Search results for 'Implicit' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jules Holroyd & Joseph Sweetman (forthcoming). The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias. In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. OUP.score: 27.0
    The term 'implicit bias' has very swiftly been incorporated into philosophical discourse. Our aim in this paper is to scrutinise the phenomena that fall under the rubric of implicit bias. The term is often used in a rather broad sense, to capture a range of implicit social cognitions, and this is useful for some purposes. However, we here articulate some of the important differences between phenomena identified as instances of implicit bias. We caution against ignoring these (...)
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  2. Arthur S. Reber (1993). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, one (...)
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  3. Eric Mandelbaum, Attitude, Inference, Association: On The Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.score: 24.0
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between understandings of association as a theory of learning, a theory of cognitive structure, a theory of mental processes, and as an implementation base for cognition. I then argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure (...)
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  4. Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1999). A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.score: 24.0
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of (...)
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  5. Jules Holroyd & Dan Kelly (forthcoming). Implicit Bias, Character and Control. In Jonathan Webber & Alberto Masala (eds.), From Personality to Virtue.score: 24.0
    Our focus here is on whether, when influenced by implicit biases, those behavioural dispositions should be understood as being a part of that person’s character: whether they are part of the agent that can be morally evaluated.[4] We frame this issue in terms of control. If a state, process, or behaviour is not something that the agent can, in the relevant sense, control, then it is not something that counts as part of her character. A number of theorists have (...)
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  6. Thomas Kroedel (2012). Implicit Definition and the Application of Logic. Philosophical Studies 158 (1):131-148.score: 24.0
    The paper argues that the theory of Implicit Definition cannot give an account of knowledge of logical principles. According to this theory, the meanings of certain expressions are determined such that they make certain principles containing them true; this is supposed to explain our knowledge of the principles as derived from our knowledge of what the expressions mean. The paper argues that this explanation succeeds only if Implicit Definition can account for our understanding of the logical constants, and (...)
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  7. Ben Baker (2012). Boghossian's Implicit Definition Template. In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Philosophical and Formal Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Ontos-Verlag. 15.score: 24.0
    In Boghossian's 1997 paper, 'Analyticity' he presented an account of a prioriknowledge of basic logical principles as available by inference from knowledge of their role in determining the meaning of the logical constants by implicit definitiontogether with knowledge of the meanings so-determined that we possess through ourprivileged access to meaning. Some commentators (e.g. BonJour (1998), Glüer (2003),Jenkins (2008)) have objected that if the thesis of implicit definition on which he relieswere true, knowledge of the meaning of the constants (...)
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  8. Frank Jackson (2000). Psychological Explanation and Implicit Theory. Philosophical Explorations 3 (1):83-95.score: 24.0
    I offer an account of the relation between explanations of behaviour in terms of psychological states and explanations in terms of neural states that: makes it transparent how they can be true together; explains why explanations in terms of psychological states are characteristically of behaviour described in general and relational terms, and explains why certain sorts of neurological investigations undermine psychological explanations of behaviour, while others leave them intact. In the course of the argument, I offer an account of (...) theories. (shrink)
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  9. Alessandro Giordani (forthcoming). A Suitable Semantics for Implicit and Explicit Belief. Logique Et Analyse.score: 24.0
    In the present paper a new semantic framework for modelling the distinction between implicit and explicit belief is proposed and contrasted with the currently standard framework based on the idea that explicit belief can be construed as implicit belief accompanied by awareness. It is argued that within this new framework it is possible to get both a more intuitive interpretation of the aforementioned distinction and a straightforward solution to two critical problems to which the standard view is subjected. (...)
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  10. Robert M. French (2002). Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical, Philosophical, and Computational Consensus in the Making. Psychology Press.score: 24.0
    Implicit Learning and Consciousness challenges conventional wisdom and presents the most up-to-date studies to define, quantify and test the predictions of the main models of implicit learning. The chapters include a variety of research from computer modeling, experimental psychology and neural imaging to the clinical data resulting from work with amnesics. The result is a topical book that provides an overview of the debate on implicit learning, and the various philosophical, psychological and neurological frameworks in which it (...)
