Search results for 'Independence' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Chiwook Won (2009). Morgenbesser's Coin, Counterfactuals, and Causal Versus Probabilistic Independence. Erkenntnis 71 (3):345 - 354.score: 18.0
    It is widely held that, as Morgenbesser’s case is usually taken to show, considerations of causal or probabilistic dependence should enter into the evaluation of counterfactuals. This paper challenges that idea. I present a modified version of Morgenbesser’s case and show how probabilistic approaches to counterfactuals are in serious trouble. Specifically, I show how probabilistic approaches run into a dilemma in characterizing probabilistic independence. The modified case also illustrates a difficulty in defining causal independence. I close with a (...)
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  2. Dawn M. Phillips (2009). Fixing the Image: Re-Thinking the 'Mind-Independence' of Photographs. Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 6 (2):1-22.score: 18.0
    We are told by philosophers that photographs are a distinct category of image because the photographic process is mind-independent. Furthermore, that the experience of viewing a photograph has a special status, justified by a viewer’s knowledge that the photographic process is mind-independent. Versions of these ideas are central to discussions of photography in both the philosophy of art and epistemology and have far-reaching implications for science, forensics and documentary journalism. Mind-independence (sometimes ‘belief independence’) is a term employed to (...)
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  3. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Quantum Logic as a Fragment of Independence-Friendly Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (3):197-209.score: 18.0
    The working assumption of this paper is that noncommuting variables are irreducibly interdependent. The logic of such dependence relations is the author's independence-friendly (IF) logic, extended by adding to it sentence-initial contradictory negation ¬ over and above the dual (strong) negation ∼. Then in a Hilbert space ∼ turns out to express orthocomplementation. This can be extended to any logical space, which makes it possible to define the dimension of a logical space. The received Birkhoff and von Neumann "quantum (...)
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  4. Jamie Tappenden (2000). Frege on Axioms, Indirect Proof, and Independence Arguments in Geometry: Did Frege Reject Independence Arguments? Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 41 (3):271-315.score: 18.0
    It is widely believed that some puzzling and provocative remarks that Frege makes in his late writings indicate he rejected independence arguments in geometry, particularly arguments for the independence of the parallels axiom. I show that this is mistaken: Frege distinguished two approaches to independence arguments and his puzzling remarks apply only to one of them. Not only did Frege not reject independence arguments across the board, but also he had an interesting positive proposal about the (...)
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  5. Jani Hakkarainen (2011). Hume's Argument for the Ontological Independence of Simple Properties. Metaphysica 12 (2):197-212.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I will reconstruct Hume's argument for the ontological (in the sense of rigid existential) independence of simple properties in A Treatise of Human Nature , Book 1 (1739). According to my reconstruction, the main premises of the argument are the real distinctness of every perception of a simple property, Hume's Separability Principle and his Conceivability Principle. In my view, Hume grounds the real distinctness of every perception of a simple property in his atomistic theory of sense (...)
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  6. Yves Gendron, Roy Suddaby & Helen Lam (2006). An Examination of the Ethical Commitment of Professional Accountants to Auditor Independence. Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):169 - 193.score: 18.0
    This research explores the relationship between work context and professional ethics. Specifically, we analyze through an online survey of professional accountants the degree to which changing work conditions have altered individual accountants’ commitment to the core professional value of auditor independence. We argue that certain changes in the condition of work have made some categories of accountants more susceptible to the logic of commercialism rather than the logic of professionalism. We find general support for this argument. We observe that (...)
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  7. Lisa Warenski (2014). Defending Moral Mind-Independence: The Expressivist's Precarious Turn. Philosophia:1-9.score: 18.0
    A central feature of ordinary moral thought is that moral judgment is mind-independent in the following sense: judging something to be morally wrong does not thereby make it morally wrong. To deny this would be to accept a form of subjectivism. Neil Sinclair (2008) makes a novel attempt to show how expressivism is simultaneously committed to (1) an understanding of moral judgments as expressions of attitudes and (2) the rejection of subjectivism. In this paper, I discuss Sinclair’s defense of anti-subjectivist (...)
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  8. Fabio G. Cozman (2012). Sets of Probability Distributions, Independence, and Convexity. Synthese 186 (2):577-600.score: 18.0
    This paper analyzes concepts of independence and assumptions of convexity in the theory of sets of probability distributions. The starting point is Kyburg and Pittarelli’s discussion of “convex Bayesianism” (in particular their proposals concerning E-admissibility, independence, and convexity). The paper offers an organized review of the literature on independence for sets of probability distributions; new results on graphoid properties and on the justification of “strong independence” (using exchangeability) are presented. Finally, the connection between Kyburg and Pittarelli’s (...)
