Search results for 'Imaging' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. George Darby & Jon Williamson (2011). Imaging Technology and the Philosophy of Causality. Philosophy and Technology 24 (2):115-136.score: 24.0
    Russo and Williamson (Int Stud Philos Sci 21(2):157–170, 2007) put forward the thesis that, at least in the health sciences, to establish the claim that C is a cause of E, one normally needs evidence of an underlying mechanism linking C and E as well as evidence that C makes a difference to E. This epistemological thesis poses a problem for most current analyses of causality which, in virtue of analysing causality in terms of just one of mechanisms or difference (...)
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  2. Juha Räikkä (2010). Brain Imaging and Privacy. Neuroethics 3 (1):5-12.score: 24.0
    I will argue that the fairly common assumption that brain imaging may compromise people’s privacy in an undesirable way only if moral crimes are committed is false. Sometimes persons’ privacy is compromised because of failures of privacy. A normal emotional reaction to failures of privacy is embarrassment and shame, not moral resentment like in the cases of violations of right to privacy. I will claim that if (1) neuroimaging will provide all kinds of information about persons’ inner life and (...)
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  3. Hannah Fitsch (2012). (A)E(s)Th(Et)Ics of Brain Imaging. Visibilities and Sayabilities in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroethics 5 (3):275-283.score: 24.0
    Producing and interpreting functional brain data is part of the negotiation we imagine our brain. To take a closer look at the idea of brain imaging as a form of visual knowledge, it is necessary to put the research of today into a historical context. In my article I will point to a specific approach of functional imaging which depends on historical shifts entangled with the visual aspect of producing pictures of the brain. I will bring out the (...)
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  4. Jon B. Eisenberg (2008). Schiavo on the Cutting Edge: Functional Brain Imaging and its Impact on Surrogate End-of-Life Decision-Making. Neuroethics 1 (2):75-83.score: 24.0
    The article addresses the potential impact of functional brain imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission tomography) on surrogate end-of-life decision-making in light of varying state-law definitions of consciousness, some of which define awareness behaviorally and others functionally. The article concludes that, in light of admonitions by neuroscientists that functional brain imaging cannot yet replace behavioral evaluation to determine the existence of consciousness, state legislatures, courts and drafters of written advance healthcare directives should consider treating behavior, not (...)
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  5. Jon Williamson (2011). Imaging Technology and the Philosophy of Causality. Philosophy and Technology 24 (2):115-136.score: 24.0
    Russo and Williamson (Int Stud Philos Sci 21(2):157–170, 2007) put forward the thesis that, at least in the health sciences, to establish the claim that C is a cause of E, one normally needs evidence of an underlying mechanism linking C and E as well as evidence that C makes a difference to E. This epistemological thesis poses a problem for most current analyses of causality which, in virtue of analysing causality in terms of just one of mechanisms or difference (...)
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  6. Robert Rosenberger (2013). Mediating Mars: Perceptual Experience and Scientific Imaging Technologies. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 18 (1):75-91.score: 24.0
    The philosophical tradition of phenomenology, with its focus on human bodily perception, can be used to explore the ways scientific instrumentation shapes a user’s experience. Building on Don Ihde’s account of technological embodiment, I develop a framework of concepts for articulating the experience of image interpretation in science. These concepts can be of practical value to the analysis of scientific debates over image interpretation for the ways they draw out the relationships between the image-making processes and the rival scientific explanations (...)
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  7. Felix Scholkmann, Lisa Holper, Ursula Wolf & Martin Wolf (2013). A New Methodical Approach in Neuroscience: Assessing Inter-Personal Brain Coupling Using Functional Near-Infrared Imaging (fNIRI) Hyperscanning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:813.score: 24.0
    Since the first demonstration of how to simultaneously measure brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on two subjects about 10 years ago, a new paradigm in neuroscience is emerging: the assessment of the inter-brain coupling between two or more subjects, termed “hyperscanning”. The hyperscanning approach has the potential to enable a new view on how the brain works and will reveal as yet undiscovered brain functions based on brain-to-brain coupling, since the single-subject setting cannot capture them. In (...)
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  8. F. Dolcos A. D. Iordan, S. Dolcos (2013). Neural Signatures of the Response to Emotional Distraction: A Review of Evidence From Brain Imaging Investigations. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Prompt responses to emotional, potentially threatening, stimuli are supported by neural mechanisms that allow for privileged access of emotional information to processing resources. The existence of these mechanisms can also make emotional stimuli potent distracters, particularly when task-irrelevant. The ability to deploy cognitive control in order to cope with emotional distraction is essential for adaptive behavior, while reduced control may lead to enhanced emotional distractibility, which is often a hallmark of affective disorders. Evidence suggests that increased susceptibility to emotional distraction (...)
