance sport, or more generally sport at large, as a potential catalyst for the good life. Anderson contrasts transcendental themes of Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson with the pragmatic claims of William James and John Dewey, who focus on human possibility and growth. Our aim is to pursue the pragmatic line of thought championed by James and Dewey as a contrasting but not (...)
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  45. Dr John R. Skoyles (2008). Why Our Brains Cherish Humanity: Mirror Neurons and Colamus Humanitatem. Cogprints.
    Commonsense says we are isolated. After all, our bodies are physically separate. But Seneca’s colamus humanitatem, and John Donne’s observation that “no man is an island” suggests we are neither entirely isolated nor separate. A recent discovery in neuroscience—that of mirror neurons—argues that the brain and the mind is neither built nor functions remote from what happens in other individuals. What are mirror neurons? They are brain cells that process both what happens to or is done by an individual, and, (...)
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  46. Matthew Caswell (2006). The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (4):635-663.
    Matthew Caswell - The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil - Journal of the History of Philosophy 44:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 44.4 635-663 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents The Value of Humanity and Kant's Conception of Evil Matthew Caswell Recent years have seen the development of a powerful reinterpretation of Kant's basic approach in ethical thought. Kant, it is argued, should not be read as defending the stark, metaphysics-laden formalism for which his (...)
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  47. Drucilla Cornell (2003). Facing Our Humanity. Hypatia 18 (1):170 - 174.
    : This article argues that U.S. aggression against Afghanistan must be challenged through our support of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) and their political program. It does so not only by considering competing judgments about what constitutes women's rights, but also through an appeal to the Kantian ideal of humanity and its relation to how we can re-think both terrorism and the treatment of those accused of terrorist activity.
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  48.  63
    Massimo Renzo (2012). Crimes Against Humanity and the Limits of International Criminal Law. Law and Philosophy 31 (4):443-476.
    Crimes against humanity are supposed to have a collective dimension with respect both to their victims and their perpetrators. According to the orthodox view, these crimes can be committed by individuals against individuals, but only in the context of a widespread or systematic attack against the group to which the victims belong. In this paper I offer a new conception of crimes against humanity and a new justification for their international prosecution. This conception has important implications as to (...)
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  49.  49
    Nicholas Maxwell (2015). How Humanity Might Avoid Devastation. Ethical Record 120 (1):18-23.
    We face grave global problems. One might think universities are doing all they can to help solve these problems. But universities, in successfully pursuing scientific knowledge and technological know-how in a way that is dissociated from a more fundamental concern with problems of living, have actually made possible the genesis of all our current global problems. Modern science and technology have led to modern industry and agriculture, modern medicine and hygiene, modern armaments, which in turn have led to habitat destruction, (...)
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  50. Japa Pallikkathayil (2010). Deriving Morality From Politics: Rethinking the Formula of Humanity. Ethics 121 (1):116-147.
    Kant's Formula of Humanity famously forbids treating others merely as a means. It is unclear, however, what exactly treating someone merely as a means comes to. This essay argues against an interpretation of this idea advanced by Christine Korsgaard and Onora O'Neill. The essay then develops a new interpretation that suggests an important connection between the Formula of Humanity and Kant's political philosophy: the content of many of our moral duties depends on the results of political philosophy and, (...)
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