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  9. Roger Hussey & George Lan (2001). An Examination of Auditor Independence Issues From the Perspectives of U.K. Finance Directors. Journal of Business Ethics 32 (2):169 - 178.score: 18.0
    This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of U.K. Finance Directors – also known as Chief Financial Officers (CFOs) in North America – on factors which may effect the roles and responsibilities of the external auditor to the organization. A number of proposals have been put forward over the years to enhance auditor independence and these were treated as dependent variables in this study. A questionnaire was mailed to 3 000 named Finance Directors and 776 useable replies were (...)
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  10. Itay Ben-Yaacov (2003). Discouraging Results for Ultraimaginary Independence Theory. Journal of Symbolic Logic 68 (3):846-850.score: 18.0
    Dividing independence for ultraimaginaries is neither symmetric nor transitive. Moreover, any notion of independence satisfying certain axioms (weaker than those for independence in a simple theory) and defined for all ultraimaginary sorts, is necessarily trivial.
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  11. Michael Arsenault & Zachary C. Irving (2012). Aha! Trick Questions, Independence, and the Epistemology of Disagreement. Thought 1 (3):185-194.score: 18.0
    We present a family of counter-examples to David Christensen's Independence Criterion, which is central to the epistemology of disagreement. Roughly, independence requires that, when you assess whether to revise your credence in P upon discovering that someone disagrees with you, you shouldn't rely on the reasoning that lead you to your initial credence in P. To do so would beg the question against your interlocutor. Our counter-examples involve questions where, in the course of your reasoning, you almost fall (...)
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  12. Alex G. H. Chu, Xingqiang du & Guohua Jiang (2011). Buy, Lie, or Die: An Investigation of Chinese ST Firms' Voluntary Interim Audit Motive and Auditor Independence. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):135-153.score: 18.0
    In the Chinese stock market, special treatment (ST) firms are the firms listed as facing imminent danger of delisting, unless they return to profitability after reporting two consecutive annual losses. Some ST firms voluntarily pay substantial fees to their external auditors to conduct interim audits, which are not required by regulations. In this study, we investigate and find that ST firms that pay for voluntary interim audits report greater discretionary accrued earnings, higher non-operating earnings, and higher returns on assets in (...)
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  13. Ronald M. Davis & Marcus Müllner (2002). Editorial Independence at Medical Journals Owned by Professional Associations: A Survey of Editors. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (4):513-528.score: 18.0
    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of editorial independence at a sample of medical journals and the relationship between the journals and their owners. We surveyed the editors of 33 medical journals owned by not-for-profit organizations (“associations”), including 10 journals represented on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (nine of which are general medical journals) and a random sample of 23 specialist journals with high impact factors that are indexed by the Institute for Scientific (...)
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  14. W. Michael Hoffman, John D. Neill & O. Scott Stovall (2008). An Investigation of Ethics Officer Independence. Journal of Business Ethics 78 (1-2):87 - 95.score: 18.0
    In this paper, we examine whether ethics officers are able to perform their assigned duties independently of organizational management. Specifically, we investigate whether inherent conflicts of interest with company management potentially hinder the ability of ethics officers to serve as an effective monitor and deterrent of unethical activity throughout the organization. As part of our analysis, we conducted 10 detailed phone interviews with current and retired ethics officers in order to determine whether practicing ethics officers feel the need for additional (...)
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  15. Theo M. V. Janssen (2013). Compositional Natural Language Semantics Using Independence Friendly Logic or Dependence Logic. Studia Logica 101 (2):453-466.score: 18.0
    Independence Friendly Logic, introduced by Hintikka, is a logic in which a quantifier can be marked for being independent of other quantifiers. Dependence logic, introduced by Väänänen, is a logic with the complementary approach: for a quantifier it can be indicated on which quantifiers it depends. These logics are claimed to be useful for many phenomena, for instance natural language semantics. In this contribution we will compare these two logics by investigating their application in a compositional analysis of the (...)
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  16. Pietro Galliani (2013). General Models and Entailment Semantics for Independence Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (2):253-275.score: 18.0
    We develop a semantics for independence logic with respect to what we will call general models. We then introduce a simpler entailment semantics for the same logic, and we reduce the validity problem in the former to the validity problem in the latter. Then we build a proof system for independence logic and prove its soundness and completeness with respect to entailment semantics.
