Search results for 'Implicit' (try it on Scholar)

  1. Jules Holroyd & Joseph Sweetman (forthcoming). The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias. In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. OUP
    The term 'implicit bias' has very swiftly been incorporated into philosophical discourse. Our aim in this paper is to scrutinise the phenomena that fall under the rubric of implicit bias. The term is often used in a rather broad sense, to capture a range of implicit social cognitions, and this is useful for some purposes. However, we here articulate some of the important differences between phenomena identified as instances of implicit bias. We caution against ignoring these (...)
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  2.  10
    Clea F. Rees (2016). A Virtue Ethics Response to Implicit Bias. In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. Oxford University Press 191-214.
    Virtue ethics faces two challenges based in ‘dual-process’ models of cognition. The classic situationist worry is that we just do not have reliable motivations at all. One promising response invokes an alternative model of cognition which can accommodate evidence cited in support of dual-process models without positing distinct systems for automatic and deliberative processing. The approach appeals to the potential of automatization to habituate virtuous motivations. This response is threatened by implicit bias which raises the worry that we cannot (...)
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  3. Alex Madva (forthcoming). Virtue, Social Knowledge, and Implicit Bias. Implicit Bias and Philosophy: Volume 1, Metaphysics and Epistemology, eds. Jennifer Saul & Michael Brownstein.
    This chapter is centered around an apparent tension that research on implicit bias raises between virtue and social knowledge. Research suggests that simply knowing what the prevalent stereotypes are leads individuals to act in prejudiced ways—biasing decisions about whom to trust and whom to ignore, whom to promote and whom to imprison—even if they reflectively reject those stereotypes. Because efforts to combat discrimination obviously depend on knowledge of stereotypes, a question arises about what to do next. This chapter argues (...)
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  4. Nicolae Morar & Natalia Washington (forthcoming). Implicit Cognition and Gifts: How Does Social Psychology Help Us Think Differently About Medical Practice? Hastings Center Report.
    Policies on gift-giving in the medical profession have been—almost uniquely—created and put into place without taking into account recent findings from the social sciences regarding the ways in which human psychology functions. In this paper we intend to fill this gap and approach the question of gift-giving practices from the recent literature on implicit cognition. Our main claim is that proper consideration of implicit social cognition paints a picture of human psychology which is very different from (...)
     
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  5. Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1999). A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of (...)
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  6. Eric Mandelbaum (2015). Attitude, Inference, Association: On the Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias. Noûs 49 (3).
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between different understandings of association, and I argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and mental process senses. A hypothesis is subsequently derived: if associations really underpin implicit biases, then implicit biases should (...)
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  7. Arthur S. Reber (1993). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford University Press.
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, (...)
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  8.  33
    Ema Sullivan-Bissett (2015). Implicit Bias, Confabulation, and Epistemic Innocence. Consciousness and Cognition 33:548-560.
    In this paper I explore the nature of confabulatory explanations of action guided by implicit bias. I claim that such explanations can have significant epistemic benefits in spite of their obvious epistemic costs, and that such benefits are not otherwise obtainable by the subject at the time at which the explanation is offered. I start by outlining the kinds of cases I have in mind, before characterising the phenomenon of confabulation by focusing on a few common features. Then I (...)
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  9.  26
    James R. Schmidt, Matthew J. C. Crump, Jim Cheesman & Derek Besner (2007). Contingency Learning Without Awareness: Evidence for Implicit Control. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):421-435.
    The results of four experiments provide evidence for controlled processing in the absence of awareness. Participants identified the colour of a neutral distracter word. Each of four words was presented in one of the four colours 75% of the time or 50% of the time . Colour identification was faster when the words appeared in the colour they were most often presented in relative to when they appeared in another colour, even for participants who were subjectively unaware of any contingencies (...)
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  10. Jules Holroyd & Dan Kelly (forthcoming). Implicit Bias, Character and Control. In Jonathan Webber & Alberto Masala (eds.), From Personality to Virtue.