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  11. Itamar Francez (2010). Context Dependence and Implicit Arguments in Existentials. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (1):11-30.score: 24.0
    This paper discusses the semantics of bare existentials , i.e. existentials in which nothing follows the post copular NP (e.g. There are four sections ). While it has sometimes been recognized that the interpretation of such sentences depends in some way on context, the exact nature of the context dependence involved has not been properly understood. It is shown that the meaning of bare existentials involves a set-denoting implicit argument, and that the range of interpretations found with bare existentials (...)
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  12. Alessandro Giordani (2013). On the Factivity of Implicit Intersubjective Knowledge. Synthese (8):1-15.score: 24.0
    The concept of knowledge can be modelled in epistemic modal logic and, if modelled by using a standard modal operator, it is subject to the problem of logical omniscience. The classical solution to this problem is to distinguish between implicit and explicit knowledge and to construe the knowledge operator as capturing the concept of implicit knowledge. In addition, since a proposition is said to be implicitly known just in case it is derivable from the set of propositions that (...)
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  13. Nicki Marquardt & Rainer Hoeger (2009). The Effect of Implicit Moral Attitudes on Managerial Decision-Making: An Implicit Social Cognition Approach. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):157 - 171.score: 24.0
    This article concerns itself with the relationship between implicit moral cognitions and decisions in the realm of business ethics. Traditionally, business ethics research emphasized the effects of overt or explicit attitudes on ethical decision-making and neglected intuitive or implicit attitudes. Therefore, based on an implicit social cognition approach it is important to know whether implicit moral attitudes may have a substantial impact on managerial ethical decision-making processes. To test this thesis, a study with 50 participants was (...)
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  14. Vincian Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans (2006). First and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.score: 24.0
    How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is “We just ask them”! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.
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  15. Chloë Fitzgerald (2014). A Neglected Aspect of Conscience: Awareness of Implicit Attitudes. Bioethics 28 (1):24-32.score: 24.0
    The conception of conscience that dominates discussions in bioethics focuses narrowly on private regulation of behaviour resulting from explicit attitudes. It neglects to mention implicit attitudes and the role of social feedback in becoming aware of one's implicit attitudes. But if conscience is a way of ensuring that a person's behaviour is in line with her moral values, it must be responsive to all aspects of the mind that influence behaviour. There is a wealth of recent psychological work (...)
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  16. Philip Gerrans & David Sander (2014). Feeling the Future: Prospects for a Theory of Implicit Prospection. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):699-710.score: 24.0
    Mental time travel refers to the ability of an organism to project herself backward and forward in time, using episodic memory and imagination to simulate past and future experiences. The evolution of mental time travel gives humans a unique capacity for prospection: the ability to pre-experience the future. Discussions of mental time travel treat it as an instance of explicit prospection. We argue that implicit simulations of past and future experience can also be used as a way of gaining (...)
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  17. Brendan S. Gillon (2012). Implicit Complements: A Dilemma for Model Theoretic Semantics. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (4):313-359.score: 24.0
    I show that words with indefinite implicit complements occasion a dilemma for their model theory. There has been only two previous attempts to address this problem, one by Fodor and Fodor (1980) and one by Dowty (1981). Each requires that any word tolerating an implicit complement be treated as ambiguous between two different lexical entries and that a meaning postulate or lexical rule be given to constrain suitably the meanings of the various entries for the word. I show (...)
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  18. Soo-Yeon Kim & Susumu Kuno (2013). A Note on Sluicing with Implicit Indefinite Correlates. Natural Language Semantics 21 (4):315-332.score: 24.0
    This squib aims to show that the acceptability status of sluicing examples with an implicit antecedent in islands varies and discusses what is responsible for this variability. After investigating two representative structural approaches to sluicing that posit unpronounced structure in ellipsis sites, namely, Chung et al.’s (Nat Lang Semant 3:239–282, 1995; in Mikkelsen et al. (eds) Representing language: Essays in honor of Judith Aissen, 2010) LF-recovery analysis and Merchant’s (The syntax of silence: Sluicing, islands, and identity in ellipsis. Oxford: (...)
