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Ilkka Niiniluoto [111]Ilkka Maunu Niiniluoto [1]
  1. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2014). Representation and Truthlikeness. Foundations of Science 19 (4):375-379.
    Woosuk Park’s paper “Misrepresentation in Context” is a useful plea for a theory of representation with promising interaction between cognitive science, philosophy of science, and aesthetics. In this paper, I argue that such a unified account is provided by Charles S. Peirce’s semiotics. This theory puts Park’s criticism of Nelson Goodman and Jerry Fodor in context. Some of Park’s pertinent remarks on the problem of misrepresentation can be illuminated by the account of truthlikeness and idealization developed by philosophers of science.
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  2. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2014). Scientific Progress as Increasing Verisimilitude. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 46:73-77.
    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper’s own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees (...)
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  3. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2014). Values in Design Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 46:11-15.
    Following Herbert Simon’s idea of “the sciences of the artificial”, one may contrast descriptive sciences and design sciences: the former are concerned with “how things are”, the latter tell us “how things ought to be in order to attain goals, and to function”. Typical results of design sciences are thus expressions about means—ends relations or technical norms in G. H. von Wright’s sense. Theorizing and modeling are important methods of giving a value-free epistemic justification for such technical norms. The values (...)
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  4. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2013). Models, Simulations, and Analogical Inference. In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. 19--27.
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  5. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2013). On the Philosophy of Applied Social Sciences. In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao González, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer Verlag. 265--274.
  6. Ilkka Niiniluoto, Risto Vilkko & Jaakko Kuorikoski (eds.) (2013). Talous ja filosofia. Gaudeamus.
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  7. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2012). On Tropic Realism. In Lila Haaparanta & Heikki Koskinen (eds.), Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic. Oxford University Press, Usa. 439.
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  8. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2011). Abduction, Tomography, and Other Inverse Problems. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):135-139.
    Charles S. Peirce introduced in the late 19th century the notion of abduction as inference from effects to causes, or from observational data to explanatory theories. Abductive reasoning has become a major theme in contemporary logic, philosophy of science, and artificial intelligence. This paper argues that the new growing branch of applied mathematics called inverse problems deals successfully with various kinds of abductive inference within a variety of scientific disciplines. The fundamental theorem about the inverse reconstruction of plane functions from (...)
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  9. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2011). From Dynamic Disbeliefs to Causality and Chance. Metascience 20 (3):549-552.
    From dynamic disbeliefs to causality and chance Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9478-0 Authors Ilkka Niiniluoto, Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 00014 Finland Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  10. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2011). Revising Beliefs Towards the Truth. Erkenntnis 75 (2):165-181.
    Belief revision (BR) and truthlikeness (TL) emerged independently as two research programmes in formal methodology in the 1970s. A natural way of connecting BR and TL is to ask under what conditions the revision of a belief system by new input information leads the system towards the truth. It turns out that, for the AGM model of belief revision, the only safe case is the expansion of true beliefs by true input, but this is not very interesting or realistic as (...)
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  11. Ilkka Maunu Niiniluoto (2011). Virtual Worlds, Fiction, and Reality. Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):13 - 28.
  12. Kristian Klockars, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Kristina Rolin (eds.) (2010). Oikeus. University of Helsinki.
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  13. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2010). Kaila's Critique of Vitalism. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 14:125-134.
    In the gloomy year of 1943, when Finland was fi ghting against the Soviet Union in the turmoil of World War II, Finnish philosopher Eino Kaila published a highly personal book Syvähenkinen elämä , with the subtitle Keskusteluja perimmäisistä kysymyksistä . An extended version in Swedish, Tankens oro appeared one year later.2 Kaila’s Syvähenkinen elämä mixes discussions on the meaning of life with considerations on philosophical topics that occupied its author as a proponent of logical empiricism. The main part of (...)
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  14. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2010). Theory Change, Truthlikeness, and Belief Revision. In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. 189--199.
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  15. Ilkka Niiniluoto, Scientific Progress. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  16. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2008). Unification and Abductive Confirmation. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:151-156.
    According to the traditional requirement, formulated already by William Whewell in his account of the “consilience of inductions” in 1840, an explanatory scientific theory should be independently testable by new kinds of phenomena. A good theory should have unifying power in the sense that it explains and predicts several mutually independent phenomena. This paper studies the prospects of Bayesianism to motivate this kind of unification criterion for abductive confirmation.
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  17. Atocha Aliseda, Johan van Benthem, Lorenzo Magnani, Angel Nepomuceno-Fernandez, Fernando Soler Toscano, Joke Meheus, Dagmar Provijn, John Woods, Silvio Pinto & Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). On Atocha Aliseda Abductive Reasoning. Theoria 22 (60).
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  18. Heta Gylling, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Risto Vilkko (eds.) (2007). Syy. Gaudeamus.
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  19. Juha Manninen & Ilkka Niiniluoto (eds.) (2007). The Philosophical Twentieth Century in Finland: A Bibliographical Guide. Philosophical Society of Finland.
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  20. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). Abduction and Scientific Realism. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 12:137-142.