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  17. Mlj van de Vel (2010). Theories with the Independence Property. Studia Logica 95 (3):379-405.score: 18.0
    A first-order theory has the Independence Property provided implies for some i whenever are formulae of a suitable type and ( Q ) is any quantifier sequence. Variants of this property have been noticed for some time in logic programming and in linear programming.
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  18. Wlodek Rabinowicz (1997). On Seidenfeld‘s Criticism of Sophisticated Violations of the Independence Axiom. Theory and Decision 43 (3):279-292.score: 18.0
    An agent who violates independence can avoid dynamic inconsistency in sequential choice if he is sophisticated enough to make use of backward induction in planning. However, Seidenfeld has demonstrated that such a sophisticated agent with dependent preferences is bound to violate the principle of dynamic substitution, according to which admissibility of a plan is preserved under substitution of indifferent options at various choice nodes in the decision tree. Since Seidenfeld considers dynamic substitution to be a coherence condition on dynamic (...)
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  19. Alan M. S. J. Coffee (2013). Freedom as Independence: Mary Wollstonecraft and the Grand Blessing of Life. Hypatia (1).score: 18.0
    Independence is a central and recurring theme in Wollstonecraft’s work. Independence should not be understood as an individualistic ideal that is in tension with the value of community but as an essential ingredient in successful and flourishing social relationships. I examine three aspects of this rich and complex concept that Wollstonecraft draws on as she develops her own notion of independence as a powerful feminist tool. First, independence is an egalitarian ideal that requires that all individuals, (...)
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  20. A. A. J. Marley & R. Duncan Luce (2005). Independence Properties Vis-À-Vis Several Utility Representations. Theory and Decision 58 (1):77-143.score: 18.0
    A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of what five utility representations – subjective expected utility (SEU), rank-dependent (cumulative or Choquet) utility (RDU), gains decomposition utility (GDU), rank weighted utility (RWU), and a configural-weight model (TAX) that we show to be equivalent to RWU – say about a series of independence properties, many of which were suggested by M. H. Birnbaum and his coauthors. The goal is to clarify what implications to draw about the descriptive aspects of the representations from (...)
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  21. Susumu Cato (forthcoming). Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives Revisited. Theory and Decision:1-17.score: 18.0
    This paper aims to reexamine the axiom of the independence of irrelevant alternatives in the theory of social choice. A generalized notion of independence is introduced to clarify an informational requirement of binary independence which is usually imposed in the Arrovian framework. We characterize the implication of binary independence.
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  22. Vytautas Sinkevičius (2010). March 11th: the Legal Framework of the Restoration of Independence (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 121 (3):55-71.score: 18.0
    The article deals with the legal acts which were adopted by the Supreme Council Reconstituting the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania on 11 March 1990, and which are related to the restoration of the independent State of Lithuania. The author discloses the chronology of the legal acts adopted on that day and investigates why some particular act was adopted first, and only later another act was passed; he investigates the circumstances which determined the content of the legal acts and (...)
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  23. Erich Grädel & Jouko Väänänen (2013). Dependence and Independence. Studia Logica 101 (2):399-410.score: 18.0
    We introduce an atomic formula ${\vec{y} \bot_{\vec{x}}\vec{z}}$ intuitively saying that the variables ${\vec{y}}$ are independent from the variables ${\vec{z}}$ if the variables ${\vec{x}}$ are kept constant. We contrast this with dependence logic ${\mathcal{D}}$ based on the atomic formula = ${(\vec{x}, \vec{y})}$ , actually equivalent to ${\vec{y} \bot_{\vec{x}}\vec{y}}$ , saying that the variables ${\vec{y}}$ are totally determined by the variables ${\vec{x}}$ . We show that ${\vec{y} \bot_{\vec{x}}\vec{z}}$ gives rise to a natural logic capable of formalizing basic intuitions about independence and (...)
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  24. J. Hoey (2008). Editorial Independence in the Electronic Age: New Threats, Old Owners? Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):226.score: 18.0
    _Editorial independence is crucial for the intellectual life of a scientific journal.A journal exists only as an idea created by authors and readers, with some editorial orchestration. Editorial independence can be compromised by pressure put on editors by their owners-whether commercial publishers or professional organizations. Both types of owners rely heavily on income from paid advertising in their print journals. Yet, the massive expansion of journal readership that has resulted due to the development of the Web has effected (...)
