Search results for 'Hypothesis' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sam Coleman (2009). Why the Ability Hypothesis is Best Forgotten. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (2-3):74-97.score: 24.0
    According to the knowledge argument, physicalism fails because when physically omniscient Mary first sees red, her gain in phenomenal knowledge involves a gain in factual knowledge. Thus not all facts are physical facts. According to the ability hypothesis, the knowledge argument fails because Mary only acquires abilities to imagine, remember and recognise redness, and not new factual knowledge. I argue that reducing Mary’s new knowledge to abilities does not affect the issue of whether she also learns factually: I show (...)
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  2. Yuri Cath (2009). The Ability Hypothesis and the New Knowledge-How. Noûs 43 (1):137-156.score: 24.0
    What follows for the ability hypothesis reply to the knowledge argument if knowledge-how is just a form of knowledge-that? The obvious answer is that the ability hypothesis is false. For the ability hypothesis says that, when Mary sees red for the first time, Frank Jackson’s super-scientist gains only knowledge-how and not knowledge-that. In this paper I argue that this obvious answer is wrong: a version of the ability hypothesis might be true even if knowledge-how is a (...)
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  3. Torin Alter (2001). Know-How, Ability, and the Ability Hypothesis. Theoria 67 (3):229-39.score: 24.0
    David Lewis (1983, 1988) and Laurence Nemirow (1980, 1990) claim that knowing what an experience is like is knowing-how, not knowing-that. They identify this know-how with the abilities to remember, imagine, and recognize experiences, and Lewis labels their view ‘the Ability Hypothesis’. The Ability Hypothesis has intrinsic interest. But Lewis and Nemirow devised it specifically to block certain anti-physicalist arguments due to Thomas Nagel (1974, 1986) and Frank Jackson (1982, 1986). Does it?
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  4. Murat Aydede, Language of Thought Hypothesis: State of the Art.score: 24.0
    The Language of Thought Hypothesis (LOTH) is an empirical thesis about thought and thinking. For their explication, it postulates a physically realized system of representations that have a combinatorial syntax (and semantics) such that operations on representations are causally sensitive only to the syntactic properties of representations. According to LOTH, thought is, roughly, the tokening of a representation that has a syntactic (constituent) structure with an appropriate semantics. Thinking thus consists in syntactic operations defined over representations. Most of the (...)
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  5. William E. S. McNeill (2012). Embodiment and the Perceptual Hypothesis. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (247):569 - 591.score: 24.0
    The Perceptual Hypothesis is that we sometimes see, and thereby have non-inferential knowledge of, others' mental features. The Perceptual Hypothesis opposes Inferentialism, which is the view that our knowledge of others' mental features is always inferential. The claim that some mental features are embodied is the claim that some mental features are realised by states or processes that extend beyond the brain. The view I discuss here is that the Perceptual Hypothesis is plausible if, but only if, (...)
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  6. Bence Nanay (2009). Imagining, Recognizing and Discriminating: Reconsidering the Ability Hypothesis. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (3):699-717.score: 24.0
    According to the Ability Hypothesis, knowing what it is like to have experience E is just having the ability to imagine or recognize or remember having experience E. I examine various versions of the Ability Hypothesis and point out that they all face serious objections. Then I propose a new version that is not vulnerable to these objections: knowing what it is like to experience E is having the ability todiscriminate imagining or having experience E from imagining or (...)
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  7. Gunnar Björnsson (2011). Joint Responsibility Without Individual Control: Applying the Explanation Hypothesis. In Jeroen van den Hoven, Ibo van de Poel & Nicole Vincent (eds.), Compatibilist Responsibility: beyond free will and determinism. Springer.score: 24.0
    This paper introduces a new family of cases where agents are jointly morally responsible for outcomes over which they have no individual control, a family that resists standard ways of understanding outcome responsibility. First, the agents in these cases do not individually facilitate the outcomes and would not seem individually responsible for them if the other agents were replaced by non-agential causes. This undermines attempts to understand joint responsibility as overlapping individual responsibility; the responsibility in question is essentially joint. Second, (...)