    Our focus here is on whether, when influenced by implicit biases, those behavioural dispositions should be understood as being a part of that person’s character: whether they are part of the agent that can be morally evaluated.[4] We frame this issue in terms of control. If a state, process, or behaviour is not something that the agent can, in the relevant sense, control, then it is not something that counts as part of her character. A number of theorists have (...)
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  11.  9
    Alexis Shotwell (2011). Knowing Otherwise: Race, Gender, and Implicit Understanding. Penn State.
    "Draws on philosophers, political theorists, activists, and poets to explain how unspoken and unspeakable knowledge is important to racial and gender formation; offers a usable conception of implicit understanding"--Provided by publishers.
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  12.  29
    Alex Madva (forthcoming). Why Implicit Attitudes Are (Probably) Not Beliefs. Synthese:1-26.
    Should we understand implicit attitudes on the model of belief? I argue that implicit attitudes are (probably) members of a different psychological kind altogether, because they seem to be insensitive to the logical form of an agent’s thoughts and perceptions. A state is sensitive to logical form only if it is sensitive to the logical constituents of the content of other states (e.g., operators like negation and conditional). I explain sensitivity to logical form and argue that it is (...)
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  13. Chloë Fitzgerald (2014). A Neglected Aspect of Conscience: Awareness of Implicit Attitudes. Bioethics 28 (1):24-32.
    The conception of conscience that dominates discussions in bioethics focuses narrowly on private regulation of behaviour resulting from explicit attitudes. It neglects to mention implicit attitudes and the role of social feedback in becoming aware of one's implicit attitudes. But if conscience is a way of ensuring that a person's behaviour is in line with her moral values, it must be responsive to all aspects of the mind that influence behaviour. There is a wealth of recent psychological work (...)
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  14.  33
    Peter L. Samuelson, Matthew J. Jarvinen, Thomas B. Paulus, Ian M. Church, Sam A. Hardy & Justin L. Barrett (forthcoming). Implicit Theories of Intellectual Virtues and Vices: A Focus on Intellectual Humility. Journal of Positive Psychology.
    The study of intellectual humility is still in its early stages and issues of definition and measurement are only now being explored. To inform and guide the process of defining and measuring this important intellectual virtue, we conducted a series of studies into the implicit theory – or ‘folk’ understanding – of an intellectually humble person, a wise person, and an intellectually arrogant person. In Study 1, 350 adults used a free-listing procedure to generate a list of descriptors, one (...)
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  15.  54
    Vincian Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans (2006). First and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.
    How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is “We just ask them”! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.
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  16. Thomas Kroedel (2012). Implicit Definition and the Application of Logic. Philosophical Studies 158 (1):131-148.
    The paper argues that the theory of Implicit Definition cannot give an account of knowledge of logical principles. According to this theory, the meanings of certain expressions are determined such that they make certain principles containing them true; this is supposed to explain our knowledge of the principles as derived from our knowledge of what the expressions mean. The paper argues that this explanation succeeds only if Implicit Definition can account for our understanding of the logical constants, and (...)
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  17.  10
    D. Schneider, V. P. Slaughter, A. P. Bayliss & P. E. Dux (2013). A Temporally Sustained Implicit Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Cognition 129 (2):410-417.
    Eye movements during false-belief tasks can reveal an individual's capacity to implicitly monitor others' mental states (theory of mind - ToM). It has been suggested, based on the results of a single-trial-experiment, that this ability is impaired in those with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), despite neurotypical-like performance on explicit ToM measures. However, given there are known attention differences and visual hypersensitivities in ASD it is important to establish whether such impairments are evident over time. In addition, investigating (...) ToM using a repeated trial approach allows an assessment of whether learning processes can reduce the ASD impairment in this ability, as is the case with explicit ToM. Here we investigated the temporal profile of implicit ToM in individuals with ASD and a control group. Despite similar performance on explicit ToM measures, ASD-diagnosed individuals showed no evidence of implicit false-belief tracking even over a one-hour period and many trials, whereas control participants did. These findings demonstrate that the systems involved in implicit and explicit ToM are distinct and hint that impaired implicit false-belief tracking may play an important role in ASD. Further, they indicate that learning processes do not alleviate this impairment across the presentation of multiple trials. (shrink)
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  18. Ben Baker (2012). Boghossian's Implicit Definition Template. In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Philosophical and Formal Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Ontos-Verlag 15.