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  19. Oliver C. Schultheiss & Anja Schiepe-Tiska (2013). The Role of the Dorsoanterior Striatum in Implicit Motivation: The Case of the Need for Power. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower) scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a) enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions) in behavioral studies and (b) activation of the (...)
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  20. Andrada Fatu-Tutoveanu & Corneliu Pintilescu (2012). Religious “Avatars” and Implicit Religion: Recycling Myths and Religious Patterns Within Contemporary US Popular Culture. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 11 (33):182-205.score: 24.0
    Contemporary cultural and media studies have been increasingly interested in redefining the relations between religion and culture (and particularly popular culture). The present study approaches a series of theories on the manner in which religious aspects emerge and are integrated in contemporary cultural manifestations, focusing on the persistence/resurrection of religious patterns into secularized cultural contents. Thus, the analysis departs from the concept of implicit religion, coined and developed by Bailey and the theories following it, as well as other associated (...)
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  21. D. Schneider, V. P. Slaughter, A. P. Bayliss & P. E. Dux (2013). A Temporally Sustained Implicit Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Cognition 129 (2):410-417.score: 24.0
    Eye movements during false-belief tasks can reveal an individual's capacity to implicitly monitor others' mental states (theory of mind - ToM). It has been suggested, based on the results of a single-trial-experiment, that this ability is impaired in those with a high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD), despite neurotypical-like performance on explicit ToM measures. However, given there are known attention differences and visual hypersensitivities in ASD it is important to establish whether such impairments are evident over time. In addition, investigating (...) ToM using a repeated trial approach allows an assessment of whether learning processes can reduce the ASD impairment in this ability, as is the case with explicit ToM. Here we investigated the temporal profile of implicit ToM in individuals with ASD and a control group. Despite similar performance on explicit ToM measures, ASD-diagnosed individuals showed no evidence of implicit false-belief tracking even over a one-hour period and many trials, whereas control participants did. These findings demonstrate that the systems involved in implicit and explicit ToM are distinct and hint that impaired implicit false-belief tracking may play an important role in ASD. Further, they indicate that learning processes do not alleviate this impairment across the presentation of multiple trials. (shrink)
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  22. Harald T. Schupp & Britta Renner (2011). The Implicit Nature of the Anti-Fat Bias. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:23.score: 24.0
    The stigmatization and discrimination of obese persons is pervasive in almost any domain of living. At the explicit level, obese people are associated with a wide range of negative characteristics. Furthermore, research with the implicit association test revealed the implicit nature of the anti-fat bias. Building upon these findings, the present study used event-related brain potential recordings in order to assess key features of implicit processes. Participants viewed a series of schematic portrayals of anorexic, medium, and obese (...)
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  23. Demetra Christopoulou (2013). On the Synthetic Content of Implicit Definitions. Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):75-88.score: 24.0
    This paper addresses the issue of stipulation in three cases of implicit definitions (postulates of scientific terms, systems of axioms and abstraction principles). It argues that the alleged implicit definitions do not have a purely stipulative status. Stipulation of the vehicles of the implicit definitions in question should end up with true postulates. However, those postulates should not be taken to be true only in virtue of stipulation since they have extra commitments. Horwich’s worry emerges in all (...)
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  24. Harry Farmer, Lara Maister & Manos Tsakiris (2014). Change My Body, Change My Mind: The Effects of Illusory Ownership of an Outgroup Hand on Implicit Attitudes Toward That Outgroup. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of (...)
