The target article presents arguments for a motivational system dedicated exclusively to the detection of, and reaction to, particular threats to fitness, the so-called “Hazard-Precaution System,” which, according to the authors, drives ritualized behavior. We approach the issue of a motivational system from three perspectives – developmental, psychopathological, and ethnological. (Published Online February 8 2007).
The ethnographic description of story-telling and narrative transmission of cultural facts is an aspect of Locke & Bogin's (L&B's) article that should be amplified. Innate shared gene patrimony is biased by the kinship structure of particular societies and interacts with the transmission of narratives. Trance experiences are another interesting aspect of verbal and agonistic “performances.”.
In agreement with Blair, I favor the idea of dissociative patterns in cognitive performance, even more when it comes to development. However, such dissociations are present not only between fluid cognition and general intelligence, but also within fluid cognition itself. Heterogeneity of executive attention, even when indexed with a single paradigm, is further discussed in relation to anterior cingulate cortex. (Published Online April 5 2006).
A pesquisa em informação quântica sugere uma íntima conexão entre o conceito de informação e a teoria quântica, mas essa conexão envolve nuances cuja análise é o objeto deste trabalho. A sabedoria comum nesse campo divide-se em duas grandes áreas, não excludentes entre si. Há os que são movidos pela possibilidade de uso da teoria quântica em um novo campo, o da computação, independentemente do esclarecimento de seus fundamentos, aqui incluído o conceito de "informação". Alguns consideram que estamos diante de (...) um grande problema conceitual sem resposta satisfatória no momento, enquanto que outros, dentre os que reconhecem a magnitude do problema, têm proposto formulações com a pretensão de solução do problema. Este artigo tem pretensões modestas. Não pretendemos aportar novas soluções ao problema, nem apoiar uma das soluções existentes. Temos a expectativa de através da análise histórico-conceitual do problema mapear as diversas possibilidades, apontando o que nos parecem ser aspectos fortes e fracos nessas possibilidades. Research in quantum information suggests a close connection between information and quantum theory. The aim of this article is to analyze nuances involved in this connection. Scientists in this field are divided into two overlapping camps. Some are motivated only by the use of quantum features to improve information processing, in spite of concerns about the foundations of the quantum theory, while others recognize deep conceptual problems of this theory, and attempt to solve them. This article has modest ambitions. It aims only to chart, by way of historical and conceptual analysis, the diverse possibilities available, indicating the strengths and weaknesses of each of them. (shrink)
The 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis sponsored both an International Congress of Arts and Sciences aimed at unity of knowledge and an anthropology exhibit of diverse peoples. Jointly these represented a quest for unifying knowledge in a diverse world that was fractured by isolated specializations and segregated peoples. In historical perspective, the Congress's quest for knowledge is overshadowed by Ota Benga who was part of the anthropology exhibit. The 1904 World's Fair can be viewed as a Euro-American ritual, (...) a global pilgrimage, which sought to celebrate the advances and resolve the challenges of modernity and human diversity. Three years later Afropentecostalism dealt with these same issues with different methods and rituals. This ritual system became the most culturally diverse and fastest growing religious movement of the twentieth century. I suggest that the anthropological method of Frank Hamilton Cushing, the postcritical epistemology of Michael Polanyi, and the Afropente-costal ritual movement initiated by William J. Seymour are all attempts to develop a postmodern epistemology that is simultaneously constructive, focused on discerning reality, and broad enough to allow for human consciousness and diverse human communities. I explore this confluence of scientific and participatory epistemology through six theses. (shrink)
In our daily life we develop habits that, being constantly practiced, become part of who we are. Two areas in which we develop habits are the evaluation of sources of food, and the evaluation of sources of happiness. It is my contention that the habits developed in those areas could affect one another. Thus, acquiring good habits in one area is of utmost importance to develop the other one. Conversely, if we develop the bad habit of picky eating this will (...) have as one of its outcomes the development of a bad habit that restricts our openness to rmding avenues for happiness. In order to show how the two habits affect one another, I will use Aristotle's theory of habit as developed in his Nicomachean Ethics. (shrink)
This article deals mainly with problems of cultural/transcultural translation between the Quechua and Spanish cultures, analysing these on the basis of some ideas by Juri Lotman and Peeter Torop. The process of translation implies considering the Quechua semiosphere’s internal borders as well as the external borders related to the cultures that existed at the time of Tahuantin Suyo, and all changes that have come from the Spanish conquest of Latin America. In the case of the Quechua culture, the problems are (...) numerous and conflicting in several dimensions. First of all, Quechua is an agglutinating language that creates problems for translation into a flexional language such as Spanish. Secondly, and more importantly, there exists a mythopoetical model of the world that has been built in this culture, which does not use concepts of rational logic, but poetic images integrated into mythical thinking: it represents a different cognitive pattern. Thirdly, the presence of the logic of the concrete in Quechua culture, articulated with the mythopoetical model, makes translation from Western abstract formal logic difficult. Reflections on these issues provide new analytical possibilities. (shrink)
The Kantian remarks concerning the thing in itself as cause of the sensitive affection are certainly problematic, since they seem to contradict the Critical principle that states the unknowability of things in themselves, and seem to involve, on the other hand, an illegitimate use of the categories...