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  8. Ezequiel Di Paolo & Hanne De Jaegher (2012). The Interactive Brain Hypothesis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Enactive approaches foreground the role of interpersonal interaction in explanations of social understanding. This motivates, in combination with a recent interest in neuroscientific studies involving actual interactions, the question of how interactive processes relate to neural mechanisms involved in social understanding. We introduce the Interactive Brain Hypothesis (IBH) in order to help map the spectrum of possible relations between social interaction and neural processes. The hypothesis states that interactive experience and skills play enabling roles in both the development (...)
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  9. Toby Svoboda (2012). The Ethics of Geoengineering: Moral Considerability and the Convergence Hypothesis. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):243-256.score: 24.0
    Although it could avoid some harmful effects of climate change, sulphate aerosol geoengineering (SAG), or injecting sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere in order to reflect incoming solar radiation, threatens substantial harm to humans and non-humans. I argue that SAG is prima facie ethically problematic from anthropocentric, animal liberationist, and biocentric perspectives. This might be taken to suggest that ethical evaluations of SAG can rely on Bryan Norton's convergence hypothesis, which predicts that anthropocentrists and non-anthropocentrists will agree to implement the (...)
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  10. D. Evans (2002). The Search Hypothesis of Emotions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):497-509.score: 24.0
    Many philosophers and psychologists now argue that emotions play a vital role in reasoning. This paper explores one particular way of elucidating how emotions help reason which may be dubbed ?the search hypothesis of emotion?. After outlining the search hypothesis of emotion and dispensing with a red herring that has marred previous statements of the hypothesis, I discuss two alternative readings of the search hypothesis. It is argued that the search hypothesis must be construed as (...)
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  11. Mario Bacelar Valente, Time in the Theory of Relativity: On Natural Clocks, Proper Time, the Clock Hypothesis, and All That.score: 24.0
    When addressing the notion of proper time in the theory of relativity, it is usually taken for granted that the time read by an accelerated clock is given by the Minkowski proper time. However, there are authors like Harvey Brown that consider necessary an extra assumption to arrive at this result, the so-called clock hypothesis. In opposition to Brown, Richard TW Arthur takes the clock hypothesis to be already implicit in the theory. In this paper I will present (...)
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  12. Peter Mark Ainsworth (2008). Cosmic Inflation and the Past Hypothesis. Synthese 162 (2):157 - 165.score: 24.0
    The past hypothesis is that the entropy of the universe was very low in the distant past. It is put forward to explain the entropic arrow of time but it has been suggested (e.g. [Penrose, R. (1989a). The emperor’s new mind. London:Vintage Books; Penrose, R. (1989b). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 571, 249–264; Price, H. (1995). In S. F. Savitt (Ed.), Times’s arrows today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Price, H. (1996). Time’s arrow and Archimedes’ point. Oxford: (...)
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  13. Kristin Andrews & Brian Huss (2014). Anthropomorphism, Anthropectomy, and the Null Hypothesis. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):711-729.score: 24.0
    We examine the claim that the methodology of psychology leads to a bias in animal cognition research against attributing “anthropomorphic” properties to animals (Sober in Thinking with animals: new perspectives on anthropomorphism. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 85–99, 2005; de Waal in Philos Top 27:225–280, 1999). This charge is examined in light of a debate on the role of folk psychology between primatologists who emphasize similarities between humans and other apes, and those who emphasize differences. We argue that while (...)
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  14. Igor Douven & Richard Dietz (2011). A Puzzle About Stalnaker's Hypothesis. Topoi 30 (1):31-37.score: 24.0
    According to Stalnaker’s Hypothesis, the probability of an indicative conditional, $\Pr(\varphi \rightarrow \psi),$ equals the probability of the consequent conditional on its antecedent, $\Pr(\psi | \varphi)$ . While the hypothesis is generally taken to have been conclusively refuted by Lewis’ and others’ triviality arguments, its descriptive adequacy has been confirmed in many experimental studies. In this paper, we consider some possible ways of resolving the apparent tension between the analytical and the empirical results relating to Stalnaker’s Hypothesis (...)
