Search results for 'Implicit Knowledge' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner (1999). A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the (...)
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  2. Arthur S. Reber (1993). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford University Press.
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, (...)
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  3.  46
    Alessandro Giordani (2013). On the Factivity of Implicit Intersubjective Knowledge. Synthese (8):1-15.
    The concept of knowledge can be modelled in epistemic modal logic and, if modelled by using a standard modal operator, it is subject to the problem of logical omniscience. The classical solution to this problem is to distinguish between implicit and explicit knowledge and to construe the knowledge operator as capturing the concept of implicit knowledge. In addition, since a proposition is said to be implicitly known just in case it is derivable from the (...)
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  4. Alex Madva (forthcoming). Virtue, Social Knowledge, and Implicit Bias. Implicit Bias and Philosophy: Volume 1, Metaphysics and Epistemology, eds. Jennifer Saul & Michael Brownstein.
    This chapter is centered around an apparent tension that research on implicit bias raises between virtue and social knowledge. Research suggests that simply knowing what the prevalent stereotypes are leads individuals to act in prejudiced ways—biasing decisions about whom to trust and whom to ignore, whom to promote and whom to imprison—even if they reflectively reject those stereotypes. Because efforts to combat discrimination obviously depend on knowledge of stereotypes, a question arises about what to do (...)
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  5.  15
    Stephen Whitmarsh, Julia Uddén, Henk Barendregt & Karl Magnus Petersson (2013). Mindfulness Reduces Habitual Responding Based on Implicit Knowledge: Evidence From Artificial Grammar Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):833-845.
    Participants were unknowingly exposed to complex regularities in a working memory task. The existence of implicit knowledge was subsequently inferred from a preference for stimuli with similar grammatical regularities. Several affective traits have been shown to influence AGL performance positively, many of which are related to a tendency for automatic responding. We therefore tested whether the mindfulness trait predicted a reduction of grammatically congruent preferences, and used emotional primes to explore the influence of affect. Mindfulness was shown to (...)
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  6.  15
    Zoltán Dienes, Ryan B. Scott & Anil K. Seth (2010). Subjective Measures of Implicit Knowledge That Go Beyond Confidence: Reply to Overgaard Et Al.☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):685-686.
    Overgaard, Timmermans, Sandberg, and Cleeremans ask if the conscious experience of people in implicit learning experiments can be explored more fully than just confidence ratings allow. We show that confidence ratings play a vital role in such experiments, but are indeed incomplete in themselves: in addition, use of structural knowledge attributions and ratings of fringe feelings like familiarity are important in characterizing the phenomenology of the application of implicit knowledge.
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  7.  22
    John R. Vokey & Philip A. Higham (1999). Implicit Knowledge as Automatic, Latent Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):787-788.
    Implicit knowledge is perhaps better understood as latent knowledge so that it is readily apparent that it contrasts with explicit knowledge in terms of the form of the knowledge representation, rather than by definition in terms of consciousness or awareness. We argue that as a practical matter any definition of the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge further involves the notion of control.
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  8.  42
    Cheng-Hung Tsai (2003). Dummett's Notion of Implicit Knowledge. Philosophical Writings 24:17-35.
    In this paper I evaluate Michael Dummett's notion of implicit knowledge by examining his answers to these two questions: (1) Why should we ascribe knowledge of a meaning-theory of a language to a language-user, and why the mode of this knowledge is implicit, but not pure theoretical, pure practical, or unconscious in a Chomskian sense? (2) How could a meaning-theory, which is known implicitly, function as a rule to be followed by the language-user? To answer (...)
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  9.  35
    Josef Perner & Zoltan Dienes (1999). Deconstructing RTK: How to Explicate a Theory of Implicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):790-801.
    In this response, we start from first principles, building up our theory to show more precisely what assumptions we do and do not make about the representational nature of implicit and explicit knowledge (in contrast to the target article, where we started our exposition with a description of a fully fledged representational theory of knowledge (RTK). Along the way, we indicate how our analysis does not rely on linguistic representations but it implies that implicit knowledge (...)
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  10.  10
    Alexis Shotwell (2014). Implicit Knowledge: How It is Understood and Used in Feminist Theory. Philosophy Compass 9 (5):315-324.
    Feminist theorists have crafted diverse accounts of implicit knowing that exceed the purview of epistemology conventionally understood. I characterize this field as through examining thematic clusters of feminist work on implicit knowledge: phenomenological and foucauldian theories of embodiment; theories of affect and emotion; other forms of implicit knowledge. Within these areas, the umbrella concept of implicit knowledge (or understanding, depending on how it's framed) names either contingently unspoken or fundamentally nonpropositional but epistemically salient (...)