En este artículo haré referencia a una serie de observaciones realizadas en el marco de la reflexión pedagógica kantiana, con el fin de mostrar el carácter fundamental que la idea (o ideal) de educación ha de asumir en todo proyecto pedagógico. La concepción kantiana de una naturaleza humana perfect..
Summary The anniversary of the death of Pietro Tacchini (1838?1905), one of the pioneers of solar physics in Italy, is commemorared by this account of his major creation, the Società degli Spettroscopisti Italiani (1871). Established to promote cooperation among solar spectroscopists engaged in the study of the solar chromosphere, it was the first scientific Society devoted to spectroscopy and its astronomical applications. Its journal, the Memorie, collected most of the important works on solar physics by Angelo Secchi SJ (1818?1878), Tacchini (...) himself, and many other protagonists of the newly born astrophysics. A brief history of the Society and its development draws on many previously unexploited archival sources, in order to show its role in raising astrophysics to the status of a scientific discipline, in the context of the astronomical research of that time in Italy and abroad, especially in the USA. (shrink)
This paper aims at analyzing and presenting the findings of an inquiry carried out in the spring of 2006 in Bucharest. The inquiry itself originally set out to investigate the effect of different gender and religious beliefs and practice with respect to couple formation and related issues, with particular reference to varying corresponding attitudes towards relationships between the men and women. The inquiry was conducted on a sample of inhabitants of Bucharest, the capital city, and one of the most significant (...) urban areas of Romania on the verge of EU accession. Statistically, significant differences were observed with respect to couple formation, depth of religious beliefs, and the corresponding degree of religious practice, in addition to the stated reasons for marriage in the first place, and hence, to the prospective partner’s attributes and selection criteria, both subjective (emotional) and objective (practical and pragmatic). (shrink)
El artículo propone un análisis del tratamiento kantiano de la �Tercera antinomia de la razón pura� (en la que se examina la posibilidad de conciliar la libertad trascendental con el determinismo natural), a fin de mostrar el carácter infundado de aquella interpretación que sostiene que la resolución crítica de dicha antinomia supone un desplazamiento respecto de los términos cosmológicos en los que el conflicto es planteado originariamente. A través de un análisis pormenorizado de las fuentes, procuraremos establecer que el conflicto (...) analizado en la �Tercera antinomia� no es de carácter exclusivamente cosmológico, sino que constituye asimismo �y en igual medida� un conflicto práctico y, en segundo lugar, que la solución crítica no es desarrollada en términos exclusivamente prácticos, sino que involucra asimismo aspectos directamente vinculados con la cuestión cosmológica inicialmente formulada. (shrink)
Las observaciones que Kant formula en sus obras críticas acerca de la existencia de la cosa en sí han dado lugar a importantes objeciones y agudas discusiones entre los intérpretes. En este trabajo proponemos una reflexión acerca de la posibilidad de establecer el estatus epistemológico correspondiente a dichas observaciones, haciendo uso del concepto kantiano de creencia doctrinal.