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  15. Moti Mizrahi (forthcoming). The Fine-Tuning Argument and the Simulation Hypothesis. Think.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I propose that, in addition to the multiverse hypothesis, which is commonly taken to be an alternative explanation for fine-tuning, other than the design hypothesis, the simulation hypothesis is another explanation for fine-tuning. I then argue that the simulation hypothesis undercuts the alleged evidential connection between ‘designer’ and ‘supernatural designer of immense power and knowledge’ in much the same way that the multiverse hypothesis undercuts the alleged evidential connection between ‘fine-tuning’ and ‘fine-tuner’ (...)
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  16. Sara Schwartz (2002). Characters as Units and the Case of the Presence and Absence Hypothesis. Biology and Philosophy 17 (3):369-388.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses the individuation of characters for the use asunits by geneticists at the beginning of the 20th century. Thediscussion involves the Presence and Absence Hypothesis as a case study. It issuggested that the gap between conceptual consideration and etiological factorsof individuating of characters is being handled by way of mutual adjustment.Confrontation of a suggested morphological unit character with experimentresults molded the final boundaries of it.
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  17. Samuel C. Fletcher (2013). Light Clocks and the Clock Hypothesis. Foundations of Physics 43 (11):1369-1383.score: 24.0
    The clock hypothesis of relativity theory equates the proper time experienced by a point particle along a timelike curve with the length of that curve as determined by the metric. Is it possible to prove that particular types of clocks satisfy the clock hypothesis, thus genuinely measure proper time, at least approximately? Because most real clocks would be enormously complicated to study in this connection, focusing attention on an idealized light clock is attractive. The present paper extends and (...)
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  18. David Kyle Johnson (forthcoming). The Failure of the Multiverse Hypothesis as a Solution to the Problem of No Best World. Sophia:1-19.score: 24.0
    The multiverse hypothesis is growing in popularity among theistic philosophers because some view it as the preferable way to solve certain difficulties presented by theistic belief. In this paper, I am concerned specifically with its application to Rowe’s problem of no best world, which suggests that God’s existence is impossible given the fact that the world God actualizes must be unsurpassable, yet for any given possible world, there is one greater. I will argue that, as a solution to the (...)
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  19. Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab & Michèle Robert (2007). The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory According to the Foraging Hypothesis: A Critical Analysis. [REVIEW] Human Nature 18 (4):365-385.score: 24.0
    According to the evolutionary hypothesis of Silverman and Eals (1992, Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 533–549). Oxford: Oxford University Press), women evolutionary hypothesis, women surpass men in object location memory as a result of a sexual division in foraging activities among early humans. After surveying the main anthropological information on ancestral sex-related foraging, we (...)
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  20. Manuel G. Bedia & Ezequiel Di Paolo (2012). Unreliable Gut Feelings Can Lead to Correct Decisions: The Somatic Marker Hypothesis in Non-Linear Decision Chains. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Dual system approaches of decision making examine the interaction between affective/intuitive and deliberative processes underlying value judgment. Decisions are arise from a combination of relatively explicit capabilities for abstract reasoning and relatively implicit evolved domain-general as well as learned domain-specific affective responses. One such approach, the somatic markers hypothesis (SMH), expresses these processes as a system of evolved primary emotions supplemented by associations between affect and experience that accrue over lifetime, or somatic markers (SMs). In this view, SMs are (...)