    In Boghossian's 1997 paper, 'Analyticity' he presented an account of a prioriknowledge of basic logical principles as available by inference from knowledge of their role in determining the meaning of the logical constants by implicit definitiontogether with knowledge of the meanings so-determined that we possess through ourprivileged access to meaning. Some commentators (e.g. BonJour (1998), Glüer (2003),Jenkins (2008)) have objected that if the thesis of implicit definition on which he relieswere true, knowledge of the meaning of the constants (...)
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  19.  4
    Stephen G. Simpson (forthcoming). Implicit Definability in Arithmetic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic.
    We consider implicit definability over the natural number system $\mathbb{N},+,\times,=$. We present a new proof of two theorems of Leo Harrington. The first theorem says that there exist implicitly definable subsets of $\mathbb{N}$ which are not explicitly definable from each other. The second theorem says that there exists a subset of $\mathbb{N}$ which is not implicitly definable but belongs to a countable, explicitly definable set of subsets of $\mathbb{N}$. Previous proofs of these theorems have used finite- or infinite-injury (...)
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  20.  27
    Brendan S. Gillon (2012). Implicit Complements: A Dilemma for Model Theoretic Semantics. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (4):313-359.
    I show that words with indefinite implicit complements occasion a dilemma for their model theory. There has been only two previous attempts to address this problem, one by Fodor and Fodor (1980) and one by Dowty (1981). Each requires that any word tolerating an implicit complement be treated as ambiguous between two different lexical entries and that a meaning postulate or lexical rule be given to constrain suitably the meanings of the various entries for the word. I show (...)
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  21.  31
    Robert M. French (2002). Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical, Philosophical, and Computational Consensus in the Making. Psychology Press.
    Implicit Learning and Consciousness challenges conventional wisdom and presents the most up-to-date studies to define, quantify and test the predictions of the main models of implicit learning. The chapters include a variety of research from computer modeling, experimental psychology and neural imaging to the clinical data resulting from work with amnesics. The result is a topical book that provides an overview of the debate on implicit learning, and the various philosophical, psychological and neurological frameworks in which it (...)
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  22.  34
    Nicki Marquardt & Rainer Hoeger (2009). The Effect of Implicit Moral Attitudes on Managerial Decision-Making: An Implicit Social Cognition Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):157 - 171.
    This article concerns itself with the relationship between implicit moral cognitions and decisions in the realm of business ethics. Traditionally, business ethics research emphasized the effects of overt or explicit attitudes on ethical decision-making and neglected intuitive or implicit attitudes. Therefore, based on an implicit social cognition approach it is important to know whether implicit moral attitudes may have a substantial impact on managerial ethical decision-making processes. To test this thesis, a study with 50 participants was (...)
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  23.  10
    Kanji Tanaka & Katsumi Watanabe (2014). Implicit Transfer of Reversed Temporal Structure in Visuomotor Sequence Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (3):565-579.
    Some spatio-temporal structures are easier to transfer implicitly in sequential learning. In this study, we investigated whether the consistent reversal of triads of learned components would support the implicit transfer of their temporal structure in visuomotor sequence learning. A triad comprised three sequential button presses ([1][2][3]) and seven consecutive triads comprised a sequence. Participants learned sequences by trial and error, until they could complete it 20 times without error. Then, they learned another sequence, in which each triad was reversed (...)