    Many scientific realists think that the best reasons for scientific theories are abductive, i.e., must appeal to what is also called inference to the best explanation (IBE), while some anti-realists have argued that the use of abduction in defending realism is question-begging, circular, or incoherent. This paper studies the idea that abductive inference can be reformulated by taking its conclusion to concern the truthlikeness of a hypothetical theory on the basis of its success in explanation and prediction. The strength of (...)
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  21. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). Evaluation of Theories. In Theo A. F. Kuipers (ed.), General Philosophy of Science. North Holland. 175--217.
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  22. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). Idealization, Counterfactuals, and Truthlikeness. In Jerzy Brzeziński, Andrzej Klawiter, Theo A. F. Kuipers, Krzysztof Łastowski, Katarzyna Paprzycka & Piotr Przybysz (eds.), The Courage of Doing Philosophy: Essays Dedicated to Leszek Nowak. Rodopi. 103--122.
  23. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). Structural Rules for Abduction. Theoria 22 (3):325-329.
    Atocha Aliseda’s Abductive Reasoning (2006) gives a structural characterization of the “forward” explana-tory reasoning from a theory to observational data. This paper asks whether there are any interesting structural rules for the “backward” abductive reasoning from observations to explanatory theories. Ignoring statistical cases, a partial explication of abduction is converse deductive explanation: h is abducible from e iff h deductively explains e. This relation of abducibility trivially satisfies Converse Entailment (if h entails e, then h is abducible from e ), (...)
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  24. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2006). The Poverty of Relative Truth. Acta Philosophica Fennica 78:165.
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  25. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2005). Abduction and Truthlikeness. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):255-275.
    This paper studies the interplay between two notions which are important for the project of defending scientific realism: abduction and truthlikeness. The main focus is the generalization of abduction to cases where the conclusion states that the best theory is truthlike or approximately true. After reconstructing the recent proposals of Theo Kuipers within the framework of monadic predicate logic, I apply my own notion of truthlikeness. It turns out that a theory with higher truthlikeness does not always have greater empirical (...)
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  26. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2005). GH von Wright on Probability and Induction. Acta Philosophica Fennica 77:11.
     
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  27. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2005). In Memoriam Georg Henrik von Wright. Acta Philosophica Fennica 77:9.
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  28. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2004). Induction. In M. Sintonen, J. Wolenski & I. Niiniluoto (eds.), Handbook of Epistemology. Kluwer. 521--545.
  29. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2004). Truth-Seeking by Abduction. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 11:57-82.
    In a seminar with the title “Deduction and Induction in the Sciences”, it is intriguing to ask the following questions: Is there a third type of inference besides deduction and induction? Does this third type of inference play a significant role within scientific inquiry? A positive answer to both of these questions was advocated by Charles S. Peirce throughout his career, even though his opinions changed in important ways during the fifty years between 1865 and 1914. Peirce called the third (...)
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  30. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2004). Tarski's Definition and Truth-Makers. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 126 (1-3):57-76.
    A hallmark of correspondence theories of truth is the principle that sentences are made true by some truth-makers. A well-known objection to treating Tarski’s definition of truth as a correspondence theory has been put forward by Donald Davidson. He argued that Tarski’s approach does not relate sentences to any entities (like facts) to which true sentences might correspond. From the historical viewpoint, it is interesting to observe that Tarski’s philosophical teacher Tadeusz Kotarbinski advocated an ontological doctrine of reism which accepted (...)
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  31. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2004). The Development of the Hintikka Program. In Dov M. Gabbay, John Woods & Akihiro Kanamori (eds.), Handbook of the History of Logic. Elsevier. 10--311.
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  32. Ilkka Niiniluoto, Matti Sintonen & Jan Wolenski (eds.) (2004). Handbook of Epistemology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Pub.
    The twenty-eight essays in this Handbook, all by leading experts in the field, provide the most extensive treatment of various epistemological problems, ...
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  33. Leila Haaparanta & Ilkka Niiniluoto (eds.) (2003). Analytic Philosophy in Finland. Rodopi.
    Finland is internationally known as one of the leading centers of twentieth century analytic philosophy. This volume offers for the first time an overall survey of the Finnish analytic school. The rise of this trend is illustrated by original articles of Edward Westermarck, Eino Kaila, Georg Henrik von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka. Contributions of Finnish philosophers are then systematically discussed in the fields of logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, history of philosophy, ethics and social philosophy. Metaphilosophical reflections on (...)
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  34. Leila Haaparanta & Ilkka Niiniluoto (2003). Preface. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 80 (1):7-7.
    Finland is internationally known as one of the leading centers of twentieth century analytic philosophy. This volume offers for the first time an overall survey of the Finnish analytic school. The rise of this trend is illustrated by original articles of Edward Westermarck, Eino Kaila, Georg Henrik von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka. Contributions of Finnish philosophers are then systematically discussed in the fields of logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, history of philosophy, ethics and social philosophy. Metaphilosophical reflections on (...)
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  35. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2003). Carnap on Truth. In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer. 1--25.
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  36. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2003). Philosophy in Finland—the Cultural Setting. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 80 (1):11-41.