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  11.  1
    W. Goris (2002). Implicit Knowledge. Recherches de Theologie Et Philosophie Medievales 69 (1):33-65.
    The doctrine of being developed by the Franciscan theologian Peter of Oriol 1is highly original. The present contribution will analyse this doctrine from a distinct point of view. It is mainly interested in Aureoli's description of the concept of being as an implicit concept and reads his doctrine of being exclusively in this regard. The interest of the idea that the concept of being is entirely implicit lies in the particularity that the Franciscan also holds the concept (...)
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  12.  14
    Susan Goldin-Meadow & Martha Wagner Alibali (1999). Does the Hand Reflect Implicit Knowledge? Yes and No. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):766-767.
    Gesture does not have a fixed position in the Dienes & Perner framework. Its status depends on the way knowledge is expressed. Knowledge reflected in gesture can be fully implicit (neither factuality nor predication is explicit) if the goal is simply to move a pointing hand to a target. Knowledge reflected in gesture can be explicit (both factuality and predication are explicit) if the goal is to indicate an object. However, gesture is not restricted to these (...)
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  13.  4
    Andy D. Mealor & Zoltan Dienes (2013). Explicit Feedback Maintains Implicit Knowledge. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):822-832.
    The role of feedback was investigated with respect to conscious and unconscious knowledge acquired during artificial grammar learning . After incidental learning of training sequences, participants classified further sequences in terms of grammaticality and reported their decision strategy with or without explicit veridical feedback. Sequences that disobeyed the learning structure conformed to an alternative structure. Feedback led to an increase in the amount of reported conscious knowledge of structure but did not increase its accuracy. Conversely, feedback maintained the (...)
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  14.  27
    Nick Reed, Peter McLeod & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Implicit Knowledge and Motor Skill: What People Who Know How to Catch Don't Know. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):63-76.
    People are unable to report how they decide whether to move backwards or forwards to catch a ball. When asked to imagine how their angle of elevation of gaze would change when they caught a ball, most people are unable to describe what happens although their interception strategy is based on controlling changes in this angle. Just after catching a ball, many people are unable to recognise a description of how their angle of gaze changed during the catch. Some people (...)
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  15. Ryan B. Scott & Zoltan Dienes (2010). Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars. Cognition 114 (3):372-388.
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  16.  2
    Paul Roberts (1998). Implicit Knowledge and Connectionism: What is the Connection. In K. Kirsner & G. Speelman (eds.), Implicit and Explicit Mental Processes. Lawrence Erlbaum 119--132.
  17.  34
    Jonathan Sutton (2001). The Contingent a Priori and Implicit Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (2):251-277.
    By introducing a name ‘one meter’ and stipulating that it refers to the length of stick S, the stipulator appears to be in a position to gain immediate knowledge of a mind- and language-independent fact-the fact that the length of stick S is one meter. It appears that other users of the name can gain this knowledge only through empirical enquiry. I argue that this presents a paradox. After clarifying the nature of the paradox, I offer a solution (...)
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  18.  9
    Shan Jiang, Lei Zhu, Xiuyan Guo, Wendy Ma, Zhiliang Yang & Zoltan Dienes (2012). Unconscious Structural Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry: Tang Poetry Redefines Limits of Implicit Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):476-486.
    The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition (...)
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  19.  6
    Zoltán Dienes, Gerry T. M. Altmann & Shi‐Ji Gao (1999). Mapping Across Domains Without Feedback: A Neural Network Model of Transfer of Implicit Knowledge. Cognitive Science 23 (1):53-82.
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  20.  4
    Josef Perner (1996). Simulation as Explicitation of Predication-Implicit Knowledge About the Mind: Arguments for a Simulation-Theory Mix. In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press 90--104.
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  21.  96
    David Kirsh (2009). Knowledge, Explicit Vs Implicit. Oxford Companion to Consciousness:397-402.
    In the scientific study of mind a distinction is drawn between explicit knowledgeknowledge that can be elicited from a subject by suitable inquiry or prompting, can be brought to consciousness, and externally expressed in words—and implicit knowledgeknowledge that cannot be elicited, cannot be made directly conscious, and can- not be articulated. Michael Polanyi (1967) argued that we usually ‘know more than we can say’. The part we can articulate is explicitly known; the part we (...)
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  22.  38
    Daniel L. Schacter (1990). Toward a Cognitive Neuropsychology of Awareness: Implicit Knowledge and Anosognosia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 12:155-78.
  23. Martin Davies (2001). Explicit and Implicit Knowledge: Philosophical Aspects. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Ltd
    from the fact that the subject reacts faster to those words than to words that were not on the list. The subject.
     