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  21. Marcus Cheetham, Pascal Suter & Lutz Jäncke (2011). The Human Likeness Dimension of the “Uncanny Valley Hypothesis”: Behavioral and Functional MRI Findings. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:126.score: 24.0
    The uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts differential experience of negative and positive affect as a function of human likeness. Affective experience of realistic humanlike robots and computer-generated characters (avatars) dominates “uncanny” research, but findings are inconsistent. How objects are actually perceived along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DOH), defined only in terms of human physical similarity, is unknown. To examine whether the DOH can be defined also in terms of effects of categorical perception (CP), stimuli from (...)
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  22. Daniel M. T. Fessler (2007). Neglected Natural Experiments Germane to the Westermarck Hypothesis. Human Nature 18 (4):355-364.score: 24.0
    Natural experiments wherein preferred marriage partners are co-reared play a central role in testing the Westermarck hypothesis. This paper reviews two such hitherto largely neglected experiments. The case of the Karo Batak is outlined in hopes that other scholars will procure additional information; the case of the Oneida community is examined in detail. Genealogical records reveal that, despite practicing communal child-rearing, marriages did take place within Oneida. However, when records are compared with first-person accounts, it becomes clear that, owing (...)
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  23. Gagan Deep Kaur (forthcoming). Kant and the Simulation Hypothesis. AI and Society:1-10.score: 24.0
    Computational imagination (CI) conceives imagination as an agent’s simulated sensorimotor interaction with the environment in the absence of sensory feedback, predicting consequences based on this interaction (Marques and Holland in Neurocomputing 72:743–759, 2009). Its bedrock is the simulation hypothesis whereby imagination resembles seeing or doing something in reality as both involve similar neural structures in the brain (Hesslow in Trends Cogn Sci 6(6):242–247, 2002). This paper raises two-forked doubts: (1) neural-level equivalence is escalated to make phenomenological equivalence. Even at (...)
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  24. Ezequiel Di Paolo Manuel G. Bedia (2012). Unreliable Gut Feelings Can Lead to Correct Decisions: The Somatic Marker Hypothesis in Non-Linear Decision Chains. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Dual system approaches of decision making examine the interaction between affective/intuitive and deliberative processes underlying value judgment. Decisions are arise from a combination of relatively explicit capabilities for abstract reasoning and relatively implicit evolved domain-general as well as learned domain-specific affective responses. One such approach, the somatic markers hypothesis (SMH), expresses these processes as a system of evolved primary emotions supplemented by associations between affect and experience that accrue over lifetime, or somatic markers (SMs). In this view, SMs are (...)
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  25. Frank Marlowe (2000). The Patriarch Hypothesis. Human Nature 11 (1):27-42.score: 24.0
    Menopause is puzzling because life-history theory predicts there should be no selection for outliving one’s reproductive capacity. Adaptive explanations of menopause offered thus far turn on women’s long-term investment in offspring and grandoffspring, all variations on the grandmother hypothesis. Here, I offer a very different explanation. The patriarch hypothesis proposes that once males became capable of maintaining high status and reproductive access beyond their peak physical condition, selection favored the extension of maximum life span in males. Because the (...)
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  26. Moti Gitik & Saharon Shelah (2001). On Some Configurations Related to the Shelah Weak Hypothesis. Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (8):639-650.score: 24.0
    We show that some cardinal arithmetic configurations related to the negation of the Shelah Weak Hypothesis and natural from the forcing point of view are impossible.
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  27. A. D. Patel (2010). Why Would Musical Training Benefit the Neural Encoding of Speech? The OPERA Hypothesis. Frontiers in Psychology 2:142-142.score: 24.0
    Mounting evidence suggests that musical training benefits the neural encoding of speech. This paper offers a hypothesis specifying why such benefits occur. The “OPERA” hypothesis proposes that such benefits are driven by adaptive plasticity in speech-processing networks, and that this plasticity occurs when five conditions are met. These are: 1) Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process an acoustic feature used in both music and speech (e.g., waveform periodicity, amplitude envelope), 2) Precision: music places (...)