    Finland is internationally known as one of the leading centers of twentieth century analytic philosophy. This volume offers for the first time an overall survey of the Finnish analytic school. The rise of this trend is illustrated by original articles of Edward Westermarck, Eino Kaila, Georg Henrik von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka. Contributions of Finnish philosophers are then systematically discussed in the fields of logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, history of philosophy, ethics and social philosophy. Metaphilosophical reflections on (...)
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  37. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2002). Kotarbiński as a Scientific Realist. Erkenntnis 56 (1):63-82.
    Tadeusz Kotarbiski is widely recognized as a major philosopher of theLvov–Warsaw school. His reism, which is a contribution to semantics andontology, is still discussed and debated, and his most original creation, praxiology,has grown into an entire research field. However, Kotarbiski's philosophy ofscience has not received much attention by later commentators. This paper attemptsto correct this situation by considering the hypothesis that Kotarbiski succeededalready in 1929 in formulating a position that can be regarded as an early version ofscientific realism. Unlike most (...)
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  38. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2002). 10 Truthlikeness and Economic Theories. In Uskali Mäki (ed.), Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press. 214.
  39. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2001). From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism: On Some Relations Between Confirmation, Empirical Progress, and Truth Approximation. Theo A. F. Kuipers. [REVIEW] Mind 110 (439):774-777.
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  40. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2001). Information, Meaning, and Understanding. Acta Philosophica Fennica 69:43-54.
     
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  41. Ilkka Niiniluoto & Critical Scientific Realism (2001). Van Brakel: Philosophy of Chemistry. Between the Manifest and the Scientific Image (Louvain Philosophical Studies 15), Leuven 2000 (Leuven University Press), XXII+ 246 Index (Bfr. 700,–). Cao, Tian Yu (Ed.): Conceptual Foundation of Quantum Field Theory. Cambridge (Univer-Sity Press) 1999, XIX+ 399 Index (£ 60.–). [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 32:199-200.
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  42. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2000). Is It Rational To Be Rational? The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 5:115-122.
    For the classical Greek philosophers, the cultivation of human rationality is a central ingredient of education andedification. But notions of reason and rationality have received various interpretations. A plurality of interpretations directs our attention to the general philosophical queries, What is rationality? and Why should we be rational? In this paper, I consider only briefly the first question by distinguishing three aspects of rationality in Section 2. Then I shall use, in Section 3, these three notions to give nine reformulations (...)
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  43. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2000). Scepticism, Fallibilism, and Verisimilitude. Acta Philosophica Fennica 66:145-170.
     
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  44. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1999). Abduction and Geometrical Analysis. Notes on Charles S. Peirce and Edgar Allan Poe. In L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer/Plenum. 239--254.
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  45. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1999). Critical Scientific Realism. Oxford University Press.
    This book comes to the rescue of scientific realism, showing that reports of its death have been greatly exaggerated. Philosophical realism holds that the aim of a particular discourse is to make true statements about its subject matter. Ilkka Niiniluoto surveys different kinds of realism in various areas of philosophy and then sets out his own critical realist philosophy of science.
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  46. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1999). Defending Abduction. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):451.
    Charles S. Peirce argued that, besides deduction and induction, there is a third mode of inference which he called "hypothesis" or "abduction." He characterized abduction as reasoning "from effect to cause," and as "the operation of adopting an explanatory hypothesis." Peirce's ideas about abduction, which are related also to historically earlier accounts of heuristic reasoning (the method of analysis), have been seen as providing a logic of scientific discovery. Alternatively, abduction is interpreted as giving reasons for pursuing a hypothesis. Inference (...)
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  47. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1999). Theories of Truth: Vienna, Berlin, and Warsaw. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 6:17-26.
    Neo-Kantian philosophers sometimes divided the history of philosophy in three periods: philosophy before Kant, Kant, and philosophy after Kant. The admirers of Alfred Tarski are prone, with good justification, to propose a similar division of theories of truth. But even in our post-Tarskian period, the nature and significance of Tarski’s theory of truth is still a matter of controversy.1 Therefore, to understand better Tarski’s achievement and some of our present puzzles, it is instructive to go back to the pre-Tarskian problem (...)
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  48. Jan Woleński, Ilkka Niiniluoto, Hans Sluga, Anita Burdman Feferman, Solomon Feferman & Richard Creath (1999). Alfred Tarski and the Vienna Circle: Austro-Polish Connections in Logical Empiricism. Springer Netherlands.
     
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  49. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1998). Induction and Probability in the Lvov-Warsaw School. In Katarzyna Kijania-Placek & Jan Woleński (eds.), The Lvov-Warsaw School and Contemporary Philosophy. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 323--335.
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  50. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1998). Verisimilitude: The Third Period. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):1-29.
    The modern history of verisimilitude can be divided into three periods. The first began in 1960, when Karl Popper proposed his qualitative definition of what it is for one theory to be more truthlike than another theory, and lasted until 1974, when David Miller and Pavel Trich published their refutation of Popper's definition. The second period started immediately with the attempt to explicate truthlikeness by means of relations of similarity or resemblance between states of affairs (or their linguistic representations); the (...)
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