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  25. Olaf Karitzki & Alexander Brink (2003). How Can We Act Morally in a Merger Process? A Stimulation Based on Implicit Contracts. Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):137 - 152.score: 24.0
    The intention of the article is to offer stakeholders affected by mergers a criterion from which moral arguments may be generated for the organization of each individual case. The criterion: "Any operation causing legitimate interests to suffer vital infringement should be avoided in a merger process." A vital infringement of these interests is assumed when the merger undermines unique positive opportunities or considerable impairment in the future, impossible to overcome for the person affected without an unacceptable level of difficulty. Therefore, (...)
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  26. Patrick C. M. Wong Marc Ettlinger, Elizabeth H. Margulis (2011). Implicit Memory in Music and Language. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and (...)
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  27. Kieran O'Halloran (2009). Implicit Dialogical Premises, Explanation as Argument: A Corpus-Based Reconstruction. Informal Logic 29 (1):15-53.score: 24.0
    This paper focuses on an explanation in a newspaper article: why new European Union citizens will come to the UK from Eastern Europe (e.g., because of available jobs). Using a corpus-based method of analysis, I show how regular target readers have been positioned to generate premises in dialogue with the explanation propositions, and thus into an understanding of the explanation as an argument, one which contains a biased conclusion not apparent in the text. Employing this method, and in particular ‘corpus (...)
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  28. Oliver C. Schultheiss (2013). Are Implicit Motives Revealed in Mere Words? Testing the Marker-Word Hypothesis with Computer-Based Text Analysis. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., nonconscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in word frequencies. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Francis, & Booth, 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, (...)
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  29. Alexis Shotwell (2011). Knowing Otherwise: Race, Gender, and Implicit Understanding. Penn State.score: 24.0
    "Draws on philosophers, political theorists, activists, and poets to explain how unspoken and unspeakable knowledge is important to racial and gender formation; offers a usable conception of implicit understanding"--Provided by publishers.
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  30. Helge Skirbekk (2009). Negotiated or Taken-for-Granted Trust? Explicit and Implicit Interpretations of Trust in a Medical Setting. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (1):3-7.score: 24.0
    Trust between a patient and a medical doctor is normally both justified and taken for granted, but sometimes it may need to be negotiated. In this paper I will present how trust can be interpreted as both an explicit and implicit phenomenon, drawing on literature from the social sciences and philosophy. The distinction between explicit and implicit interpretations of trust will be used to address problems that may arise in clinical consultations. Negotiating trust in any way very easily (...)
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  31. Ralf Schmälzle, Harald T. Schupp, Alexander Barth & Britta Renner (2011). Implicit and Explicit Processes in Risk Perception: Neural Antecedents of Perceived HIV Risk. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 24.0
    Field studies on HIV risk suggest that people may rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner at the dispense of more objective risk protection strategies. In this study, ERP recordings were used to investigate the brain mechanisms that give rise to such impressions. First, in an implicit condition, participants viewed a series of photographs of unacquainted persons while performing a task that did not mention HIV risk. Second, in an explicit condition, participants estimated the HIV (...)
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  32. Satoshi Shioiri Taiga Tsuchiai, Kazumichi Matsumiya, Ichiro Kuriki (2012). Implicit Learning of Viewpoint-Independent Spatial Layouts. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and (...)
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  33. Taiga Tsuchiai, Kazumichi Matsumiya, Ichiro Kuriki & Satoshi Shioiri (2012). Implicit Learning of Viewpoint-Independent Spatial Layouts. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and (...)
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  34. Heather A. Berlin Alexis N. Hedrick (2012). Implicit Self-Esteem in Borderline Personality and Depersonalization Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Self-identity is disrupted in people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and depersonalization disorder (DPD), fluctuating with sudden shifts in affect in BPD and experienced as detached in DPD. Measures of implicit self-esteem, free from conscious control and presentation biases, may highlight how such disruptions of self-concept differentially affect these two populations on an unconscious level. We examined implicit self-esteem using the Implicit Association Test, along with measures of emotion, behavior, and temperament, in BPD (n=18), DPD (n=18), and (...)