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  9. Emmanuelle Volle Gil Gonen-Yaacovi, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Richard Levy, Marika Urbanski, Goulven Josse (2013). Rostral and Caudal Prefrontal Contribution to Creativity: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included (...)
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  10. Tristan A. Bekinschtein, Facundo F. Manes, Mirta Villarreal, Adrian M. Owen & Valeria Della Maggiore (2011). Functional Imaging Reveals Movement Preparatory Activity in the Vegetative State. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:5.score: 24.0
    The Vegetative State (VS) is characterized by the absence of awareness of self or the environment and preserved autonomic functions. The diagnosis relies critically on the lack of consistent signs of purposeful behavior in response to external stimulation. Yet, given that patients with disorders of consciousness often exhibit fragmented movement patterns, voluntary actions may go unnoticed. Here we designed a simple motor paradigm that could potentially detect residual conscious awareness in VS patients with mild to severe brain damage by examining (...)
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  11. Agnes J. Jasinska Emily B. Falk, Baldwin M. Way (2012). An Imaging Genetics Approach to Understanding Social Influence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems (...)
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  12. Heinz Boeker, André Richter, Holger Himmighoffen, Jutta Ernst, Laura Bohleber, Elena Hofmann, Johannes Vetter & Georg Northoff (2013). Essentials of Psychoanalytic Process and Change: How Can We Investigate the Neural Effects of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Individualized Neuro-Imaging? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The paper focuses on the essentials of psychoanalytic process and change and the question of how the neural correlates and mechanisms of psychodynamic psychotherapy can be investigated. The psychoanalytic approach aims at enabling the patient to “remember, repeat and work through” concerning explicit memory. Moreover, the relationship between analyst and patient establishes a new affective configuration which enables a reconstruction of the implicit memory. If psychic change can be achieved it corresponds to neuronal transformation. Individualized neuro-imaging requires controlling and (...)
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  13. Andreas Deistung, Andreas Schäfer, Ferdinand Schweser, Uta Biedermann, Daniel Güllmar, Robert Trampel, Robert Turner & Jürgen R. Reichenbach (2013). High-Resolution MR Imaging of the Human Brainstem In Vivo at 7 Tesla. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The human brainstem, which comprises a multitude of axonal nerve fibers and nuclei, plays an important functional role in the human brain. Depicting its anatomy non-invasively with high spatial resolution may thus in turn help to better relate normal and pathological anatomical variations to medical conditions as well as neurological and peripheral functions. We explored the potential of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7T for depicting the intricate anatomy of the human brainstem in vivo by acquiring and generating (...)
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  14. Soraya Seedat Fatima Ahmed, Johan Ras (2012). Volumetric Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Objectives: Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are limited. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been best studied in this regard. We systematically reviewed structural neuroimaging findings in pediatric PTSD and OCD. Methods: The literature was reviewed for all sMRI studies examining volumetric parameters using PubMed, ScienceDirect and PsychInfo databases, with no limit on the time frame of publication. Nine studies in pediatric PTSD and 6 in OCD were suitable (...)
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  15. Iii Jazmin Camchong, Kelvin O. Lim, Scott R. Sponheim, Angus W. Macdonald (2009). Frontal White Matter Integrity as an Endophenotype for Schizophrenia: Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Monozygotic Twins and Patients' Nonpsychotic Relatives. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 24.0
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides anatomical connectivity information by examining the directional organization of white matter microstructure. Anatomical connectivity and its abnormalities may be heritable traits associated with schizophrenia. To further examine this hypothesis, two studies were conducted to compare anatomical connectivity between (a) monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and random pairings among twins and (b) first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and a healthy control group. Analyses focused on frontal regions of the brain following previous findings of anatomical connectivity abnormalities (...)
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  16. Sterling C. Johnson Kimberly D. Farbota, Barbara B. Bendlin, Andrew L. Alexander, Howard A. Rowley, Robert J. Dempsey (2012). Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Neuropsychological Correlates in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Traumatic brain injury often involves focal cortical injury and white matter (WM) damage that can be measured shortly after injury. Additionally, slowly evolving WM change can be observed but there is a paucity of research on the duration and spatial pattern of long-term changes several years post-injury. The current study utilized diffusion tensor imaging to identify regional WM changes in 12 TBI patients and 9 healthy controls at three time points over a four-year period. Neuropsychological testing was also administered (...)