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  24.  6
    Siri Granum Carson, Øivind Hagen & S. Prakash Sethi (2015). From Implicit to Explicit CSR in a Scandinavian Context: The Cases of HÅG and Hydro. Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):17-31.
    The aim of this article is to explain the transition from implicit CSR to explicit CSR that has taken place in Scandinavia over the last two decades. Matten and Moon’s distinction between implicit and explicit CSR is the point of departure for the analysis, which is based on case studies of two Norwegian companies: HÅG and Hydro. On the basis of these case studies, we identify two forces that are pushing the transition from implicit to explicit CSR (...)
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  25.  4
    Helge Skirbekk (2009). Negotiated or Taken-for-Granted Trust? Explicit and Implicit Interpretations of Trust in a Medical Setting. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (1):3-7.
    Trust between a patient and a medical doctor is normally both justified and taken for granted, but sometimes it may need to be negotiated. In this paper I will present how trust can be interpreted as both an explicit and implicit phenomenon, drawing on literature from the social sciences and philosophy. The distinction between explicit and implicit interpretations of trust will be used to address problems that may arise in clinical consultations. Negotiating trust in any way very easily (...)
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  26. Nicolae Morar & Natalia Washington (forthcoming). Implicit Cognition and Gifts: How Does Social Psychology Help Us Think Differently About Medical Practice? Hastings Center Report.
    Policies on gift-giving in the medical profession have been—almost uniquely—created and put into place without taking into account recent findings from the social sciences regarding the ways in which human psychology functions. In this paper we intend to fill this gap and approach the question of gift-giving practices from the recent literature on implicit cognition. Our main claim is that proper consideration of implicit social cognition paints a picture of human psychology which is very different from the one (...)
     
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  27.  61
    Alessandro Giordani (2015). A Suitable Semantics for Implicit and Explicit Belief. Logique Et Analyse 58 (231).
    In the present paper a new semantic framework for modelling the distinction between implicit and explicit belief is proposed and contrasted with the currently standard framework based on the idea that explicit belief can be construed as implicit belief accompanied by awareness. It is argued that within this new framework it is possible to get both a more intuitive interpretation of the aforementioned distinction and a straightforward solution to two critical problems to which the standard view is subjected. (...)
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  28.  59
    Frank Jackson (2000). Psychological Explanation and Implicit Theory. Philosophical Explorations 3 (1):83-95.
    I offer an account of the relation between explanations of behaviour in terms of psychological states and explanations in terms of neural states that: makes it transparent how they can be true together; explains why explanations in terms of psychological states are characteristically of behaviour described in general and relational terms, and explains why certain sorts of neurological investigations undermine psychological explanations of behaviour, while others leave them intact. In the course of the argument, I offer an account of (...) theories. (shrink)
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  29.  7
    Olaf Karitzki & Alexander Brink (2003). How Can We Act Morally in a Merger Process? A Stimulation Based on Implicit Contracts. Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):137 - 152.
    The intention of the article is to offer stakeholders affected by mergers a criterion from which moral arguments may be generated for the organization of each individual case. The criterion: "Any operation causing legitimate interests to suffer vital infringement should be avoided in a merger process." A vital infringement of these interests is assumed when the merger undermines unique positive opportunities or considerable impairment in the future, impossible to overcome for the person affected without an unacceptable level of difficulty. Therefore, (...)
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  30.  46
    Alessandro Giordani (2013). On the Factivity of Implicit Intersubjective Knowledge. Synthese (8):1-15.
    The concept of knowledge can be modelled in epistemic modal logic and, if modelled by using a standard modal operator, it is subject to the problem of logical omniscience. The classical solution to this problem is to distinguish between implicit and explicit knowledge and to construe the knowledge operator as capturing the concept of implicit knowledge. In addition, since a proposition is said to be implicitly known just in case it is derivable from the set of propositions that (...)