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  24. David Kirsh (2009). Knowledge, Implicit Vs Explicit. In T. Bayne, A. Cleeremans & P. Wilken (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Cambridge 397--402.
    In the scientific study of mind a distinction is drawn between explicit knowledgeknowledge that can be elicited from a subject by suitable inquiry or prompting, can be brought to consciousness, and externally expressed in words–and implicit knowledgeknowledge that cannot be elicited, cannot be made directly conscious, and cannot be articulated. Michael Polanyi (1967) argued that we usually ‘know more than we can say’. The part we can articulate is explicitly known; the part we cannot is (...)
     
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  25. J. Perner (1996). Simulation as Explication of Prediction-Implicit Knowledge: Re-Assessing Its Value for Explaining the Development of Mental State Attributions. In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press
     
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  26.  20
    Daniel L. Schacter (1992). Implicit Knowledge: New Perspectives on Unconscious Processes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 89:11113-17.
  27.  5
    Ali Saboohi (2012). In Defense of Implicit Knowledge in a Full-Blooded Theory of Meaning. In Piotr Stalmaszcyzk (ed.), Philosophical and Formal Approaches to Linguistic Analysis. Ontos Verlag 477.
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  28. N. J. Cooke & S. D. Breedin (1990). Implicit Knowledge About Motion. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):517-517.
     
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  29.  17
    Jonathan Supon (2001). The Contingent a Priori and Implicit Knowledge. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (2):251–277.
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  30.  1
    Anold Debate (1991). Recall, Recognition, and Implicit Knowledge. In William Kessen, Andrew Ortony & Fergus I. M. Craik (eds.), Memories, Thoughts, and Emotions: Essays in Honor of George Mandler. Lawrence Erlbaum 125.
  31.  1
    Stellan Ohlsson (1999). Theoretical Commitment and Implicit Knowledge: Why Anomalies Do Not Trigger Learning. Science and Education 8 (5):559-574.
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  32.  8
    James A. Hampton (1999). Implicit and Explicit Knowledge: One Representational Medium or Many? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):769-770.
    In Dienes & Perner's analysis, implicitly represented knowledge differs from explicitly represented knowledge only in the attribution of properties to specific events and to self-awareness of the knower. This commentary questions whether implicit knowledge should be thought of as being represented in the same conceptual vocabulary; rather, it may involve a quite different form of representation.
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  33.  7
    Michael E. Gorman (1999). Implicit Knowledge in Engineering Judgment and Scientific Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):767-768.
    Dienes & Perner's theoretical framework should be applicable to two related areas: technological innovation and the psychology of scientific reasoning. For the former, this commentary focuses on the example of nuclear weapon design, and on the decision to launch the space shuttle Challenger. For the latter, this commentary focuses on Klayman and Ha's positive test heuristic and the invention of the telephone.
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  34.  1
    William J. Rapaport (1988). Review: Ronald Fagin, Moshe Y. Vardi, Knowledge and Implicit Knowledge in a Distributed Environment: Preliminary Report. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):667-667.
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  35. T. Rebeko & E. Nikitina (2000). Implicit Knowledge and Logical Categorisation. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2):S93 - S93.
     