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  28. Marcus Cheetham, Ivana Pavlovic, Nicola Jordan, Pascal Suter & Lutz Jancke (2013). Category Processing and the Human Likeness Dimension of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis: Eye-Tracking Data. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (Mori, 1970) predicts that perceptual difficulty distinguishing between a humanlike object (e.g., lifelike prosthetic hand, mannequin) and its human counterpart evokes negative affect. Research has focussed on affect, with inconsistent results, but little is known about how objects along the hypothesis’ dimension of human likeness (DHL) are actually perceived. This study used morph continua based on human and highly realistic computer-generated (avatar) faces to represent the DHL. Total number and dwell time of fixations to (...)
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  29. Miloš S. Kurilić (2005). Mad Families, Forcing and the Suslin Hypothesis. Archive for Mathematical Logic 44 (4):499-512.score: 24.0
    Let κ be a regular cardinal and P a partial ordering preserving the regularity of κ. If P is (κ-Baire and) of density κ, then there is a mad family on κ killed in all generic extensions (if and) only if below each p∈P there exists a κ-sized antichain. In this case a mad family on κ is killed (if and) only if there exists an injection from κ onto a dense subset of Ult(P) mapping the elements of onto nowhere (...)
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  30. Nicholas D. Lange, Rick P. Thomas & Eddy J. Davelaar (2012). Temporal Dynamics of Hypothesis Generation: The Influences of Data Serial Order, Data Consistency, and Elicitation Timing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The pre-decisional process of hypothesis generation is a ubiquitous cognitive faculty that we continually employ in an effort to understand our environment and thereby support appropriate judgments and decisions. Although we are beginning to understand the fundamental processes underlying hypothesis generation, little is known about how various temporal dynamics, inherent in real world generation tasks, influence the retrieval of hypotheses from long-term memory. This paper presents two experiments investigating three data acquisition dynamics in a simulated medical diagnosis task. (...)
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  31. Eddy J. Davelaar Nicholas D. Lange, Rick P. Thomas (2012). Temporal Dynamics of Hypothesis Generation: The Influences of Data Serial Order, Data Consistency, and Elicitation Timing. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    The pre-decisional process of hypothesis generation is a ubiquitous cognitive faculty that we continually employ in an effort to understand our environment and thereby support appropriate judgments and decisions. Although we are beginning to understand the fundamental processes underlying hypothesis generation, little is known about how various temporal dynamics, inherent in real world generation tasks, influence the retrieval of hypotheses from long-term memory. This paper presents two experiments investigating three data acquisition dynamics in a simulated medical diagnosis task. (...)
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  32. Romeijn Jan-Willem Rens Van de Schoot, Herbert Hoijtink (2011). Moving Beyond Traditional Null Hypothesis Testing: Evaluating Expectations Directly. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    This mini-review illustrates that testing the traditional null hypothesis is not always the appropriate strategy. Half in jest, we discuss Aristotle’s scientific investigations into the shape of the earth in the context of evaluating the traditional null hypothesis. We conclude that Aristotle was actually interested in evaluating informative hypotheses. In contemporary science the situation is not much different. That is, many researchers have no particular interest in the traditional null hypothesis. More can be learned from data by (...)
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  33. Robert D. Rupert (2004). Challenges to the Hypothesis of Extended Cognition. Journal of Philosophy 101 (8):389-428.score: 21.0
  34. Florian Cova (2013). Unconsidered Intentional Actions: An Assessment of Scaife and Webber's 'Consideration Hypothesis'. Journal of Moral Philosophy (1):1-22.score: 21.0
  35. John Symons (2001). Explanation, Representation and the Dynamical Hypothesis. Minds and Machines 11 (4):521-541.score: 21.0
    This paper challenges arguments that systematic patterns of intelligent behavior license the claim that representations must play a role in the cognitive system analogous to that played by syntactical structures in a computer program. In place of traditional computational models, I argue that research inspired by Dynamical Systems theory can support an alternative view of representations. My suggestion is that we treat linguistic and representational structures as providing complex multi-dimensional targets for the development of individual brains. This approach acknowledges the (...)