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  25. Shinobu Kitayama, Mayumi Karasawa, Katherine B. Curhan, Carol D. Ryff & Hazel R. Markus (2010). Independence and Interdependence Predict Health and Wellbeing: Divergent Patterns in the United States and Japan. Frontiers in Psychology 1.score: 18.0
    A cross-cultural survey was used to examine two hypotheses designed to link culture to well-being and health. The first hypothesis states that people are motivated toward prevalent cultural mandates of either independence (personal control) in the United States or interdependence (relational harmony) in Japan. As predicted, Americans with compromised personal control and Japanese with strained relationships reported high perceived constraint. The second hypothesis holds that people achieve well-being and health through actualizing the respective cultural mandates in their modes of (...)
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  26. Sally Gunz & Sandra van der Laan (2011). Actuaries, Conflicts of Interest and Professional Independence: The Case of James Hardie Industries Limited. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (4):583-596.score: 18.0
    Drawing on calls by researchers to examine corporate scandals involving potential conflicts of interest or compromise to professional independence involving the actuarial profession, this article outlines one such case. The consulting actuaries – to a large Australian listed company, James Hardie Industries Limited – found themselves advising two parties in a corporate restructuring where the interests of each were sometimes competing and the interests of the public appeared to be ignored. The James Hardie case is instructive in a number (...)
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  27. Iñaki San Pedro (forthcoming). Measurement Independence, Parameter Independence and Non-Locality. European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-6.score: 18.0
    In a recent paper in this Journal San Pedro (2012) I formulated a conjecture relating Measurement Independence and Parameter Independence, in the context of common cause explanations of EPR correlations. My conjecture suggested that a violation of Measurement Independence would entail a violation of Parameter Independence as well. Leszek Wroński (2014) has shown that conjecture to be false. In this note, I review Wroński’s arguments and agree with him on the fate of the conjecture. I argue (...)
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  28. Andrew Jason Cohen (2000). Does Communitarianism Require Individual Independence? Journal of Ethics 4 (3):283-304.score: 16.0
    Critics of liberalism have argued that liberal individualismmisdescribes persons in ignoring the degree to which they aredependent on their communities. Indeed, they argue that personsare essentially socially constituted. In this paper, however, Iprovide two arguments – the first concerning communitariandescriptive claims about persons, our society, and the communitarian ideal society, and the second regarding thecommunitarian view of individual autonomy – that the communitariantheory of Alasdair MacIntyre, Charles Taylor, and Michael Sandel,relies on individuals either being independent from theircommunities or having a (...)
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  29. Michael Gorman (2012). On Substantial Independence: A Reply to Patrick Toner. Philosophical Studies 159 (2):293-297.score: 15.0
    Patrick Toner has recently criticized accounts of substance provided by Kit Fine, E. J. Lowe, and the author, accounts which say (to a first approximation) that substances cannot depend on things other than their own parts. On Toner’s analysis, the inclusion of this parts exception results in a disjunctive definition of substance rather than a unified account. In this paper (speaking only for myself, but in a way that would, I believe, support the other authors that Toner discusses), I first (...)
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  30. David M. Estlund (1994). Opinion Leaders, Independence, and Condorcet's Jury Theorem. Theory and Decision 36 (2):131-162.score: 15.0
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  31. Pavel Naumov (2012). Independence in Information Spaces. Studia Logica 100 (5):953-973.score: 15.0
    Three different types of interdependence between pieces of information, or "secrets", are discussed and compared. Two of them, functional dependence and non-deducibility, have been studied and axiomatized before. This article introduces a third type of interdependence and provides a complete and decidable axiomatization of this new relation.
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  32. Miklós Rédei (2010). Operational Independence and Operational Separability in Algebraic Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1439-1449.score: 15.0
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  33. Allison J. Pugh (2014). The Theoretical Costs of Ignoring Childhood: Rethinking Independence, Insecurity, and Inequality. Theory and Society 43 (1):71-89.score: 15.0
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  34. A. Nebout (2014). Sequential Decision Making Without Independence: A New Conceptual Approach. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 77 (1):85-110.score: 15.0
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  35. Douglas L. Nelson & David H. Brooks (1973). Functional Independence of Pictures and Their Verbal Memory Codes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):44.score: 15.0
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  36. Michael Neumann (2007). Choosing and Describing: Sen and the Irrelevance of Independence Alternatives. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 63 (1):79-94.score: 15.0
    Amartya Sen argues that it is not, after all, irrational to reverse preferences when your choices are amplified by an ‘irrelevant’ alternative. He offers examples such as the agent who always picks the next-to-largest piece of cake. Given a choice between a larger and smaller piece, I will prefer the smaller one. But when a third and largest piece in added to my alternatives, I will now prefer the formerly largest piece over the smallest piece. This violates ‘contraction consistency’: a (...)