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  17. Nicolas Kopp (2009). How Technologies of Imaging Are Shaping Clinical Research and Practice in Neurology. Medicine Studies 1 (4):315-328.score: 24.0
    How Technologies of Imaging are Shaping Clinical Research and Practice in Neurology Content Type Journal Article Category Past & Present Pages 315-328 DOI 10.1007/s12376-010-0037-1 Authors Nicolas Kopp, Hôpital de l’HotelDieu Lyon University Hospitals, EspaceEthique Inter-régional 69288 Lyon, Cedex 02 France Journal Medicine Studies Online ISSN 1876-4541 Print ISSN 1876-4533 Journal Volume Volume 1 Journal Issue Volume 1, Number 4.
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  18. Vincent P. Clark Michael A. Hunter, Brian A. Coffman, Michael C. Trumbo (2013). Tracking the Neuroplastic Changes Associated with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: A Push for Multimodal Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Tracking the neuroplastic changes associated with transcranial direct current stimulation: a push for multimodal imaging.
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  19. Erik O'Hanlon, Fiona N. Newell & Kevin Mitchell (2013). Combined Structural and Functional Imaging Reveals Cortical Deactivations in Grapheme-Color Synaesthesia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Synaesthesia is a heritable condition in which particular stimuli generate specific and consistent sensory percepts or associations in another modality or processing stream. Functional neuroimaging studies have identified potential correlates of these experiences, including, in some but not all cases, the hyperactivation of visuotemporal areas and of parietal areas thought to be involved in perceptual binding. Structural studies have identified a similarly variable spectrum of differences between synaesthetes and controls. However, it remains unclear the extent to which these neural correlates (...)
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  20. Howard Yonas Stefan Posse, Elena Ackley, Radu Mutihac, Tongsheng Zhang, Ruslan Hummatov, Massoud Akhtari, Muhammad Chohan, Bruce Fisch (2013). High-Speed Real-Time Resting-State fMRI Using Multi-Slab Echo-Volumar Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    We recently demonstrated that ultra-high-speed real-time fMRI using multi-slab echo-volumar imaging (MEVI) significantly increases sensitivity for mapping task-related activation and resting state networks (RSNs) compared to echo-planar imaging (Posse et al. 2012). In the present study we characterize the sensitivity of MEVI for mapping RSN connectivity dynamics, comparing independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel seed-based connectivity analysis (SBCA) that combines sliding-window correlation analysis with meta-statistics. This SBCA approach is shown to minimize the effects of confounds, such as (...)
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  21. R. Zopf, M. Berger, U. Klose & H. O. Karnath (2008). Perfusion Imaging of the Right Perisylvian Neural Network in Acute Spatial Neglect. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:15-15.score: 24.0
    Recent studies have suggested a tightly connected perisylvian neural network associated with spatial neglect. Here we investigated whether structural damage in one part of the network typically is accompanied with functional damage in other, structurally intact areas of this network. By combining normalized fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) we asked whether or not lesions centering on fronto-temporal regions co-occur with abnormal perfusion in structurally intact parietal cortex. We found small areas of (...)
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  22. Emily B. Falk, Baldwin M. Way & Agnes J. Jasinska (2012). An Imaging Genetics Approach to Understanding Social Influence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems (...)
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  23. Anastasia A. Ford, Luis Colon-Perez, William T. Triplett, Joseph M. Gullett, Thomas H. Mareci & David B. FitzGerald (2013). Imaging White Matter in Human Brainstem. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The human brainstem is critical for the control of many life-sustaining functions, such as consciousness, respiration, sleep, and transfer of sensory and motor information between the brain and the spinal cord. Most of our knowledge about structure and organization of white and gray matter within the brainstem is derived from ex vivo dissection and histology studies. However, these methods cannot be applied to study structural architecture in live human participants. Tractography from diffusion-weighted MRI may provide valuable insights about white matter (...)
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  24. Davi Johnson (2008). “How Do You Know Unless You Look?”: Brain Imaging, Biopower and Practical Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 29 (3):147-161.score: 24.0
    Brain imaging is a persuasive visual rhetoric by which neuroscience is articulated as relevant to the construction and maintenance of desirable selves. In this essay, I describe how “brain-based self-help” literature disseminates neuroscientific vocabularies to public audiences. In this genre, brain images are an authoritative visual resource for translating neuroscience into a comprehensive program for living. I use Foucault’s discussion of biopower to describe the ways in which brain-based self-help literature enables self-constitution in a biosocial age where health is (...)