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  36. Thomas Natsoulas (1996). The Sciousness Hypothesis: Part I. Journal of Mind and Behavior 17 (1):45-66.score: 21.0
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  37. Nicholas Pastore (1977). Reply to George: Thomas Reid and the Constancy Hypothesis. Philosophy of Science 44 (June):297-302.score: 21.0
  38. Errol E. Harris (1970/1996). Hypothesis and Perception: The Roots of Scientific Method. Humanities Press.score: 21.0
    Reissue from the classic Muirhead Library of Philosophy series (originally published between 1890s - 1970s).
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  39. Christopher Viger (2007). The Acquired Language of Thought Hypothesis. Interaction Studies 8 (1):125-142.score: 21.0
    I present the symbol grounding problem in the larger context of a materialist theory of content and then present two problems for causal, teleo-functional accounts of content. This leads to a distinction between two kinds of mental representations: presentations and symbols; only the latter are cognitive. Based on Milner and Goodale’s dual route model of vision, I posit the existence of precise interfaces between cognitive systems that are activated during object recognition. Interfaces are constructed as a child learns, and is (...)
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  40. David R. Thomas & Richard H. Hiss (1963). A Test of the "Units Hypothesis" Employing Wave-Length Generalization in Human Subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):59.score: 21.0
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  41. Anthony I. Jack Benjamin Kubit (2013). Rethinking the Role of the rTPJ in Attention and Social Cognition in Light of the Opposing Domains Hypothesis: Findings From an ALE-Based Meta-Analysis and Resting-State Functional Connectivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
    The right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ) has been associated with two apparently disparate functional roles: in attention and in social cognition. According to one account, the rTPJ initiates a “circuit-breaking” signal that interrupts ongoing attentional processes, effectively reorienting attention. It is argued this primary function of the rTPJ has been extended beyond attention, through a process of evolutionarily cooption, to play a role in social cognition. We propose an alternative account, according to which the capacity for social cognition depends on a (...)
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  42. Bennet B. Murdock (1965). Test of the "Limited Capacity" Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (3):237.score: 21.0
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  43. Ann B. Taylor & Arthur Irion (1964). Continuity Hypothesis and Transfer of Training in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (6):573.score: 21.0
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  44. R. E. Bowman & M. Heironimus (1969). Hypothesis Behavior in Monkeys: A "Blank Trials" Procedure. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):385.score: 21.0
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  45. Douglas L. Hintzman & Richard A. Block (1971). Repetition and Memory: Evidence for a Multiple-Trace Hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (3):297.score: 21.0
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  46. Jack A. Adams (1962). Test of the Hypothesis of Psychological Refractory Period. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (3):280.score: 21.0
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  47. Brandon Abbs Amber M. Sprenger, Michael R. Dougherty, Sharona M. Atkins, Ana M. Franco-Watkins, Rick P. Thomas, Nicholas Lange (2011). Implications of Cognitive Load for Hypothesis Generation and Probability Judgment. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 21.0
    We tested the predictions of HyGene (Thomas, Dougherty, Sprenger, & Harbison, 2008) that both divided attention at encoding and judgment should affect degree to which participants’ probability judgments violate the principle of additivity. In two experiments, we showed that divided attention during judgment leads to an increase in subadditivity, suggesting that the comparison process for probability judgments is capacity limited. Contrary to the predictions of HyGene, a third experiment revealed that divided attention during encoding leads to an increase in later (...)
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  48. B. R. Bugelski & M. L. McMahon (1971). "The Total Time Hypothesis: A Reply to Stubin, Heurer, and Tatz": Erratum. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):354-354.score: 21.0
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  49. James R. Erickson (1968). Hypothesis Sampling in Concept Identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):12.score: 21.0
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  50. C. A. Fagan & A. J. North (1951). A Verification of the Guessing-Sequence Hypothesis About Spread of Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (5):349.score: 21.0
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