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  31.  12
    Tillmann Vierkant & Rosa Hardt (2015). Explicit Reasons, Implicit Stereotypes and the Effortful Control of the Mind. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (2):251-265.
    Research in psychology clearly shows that implicit biases contribute significantly to our behaviour. What is less clear, however, is whether we are responsible for our implicit biases in the same way that we are responsible for our explicit beliefs. Neil Levy has argued recently that explicit beliefs are special with regard to the responsibility we have for them, because they unify the agent. In this paper we point out multiple ways in which implicit biases also unify the (...)
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  32.  3
    Andrada Fătu-Tutoveanu (2015). “The Return of the Sacred”: Implicit Religion and Initiation Symbolism in Zvyagintsev’s Vozvrashchenie. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 14 (42):198-230.
    Recent studies have been increasingly interested in the connections between popular culture – cinema in particular – and religion, and most particularly in how traditional mythologies and religious frameworks and practices are recycled and reinterpreted within modern media. These interactions can be ranged from opposition to dialogue and move towards appropriation and even replacement, in terms of functions and impact. Departing from a series of theories – mainly that of “implicit religion”, coined by Bailey but also developed by theorists (...)
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  33.  1
    Susana Silva, Vasiliki Folia, Peter Hagoort & Karl Magnus Petersson (2016). The P600 in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning. Cognitive Science 40 (3).
    The suitability of the artificial grammar learning paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is a response to surface features rather than the underlying syntax structure. Therefore, in this study, we controlled for the surface characteristics of the test sequences and recorded the EEG before and after exposure (...)
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  34.  47
    Itamar Francez (2010). Context Dependence and Implicit Arguments in Existentials. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (1):11-30.
    This paper discusses the semantics of bare existentials , i.e. existentials in which nothing follows the post copular NP (e.g. There are four sections ). While it has sometimes been recognized that the interpretation of such sentences depends in some way on context, the exact nature of the context dependence involved has not been properly understood. It is shown that the meaning of bare existentials involves a set-denoting implicit argument, and that the range of interpretations found with bare existentials (...)
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  35.  13
    Philip Gerrans & David Sander (2014). Feeling the Future: Prospects for a Theory of Implicit Prospection. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):699-710.
    Mental time travel refers to the ability of an organism to project herself backward and forward in time, using episodic memory and imagination to simulate past and future experiences. The evolution of mental time travel gives humans a unique capacity for prospection: the ability to pre-experience the future. Discussions of mental time travel treat it as an instance of explicit prospection. We argue that implicit simulations of past and future experience can also be used as a way of gaining (...)
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  36.  11
    Soo-Yeon Kim & Susumu Kuno (2013). A Note on Sluicing with Implicit Indefinite Correlates. Natural Language Semantics 21 (4):315-332.
    This squib aims to show that the acceptability status of sluicing examples with an implicit antecedent in islands varies and discusses what is responsible for this variability. After investigating two representative structural approaches to sluicing that posit unpronounced structure in ellipsis sites, namely, Chung et al.’s Representing language: Essays in honor of Judith Aissen, 2010) LF-recovery analysis and Merchant’s PF-deletion analysis, we demonstrate that the acceptability data presented are challenging for both of them. Acceptable sluicing examples with implicit (...)
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  37.  9
    Demetra Christopoulou (2013). On the Synthetic Content of Implicit Definitions. Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):75-88.
    This paper addresses the issue of stipulation in three cases of implicit definitions . It argues that the alleged implicit definitions do not have a purely stipulative status. Stipulation of the vehicles of the implicit definitions in question should end up with true postulates. However, those postulates should not be taken to be true only in virtue of stipulation since they have extra commitments. Horwich’s worry emerges in all three kinds of implicit definitions under consideration, since (...)
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  38.  6
    Andrada Fatu-Tutoveanu & Corneliu Pintilescu (2012). Religious “Avatars” and Implicit Religion: Recycling Myths and Religious Patterns Within Contemporary US Popular Culture. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 11 (33):182-205.