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  25. René C. W. Mandl, Hugo G. Schnack, Marcel P. Zwiers, René S. Kahn & Hilleke E. Hulshoff Pol (2013). Functional Diffusion Tensor Imaging at 3 Tesla. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    In a previous study we reported on a non-invasive functional diffusion tensor imaging (fDTI) method to measure neuronal signals directly from subtle changes in fractional anisotropy along white matter tracts. We hypothesized that these fractional anisotropy changes relate to morphological changes of glial cells induced by axonal activity. In the present study we set out to replicate the results of the previous study with an improved fDTI scan acquisition scheme. A group of twelve healthy human participants were scanned on (...)
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  26. Paulo César Gonçalves Marques, Jose Miguel Soares, Victor Alves & Nuno Sousa (2013). BrainCAT - a Tool for Automated and Combined Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Multimodal neuroimaging studies have recently become a trend in the neuroimaging field and are certainly a standard for the future. Brain connectivity studies combining functional activation patterns using resting-state or task related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) tractography have growing popularity. However, there is a scarcity of solutions to perform optimized, intuitive and consistent multimodal fMRI/DTI studies. Here we propose a new tool, BrainCAT (Brain Connectivity Analysis Tool), for an automated and standard multimodal (...)
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  27. Stefan Michel Marcia Mendes, Adrian Schwaninger (2013). Can Laptops Be Left Inside Passenger Bags If Motion Imaging is Used in X-Ray Security Screening? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    This paper describes a study where a new X-ray machine for security screening featuring motion imaging (i.e. 5 views of a bag are shown as an image sequence) was evaluated and compared to single view imaging available on conventional X-ray screening systems. More specifically, it was investigated whether with this new technology X-ray screening of passenger bags could be enhanced to such an extent that laptops could be left inside passenger bags, without causing a significant impairment in threat (...)
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  28. T. Siva Tian (2010). Functional Data Analysis in Brain Imaging Studies. Frontiers in Psychology 1:35-35.score: 24.0
    Functional data analysis (FDA) considers the continuity of the curves or functions, and is a topic of increasing interest in the statistics community. FDA is commonly applied to time-series and spatial-series studies. The development of functional brain imaging techniques in recent years made it possible to study the relationship between brain and mind over time. Consequently, an enormous amount of functional data is collected and needs to be analyzed. Functional techniques designed for these data are in strong demand. This (...)
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  29. Alexander Geissler, Florian PhS Fischmeister, Günther Grabner, Moritz Wurnig, Jakob Rath, Thomas Foki, Eva Matt, Siegfried Trattnig, Roland Beisteiner & Simon Daniel Robinson (2013). Comparing the Microvascular Specificity of the 3- and 7-T BOLD Response Using ICA and Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 22.0
    In functional MRI it is desirable for the blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to be localized to the tissue containing activated neurons rather than the veins draining that tissue. This study addresses the dependence of the specificity of the BOLD signal – the relative contribution of the BOLD signal arising from tissue compared to venous vessels – on magnetic field strength. To date, studies of specificity have been based on models or indirect measures of BOLD sensitivity such as signal to (...)
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  30. James Bogen (2002). Epistemological Custard Pies From Functional Brain Imaging. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):S59-S71.score: 21.0
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  31. Georg Northoff, Pengmin Qin & Todd E. Feinberg (2011). Brain Imaging of the Self–Conceptual, Anatomical and Methodological Issues. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):52–63.score: 21.0
  32. Adrian M. Owen, Martin R. Coleman, Melanie Boly, Matthew H. Davis, Steven Laureys & John D. Pickard (2007). Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Covert Awareness in the Vegetative State. Archives of Neurology 64 (8):1098-1102.score: 21.0
  33. James R. Kuehl (1970). Perceiving and Imaging. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 31 (December):212-224.score: 21.0
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  34. Irmgard Müller & Heiner Fangerau (2010). Medical Imaging: Pictures, “as If” and the Power of Evidence. [REVIEW] Medicine Studies 2 (3):151-160.score: 21.0
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  35. Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene (2001). The Priming Method: Imaging Unconscious Repetition Priming Reveals an Abstract Representation of Number in the Parietal Lobes. Cerebral Cortex 11 (10):966-974.score: 21.0
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  36. Shanqing Cai, Jason A. Tourville, Deryk S. Beal, Joseph S. Perkell, Frank H. Guenther & Satrajit S. Ghosh (2014). Diffusion Imaging of Cerebral White Matter in Persons Who Stutter: Evidence for Network-Level Anomalies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.score: 21.0
  37. W. Struyve, W. De Baere, J. De Neve & S. De Weirdt (2004). On Peres' Statement “Opposite Momenta Lead to Opposite Directions,” Decaying Systems and Optical Imaging. Foundations of Physics 34 (6):963-985.score: 21.0
  38. Gabriele Gratton & Monica Fabiani (2010). Fast Optical Imaging of Human Brain Function. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 21.0
  39. B. J. Casey, N. Tottenham, C. Liston & S. Durston (2005). Imaging the Developing Brain: What Have We Learned About Cognitive Development? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (3):104-110.score: 21.0
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  40. Sung Ho Jang (2013). Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies on Arcuate Fasciculus in Stroke Patients: A Review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
    Aphasia is one of the most common and devastating sequelae of stroke. The arcuate fasciculus (AF), an important neural tract for language function, connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. In thisreview article, previous DTI studies on the AF in stroke patients were reviewed with regard to the usefulness for diagnosis (seven studies), prediction of prognosis (two studies), and recovery of aphasia (three studies). Although scant studies on this topic have been conducted in stroke patients, DTI for the AF appears to provide (...)