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  36. Arthur S. Reber (1996). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford University Press Usa.
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" (...)
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  37.  27
    Hilde Haider, Alexandra Eichler & Thorsten Lange (2011). An Old Problem: How Can We Distinguish Between Conscious and Unconscious Knowledge Acquired in an Implicit Learning Task? Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):658-672.
    A long lasting debate in the field of implicit learning is whether participants can learn without acquiring conscious knowledge. One crucial problem is that no clear criterion exists allowing to identify participants who possess explicit knowledge. Here, we propose a method to diagnose during a serial reaction time task those participants who acquire conscious knowledge. We first validated this method by using Stroop-like material during training. Then we assessed participants’ knowledge with the Inclusion/Exclusion task and (...)
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  38.  66
    Ingar Brinck (1999). Nonconceptual Content and the Distinction Between Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):760-761.
    The notion of nonconceptual content in Dienes & Perner's theory is examined. A subject may be in a state with nonconceptual content without having the concepts that would be used to describe the state. Nonconceptual content does not seem to be a clear-cut case of either implicit or explicit knowledge. It underlies a kind of practical knowledge, which is not reducible to procedural knowledge, but is accessible to the subject and under voluntary control.
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  39.  45
    Andrea Pozzali (2007). Tacit Knowledge, Implicit Learning and Scientific Reasoning. Mind and Society 7 (2):227-237.
    The concept of tacit knowledge is widely used in social sciences to refer to all those knowledge that cannot be codified and have to be transferred by personal contacts. All this literature has been affected by two kind of biases : (1) the interest has been focused more on the result (tacit knowledge) than on the process (implicit learning); (2) tacit knowledge has been somehow reduced to physical skills or know-how; other possible forms of tacit (...)
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  40.  23
    Robert F. Bornstein (1999). Unconscious Motivation and Phenomenal Knowledge: Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Implicit Mental States. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):758-758.
    A comprehensive theory of implicit and explicit knowledge must explain phenomenal knowledge (e.g., knowledge regarding one's affective and motivational states), as well as propositional (i.e., “fact”-based) knowledge. Findings from several research areas (i.e., the subliminal mere exposure effect, artificial grammar learning, implicit and self-attributed dependency needs) are used to illustrate the importance of both phenomenal and propositional knowledge for a unified theory of implicit and explicit mental states.
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  41.  19
    Martha Wagner Alibali & Kenneth R. Koedinger (1999). The Developmental Progression From Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: A Computational Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):755-756.
    Dienes & Perner (D&P) argue that nondeclarative knowledge can take multiple forms. We provide empirical support for this from two related lines of research about the development of mathematical reasoning. We then describe how different forms of procedural and declarative knowledge can be effectively modeled in Anderson's ACT-R theory, contrasting this computational approach with D&P's logical approach. The computational approach suggests that the commonly observed developmental progression from more implicit to more explicit knowledge can be viewed (...)
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  42.  21
    Neil W. Mulligan (1999). Applying a Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge to Memory Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):775-776.
    This commentary discusses how Dienes & Perner's theory of implicit and explicit knowledge applies to memory research. As currently formulated, their theory does seem to account simultaneously for population dissociations and dissociations between conceptual and perceptual priming tasks. In addition, the specification of four distinct memorial states (correlated with different recognition test responses) faces important methodological challenges.
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  43.  23
    Nicolas Georgieff & Yves Rossetti (1999). How Does Implicit and Explicit Knowledge Fit in the Consciousness of Action? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):765-766.
    Dienes & Perner's (D&P's) target articles proposes an analysis of explicit knowledge based on a progressive transformation of implicit into explicit products, applying this gradient to different aspects of knowledge that can be represented. The goal is to integrate a philosophical concept of knowledge with relevant psychophysical and neuropsychological data. D&P seem to fill an impressive portion of the gap between these two areas. We focus on two examples where a full synthesis of theoretical and empirical (...)
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  44. Susan Jane Dwyer (1991). Making "Implicit" Explicit: Toward an Account of Implicit Linguistic Knowledge. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    In chapter one I consider two arguments for the claim that we ought to attribute linguistic knowledge to speakers of a natural language. The a priori argument has it that a theory of understanding reveals what it is that speakers of a language know about their language. The second argument takes the form of an inference to the best explanation, emphasising the idea that speaking and understanding a language is a rational activity carried on by agents with intention and (...)
     
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  45.  27
    Ton Baars (2011). Experiential Science; Towards an Integration of Implicit and Reflected Practitioner-Expert Knowledge in the Scientific Development of Organic Farming. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (6):601-628.
    For further development of organic agriculture, it will become increasingly essential to integrate experienced innovative practitioners in research projects. The characteristics of this process of co-learning have been transformed into a research approach, theoretically conceptualized as “experiential science” (Baars 2007 , Baars and Baars 2007 ). The approach integrates social sciences, natural sciences, and human sciences. It is derived from action research and belongs to the wider field of transdiscliplinary research. In a dialogue-based culture of equality and mutual exchange the (...)
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  46.  2
    Tillmann Vierkant (2012). Self Knowledge and Knowing Other Minds: The Implicit / Explicit Distinction as a Tool in Understanding Theory of Mind. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 30 (1):141-155.
    Holding content explicitly requires a form of self knowledge. But what does the relevant self knowledge look like? Using theory of mind as an example, this paper argues that the correct answer to this question will have to take into account the crucial role of language based deliberation, but warns against the standard assumption that explicitness is necessary for ascribing awareness. It argues in line with Bayne that intentional action is at least an equally valid criterion for awareness. (...)
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  47. Jan de Houwer (2006). Using the Implicit Association Test Does Not Rule Out an Impact of Conscious Propositional Knowledge on Evaluative Conditioning. Learning and Motivation 37 (2):176-187.
  48. Rudolf Steiner (1978). A Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World Conception. Anthroposophic Press.
     
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  49. Rudolf Steiner (1940). The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goeth's World Conception, Fundamental Outlines with Special Reference to Schiller. Anthrosophic Press.
     
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  50.  94
    Arthur S. Reber (1989). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology 118:219-35.
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