    Contemporary cultural and media studies have been increasingly interested in redefining the relations between religion and culture (and particularly popular culture). The present study approaches a series of theories on the manner in which religious aspects emerge and are integrated in contemporary cultural manifestations, focusing on the persistence/resurrection of religious patterns into secularized cultural contents. Thus, the analysis departs from the concept of implicit religion, coined and developed by Bailey and the theories following it, as well (...)
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  39.  3
    Bryan Roche, Anthony O'Reilly, Amanda Gavin, Maria R. Ruiz & Gabriela Arancibia (2012). Using Behavior-Analytic Implicit Tests to Assess Sexual Interests Among Normal and Sex-Offender Populations. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.
    Background: The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards (...)
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  40.  3
    Kieran O'Halloran (2009). Implicit Dialogical Premises, Explanation as Argument: A Corpus-Based Reconstruction. Informal Logic 29 (1):15-53.
    This paper focuses on an explanation in a newspaper article: why new European Union citizens will come to the UK from Eastern Europe (e.g., because of available jobs). Using a corpus-based method of analysis, I show how regular target readers have been positioned to generate premises in dialogue with the explanation propositions, and thus into an understanding of the explanation as an argument, one which contains a biased conclusion not apparent in the text. Employing this method, and in particular ‘corpus (...)
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  41.  1
    Timothy H. McNicholl (2008). A Uniformly Computable Implicit Function Theorem. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 54 (3):272-279.
    We prove uniformly computable versions of the Implicit Function Theorem in its differentiable and non-differentiable forms. We show that the resulting operators are not computable if information about some of the partial derivatives of the implicitly defining function is omitted. Finally, as a corollary, we obtain a uniformly computable Inverse Function Theorem, first proven by M. Ziegler.
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  42. Axel Cleeremans & Luis Jimenez (2002). Implicit Learning and Consciousness: A Graded, Dynamic Perspective. In Robert M. French & Axel Cleeremans (eds.), Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical. Psychology Press
    While the study of implicit learning is nothing new, the field as a whole has come to embody — over the last decade or so — ongoing questioning about three of the most fundamental debates in the cognitive sciences: The nature of consciousness, the nature of mental representation (in particular the difficult issue of abstraction), and the role of experience in shaping the cognitive system. Our main goal in this chapter is to offer a framework that attempts to integrate (...)
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  43. James S. Uleman, Steven L. Blader & Alexander Todorov (2005). Implicit Impressions. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press 362-392.
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  44.  16
    Martin Rohrmeier & Patrick Rebuschat (2012). Implicit Learning and Acquisition of Music. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):525-553.
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  45.  21
    Benton J. Underwood (1965). False Recognition Produced by Implicit Verbal Responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (1):122.
  46.  61
    Laurie T. Butler & Dianne C. Berry (2001). Implicit Memory: Intention and Awareness Revisited. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (5):192-197.
  47.  32
    Sunbin Song, Howard Jr, James H. & Darlene V. Howard (2007). Implicit Probabilistic Sequence Learning is Independent of Explicit Awareness. Learning and Memory 14 (1-6):167-176.
  48.  36
    Axel Cleeremans & L. JimC)nez (1998). Implicit Sequence Learning: The Truth is in the Details. In Michael A. Stadler & Peter A. Frensch (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Learning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
    Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative deterministic sequences (...)
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  49. Dianne C. Berry (ed.) (1997). How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press.
    Implicit learning is said to occur when a person learns about a complex stimulus without necessarily intending to do so, and in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express. Over the last 30 years, a number of studies have claimed to show evidence of implicit learning. In more recent years, however, considerable debate has arisen over the extent to which cognitive tasks can in fact be learned implicitly. Much of the debate has centred on (...)
     
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  50. Ran R. Hassin (2005). Nonconscious Control and Implicit Working Memory. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press 196-222.
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