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  35. Dorit Kliemann, Gabriela Rosenblau, Sven Boelte, Hauke R. Heekeren & Isabel Dziobek (2013). Face Puzzle—Two New Video-Based Tasks for Measuring Explicit and Implicit Aspects of Facial Emotion Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Recognizing others’ emotional states is crucial for effective social interaction. While most facial emotion recognition tasks use explicit prompts that trigger consciously controlled processing, emotional faces are almost exclusively processed implicitly in real life. Recent attempts in social cognition suggest a dual process perspective, whereby explicit and implicit processes largely operate independently. However, due to differences in methodology the direct comparison of implicit and explicit social cognition has remained a challenge. Here, we introduce a new tool to comparably (...)
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  36. Michael J. Tarr Leslie E. Roos, Sophie Lebrecht, James W. Tanaka (2013). Can Singular Examples Change Implicit Attitudes in the Real-World? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing (...)
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  37. Beate Sodian Markus Paulus, Joelle Proust (2013). Examining Implicit Metacognition in 3.5-Year-Old Children: An Eye-Tracking and Pupillometric Study. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    The current study examined early signs of implicit metacognitive monitoring in 3.5-year-old children. During a learning phase children had to learn paired associates. In the test phase, children had to perform a recognition task and choose the correct associate for a given target among four possible answers. Subsequently, children’s explicit confidence judgments and their fixation time allocation at the confidence scale were assessed. Analyses showed that explicit confidence judgments did not differ for remembered compared to non-remembered items. In contrast, (...)
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  38. Maddalena Marini, Sara Agosta, Giuliana Mazzoni, Gianfranco Dalla Barba & Giuseppe Sartori (2012). True and False DRM Memories: Differences Detected with an Implicit Task. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories) for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm). We assessed whether true and false DRM memories can be distinguished at the implicit level by using the autobiographical IAT (aIAT), a novel method based on indirect measures that permits to detect true autobiographical events encoded in (...)
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  39. Maika Rawolle, Maria Schultheiss & Oliver C. Schultheiss (2013). Relationships Between Implicit Motives, Self-Attributed Motives, and Personal Goal Commitments. Frontiers in Psychology 4:923.score: 24.0
    This research examined the relationships between measures of the implicit and the explicit motivational systems. We analyzed the relationships between picture-story measures of implicit motives, questionnaire measures of self-attributed motives, and ideographically assessed personal goal commitments within the domains achievement, affiliation, and power through a reanalysis of three data sets from the USA and Germany (total N = 309). No significant positive within-domain correlations of implicit motives with self-attributed motives or personal goal commitments were found, and self-attributed (...)
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  40. Andreas G. Rösch, Steven J. Stanton & Oliver C. Schultheiss (2013). Implicit Motives Predict Affective Responses to Emotional Expressions. Frontiers in Psychology 4:985.score: 24.0
    We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009). Implicit motives and activity inhibition were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (Schultheiss et al., 2009b). Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence) were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (Bradley and (...)
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  41. Kanji Tanaka & Katsumi Watanabe (2014). Implicit Transfer of Reversed Temporal Structure in Visuomotor Sequence Learning. Cognitive Science 38 (3):565-579.score: 24.0
    Some spatio-temporal structures are easier to transfer implicitly in sequential learning. In this study, we investigated whether the consistent reversal of triads of learned components would support the implicit transfer of their temporal structure in visuomotor sequence learning. A triad comprised three sequential button presses ([1][2][3]) and seven consecutive triads comprised a sequence. Participants learned sequences by trial and error, until they could complete it 20 times without error. Then, they learned another sequence, in which each triad was reversed (...)
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  42. Kazuo Okanoya Yoshi-Taka Matsuda, Tomomi Fujimura, Kentaro Katahira, Masato Okada, Kenichi Ueno, Kang Cheng (2013). The Implicit Processing of Categorical and Dimensional Strategies: An fMRI Study of Facial Emotion Perception. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Our understanding of facial emotion perception has been dominated by two seemingly opposing theories: the categorical and dimensional theories. However, we have recently demonstrated that hybrid processing involving both categorical and dimensional perception can be induced in an implicit manner (Fujimura et al., 2012). The underlying neural mechanisms of this hybrid processing remain unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that separate neural loci might intrinsically encode categorical and dimensional processing functions that serve as a basis for hybrid (...)