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  41. Dirk Marwede & James Matthew Fielding (2007). Entities and Relations in Medical Imaging: An Analysis of Computed Tomography Reporting. Applied Ontology 2 (1):67-79.score: 21.0
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  42. Kevin K. Park, Hye Won Suk, Heungsun Hwang & Jang-Han Lee (2013). A Functional Analysis of Deception Detection of a Mock Crime Using Infrared Thermal Imaging and the Concealed Information Test. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  43. Jeffrey M. Rothschild, Ramin Khorasani, Richard W. Hanson & Julie M. Fiskio (2002). Do Abnormal Liver Function Tests Predict Inpatient Imaging Yield? An Evaluation of Clinical Decision Making. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (4):397-406.score: 21.0
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  44. William P. Dempsey, Scott E. Fraser & Periklis Pantazis (2012). SHG Nanoprobes: Advancing Harmonic Imaging in Biology. Bioessays 34 (5):351-360.score: 21.0
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  45. D. H. Ffytche (2000). Imaging Conscious Vision. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 21.0
  46. Nathan A. Parks (2013). Concurrent Application of TMS and Near-Infrared Optical Imaging: Methodological Considerations and Potential Artifacts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  47. Martin Ruivenkamp & Arie Rip (2011). Entanglement of Imaging and Imagining of Nanotechnology. Nanoethics 5 (2):185-193.score: 20.0
    Images, ranging from visualizations of the nanoscale to future visions, abound within and beyond the world of nanotechnology. Rather than the contrast between imaging , i.e. creating images that are understood as offering a view on what is out there, and imagining , i.e. creating images offering impressions of how the nanoscale could look like and images presenting visions of worlds that might be realized, it is the entanglement between imaging and imagining which is the key to understanding (...)
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  48. Andreea Smaranda Aldea (2013). Husserl's Struggle with Mental Images: Imaging and Imagining Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 46 (3):371-394.score: 20.0
    Husserl’s extensive analyses of image consciousness (Bildbewusstsein) and of the imagination (Phantasie) offer insightful and detailed structural explications. However, despite this careful work, Husserl’s discussions fail to overcome the need to rely on a most problematic concept: mental images. The epistemological conundrums triggered by the conceptual framework of mental images are well known—we have only to remember the questions regarding knowledge acquisition that plagued British empiricism. Beyond these problems, however, a plethora of important questions arise from claiming that mental images (...)
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  49. M. T. Alkire, R. J. Haier & J. H. Fallon (2000). Toward a Unified Theory of Narcosis: Brain Imaging Evidence for a Thalamocortical Switch as the Neurophysiologic Basis of Anesthetic-Induced Unconsciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (3):370-386.score: 18.0
    A unifying theory of general anesthetic-induced unconsciousness must explain the common mechanism through which various anesthetic agents produce unconsciousness. Functional-brain-imaging data obtained from 11 volunteers during general anesthesia showed specific suppression of regional thalamic and midbrain reticular formation activity across two different commonly used volatile agents. These findings are discussed in relation to findings from sleep neurophysiology and the implications of this work for consciousness research. It is hypothesized that the essential common neurophysiologic mechanism underlying anesthetic-induced unconsciousness is, as (...)
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  50. J. Panksepp & N. Gordon (2003). The Instinctual Basis of Human Affect: Affective Imaging of Laughter and Crying. Consciousness and Emotion 4 (2):197-205.score: 18.0
    The goal of this study was to evaluate affective changes induced during mental imaging of instinctual action patterns. Subjects were first trained to simulate the bodily rhythms of laughter and crying and were then trained to image these processes without any movement. The mere imagination of the motor imagery of laughter and crying were sufficient to significantly facilitate happy and sad mood ratings as monitored by subjective self-report. In contrast, no changes in mood were reported while imaging the (...)
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