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  1. Akira Akabayashi, Brian Taylor Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato (2008). A Five Year Follow-Up National Study of Ethics Committees in Medical Organizations in Japan. HEC Forum 20 (1):49-60.
    Compared to institutional and area-based ethics committees, little is known about the structure and activities performed by ethics committees at national medical organizations and societies. This five year follow-up study aimed to determine (1) the creation and function of ethics committees at medical organizations in Japan, and (2) their general strategies to deal with ethical problems. The study sample included the member societies of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences (n=92 in 1998, n=96 in 2003). Instruments consisted of two sections: (...)
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  2. Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby, Noriko Nagao, Ichiro Kai & Hajime Sato (2007). An Eight-Year Follow-Up National Study of Medical School and General Hospital Ethics Committees in Japan. BMC Medical Ethics 8 (1):1-8.
    Background Ethics committees and their system of research protocol peer-review are currently used worldwide. To ensure an international standard for research ethics and safety, however, data is needed on the quality and function of each nation's ethics committees. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and developments of ethics committees established at medical schools and general hospitals in Japan. Methods This study consisted of four national surveys sent twice over a period of eight years to two separate (...)
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  3. Hiroaki Miyata, Hiromi Shiraishi & Ichiro Kai (2006). Survey of the General Public's Attitudes Toward Advance Directives in Japan: How to Respect Patients' Preferences. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-9.
    Background Japanese people have become increasingly interested in the expression and enhancement of their individual autonomy in medical decisions made regarding medical treatment at and toward the end of life. However, while many Western countries have implemented legislation that deals with patient autonomy in the case of terminal illness, no such legislation exists in Japan. The rationale for this research is based on the need to investigate patient's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life in order to re-evaluate advance (...)
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  4. Hajime Sato, Akira Akabayashi & Ichiro Kai (2006). Public, Experts, and Acceptance of Advanced Medical Technologies: The Case of Organ Transplant and Gene Therapy in Japan. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 14 (4):203-214.
    In 1997, after long social debates, the Japanese government enacted a law on organ transplantation from brain-dead bodies. Since 1993, on gene therapy, administrative agencies have issued a series of guidelines. This study seeks to elucidate when people became aware of the issues and when they formed their opinions on organ transplant and gene therapy. At the same time, it aims to examine at which point in time experts, those in university ethical committees and in academic societies, consider these technologies (...)
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  5. Hajime Sato, Akira Akabayashi & Ichiro Kai (2005). Public Appraisal of Government Efforts and Participation Intent in Medico-Ethical Policymaking in Japan: A Large Scale National Survey Concerning Brain Death and Organ Transplant. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):1-12.
    Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted.
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  6. Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby, Ichiro Kai, Tadashi Nishimura & Akiko Yamagishi (2004). The Development of a Brief and Objective Method for Evaluating Moral Sensitivity and Reasoning in Medical Students. BMC Medical Ethics 5 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundMost medical schools in Japan have incorporated mandatory courses on medical ethics. To this date, however, there is no established means of evaluating medical ethics education in Japan. This study looks 1) To develop a brief, objective method of evaluation for moral sensitivity and reasoning; 2) To conduct a test battery for the PIT and the DIT on medical students who are either currently in school or who have recently graduated (residents); 3) To investigate changes in moral sensitivity and reasoning (...)
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  7. Hiroaki Miyata, Hisateru Tachimori, Miyako Takahashi, Tami Saito & Ichiro Kai (2004). Disclosure of Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis: A Survey of the General Public's Attitudes Toward Doctors and Family Holding Discretionary Powers. BMC Medical Ethics 5 (1):7.
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  8. Akira Akabayashi, Brian T. Slingsby & Ichiro Kai (2003). Perspectives on Advance Directives in Japanese Society: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey. BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):5.
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  9. Akira Akabayashi, Brian Taylor Slingsby & Ichiro Kai (2003). Perspectives on Advance Directives in Japanese Society: A Population-Based Questionnaire Survey. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 4 (1):1-9.
    Background In Japan, discussion concerning advance directives (ADs) has been on the rise during the past decade. ADs are one method proposed to facilitate the process of communication among patients, families and health care providers regarding the plan of care of a patient who is no longer capable of communicating. In this paper, we report the results of the first in-depth survey on the general population concerning the preferences and use of ADs in Japan. Method A self-administered questionnaire was sent (...)
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