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  43. Monika Fleischhauer, Sören Enge, Robert Miller, Alexander Strobel & Anja Strobel (2013). Neuroticism Explains Unwanted Variance in Implicit Association Tests of Personality: Possible Evidence for an Affective Valence Confound. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    Meta-analytic data highlight the value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as an indirect measure of personality. Based on evidence suggesting that confounding factors such as cognitive abilities contribute to the IAT effect, this study provides a first investigation of whether basic personality traits explain unwanted variance in the IAT. In a gender-balanced sample of 204 volunteers, the Big-Five dimensions were assessed via self-report, peer-report, and IAT. By means of structural equation modeling, latent Big-Five personality factors (based on self- (...)
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  44. Chad Edward Forbes, Katherine A. Cameron, Jordan Grafman, Aron K. Barbey, Jeffrey Solomon, Walter Ritter & Daniel Ruchkin (2012). Identifying Temporal and Causal Contributions of Neural Processes Underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 24.0
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength) and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength) IAT blocks were separately analyzed using (...)
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  45. James H. Howard Jr & Darlene V. Howard (2013). Aging Mind and Brain: Is Implicit Learning Spared in Healthy Aging? Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
    It is often held that although explicit learning declines in the course of normal aging, implicit learning is relatively preserved. Here we summarize research from our group which leads us to argue that some forms of implicit learning do decline with adult age. In particular, we propose that there are age-related declines in implicit learning of probabilistic sequential relationships that occur across the adult lifespan, and that they reflect, at least in part, age-related striatal dysfunction. We first (...)
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  46. Agustin Ibanez, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Esteban Hurtado, Ramiro González, Andrés Haye & Facundo F. Manes (2010). Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 24.0
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly (...)
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  47. Bryan Roche, Anthony O'Reilly, Amanda Gavin, Maria R. Ruiz & Gabriela Arancibia (2012). Using Behavior-Analytic Implicit Tests to Assess Sexual Interests Among Normal and Sex-Offender Populations. Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Background: The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards (...)
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  48. Peter L. Samuelson, Matthew J. Jarvinen, Thomas B. Paulus, Ian M. Church, Sam A. Hardy & Justin L. Barrett (forthcoming). Implicit Theories of Intellectual Virtues and Vices: A Focus on Intellectual Humility. Journal of Positive Psychology.score: 24.0
    The study of intellectual humility is still in its early stages and issues of definition and measurement are only now being explored. To inform and guide the process of defining and measuring this important intellectual virtue, we conducted a series of studies into the implicit theory – or ‘folk’ understanding – of an intellectually humble person, a wise person, and an intellectually arrogant person. In Study 1, 350 adults used a free-listing procedure to generate a list of descriptors, one (...)
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  49. Julia Uddén, Martin Ingvar, Peter Hagoort & Karl M. Petersson (2012). Implicit Acquisition of Grammars With Crossed and Nested Non-Adjacent Dependencies: Investigating the Push-Down Stack Model. Cognitive Science 36 (6):1078-1101.score: 22.0
    A recent hypothesis in empirical brain research on language is that the fundamental difference between animal and human communication systems is captured by the distinction between finite-state and more complex phrase-structure grammars, such as context-free and context-sensitive grammars. However, the relevance of this distinction for the study of language as a neurobiological system has been questioned and it has been suggested that a more relevant and partly analogous distinction is that between non-adjacent and adjacent dependencies. Online memory resources are central (...)
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  50. Stefan Pollmann & Angela A. Manginelli (2009). Anterior Prefrontal Involvement in Implicit Contextual Change Detection. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 22.0
    Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10) and superior frontal (BA9) cortices showed selective (...)
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