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  37. Matthias Aschenbrenner, Alf Dolich, Deirdre Haskell, Dugald Macpherson & Sergei Starchenko (2013). Vapnik–Chervonenkis Density in Some Theories Without the Independence Property, II. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 54 (3-4):311-363.score: 15.0
    We study the Vapnik–Chervonenkis (VC) density of definable families in certain stable first-order theories. In particular, we obtain uniform bounds on the VC density of definable families in finite $\mathrm {U}$-rank theories without the finite cover property, and we characterize those abelian groups for which there exist uniform bounds on the VC density of definable families.
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  38. Ricardo de Aldama (2013). Definable Nilpotent and Soluble Envelopes in Groups Without the Independence Property. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (3):201-205.score: 15.0
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  39. Charles W. Eriksen (1966). Independence of Successive Inputs and Uncorrelated Error in Visual Form Perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):26.score: 15.0
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  40. Ryan Essex (2014). Human Rights, Dual Loyalties, and Clinical Independence. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (1):75-83.score: 15.0
    Although Australia has comparatively few individuals seeking asylum, it has had a mandatory detention policy in place since 1992. This policy has been maintained by successive governments despite the overwhelmingly negative impact mandatory detention has on mental health. For mental health professionals working in this environment, a number of moral, ethical, and human rights issues are raised. These issues are discussed here, with a focus on dual loyalty conflicts and drawing on personal experience, the bioethics and human rights literature, and (...)
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  41. Steven J. Humphrey (2006). Does Learning Diminish Violations of Independence, Coalescing and Monotonicity? Theory and Decision 61 (2):93-128.score: 15.0
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  42. Jan Johannsen (1998). A Remark on Independence Results for Sharply Bounded Arithmetic. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (4):568-570.score: 15.0
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  43. Viktor Verbovskiy (2013). On a Classification of Theories Without the Independence Property. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (1):119-124.score: 15.0
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  44. Andreas Weiermann (2007). Phase Transition Thresholds for Some Friedman-Style Independence Results. Mlq 53 (1):4-18.score: 15.0
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  45. Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (2008). Descartes's Substance Dualism and His Independence Conception of Substance. Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (1):69-89.score: 12.0
    Descartes maintained substance dualism, the thesis that no substance has both mental and material properties. His main argument for this thesis, the so-called separability argument from the Sixth Meditation (AT VII: 78) has long puzzled readers. In this paper I argue that Descartes’ independence conception of substance (which Descartes presents in article 51 of the Principles) is crucial for the success of the separability argument and that Descartes used this conception of substance to defend his argument for substance dualism (...)
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  46. Ali Rizvi, The Independence/Dependence Paradox Within John Rawls’s Political Liberalism.score: 12.0
    Rawls in his later philosophy claims that it is sufficient to accept political conception as true or right, depending on what one's worldview allows, on the basis of whatever reasons one can muster, given one's worldview (doctrine). What political liberalism is interested in is a practical agreement on the political conception and not in our reasons for accepting it. There are deep issues (regarding deep values, purpose of life, metaphysics etc.) which cannot be resolved through invoking common reasons (this is (...)
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  47. Jonathan Schaffer (2004). Counterfactuals, Causal Independence and Conceptual Circularity. Analysis 64 (4):299–308.score: 12.0
    David Lewis’s semantics for counterfactuals remains the standard view. Yet counter-examples have emerged, which suggest a need to invoke causal independence, and thus threaten conceptual circularity. I will review some of these counter-examples (§§1–2), illustrate how causal independence proves useful (§3), and suggest that any resulting circularity is unproblematic (§4).
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  48. Charles B. Cross (2009). Causal Independence, the Identity of Indiscernibles, and the Essentiality of Origins. Journal of Philosophy 106 (5):277-291.score: 12.0
    In his well-known 1952 dialogue Max Black describes a counterexample to the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles (PII). The counterexample is a world containing nothing but two purportedly indiscernible iron spheres. Reflecting on Black's example, Robert Adams uses the possibility of a world containing two almost indiscernible spheres to argue for the possibility of the indiscernible spheres world. One of Adams's almost indiscernible spheres has a small impurity, and, Adams writes, "Surely... the absence of the impurity would not make (...)
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  49. C. S. Jenkins (2005). Realism and Independence. American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (3):199 - 209.score: 12.0
    I argue that mind-independence realism should be characterised in terms of what I call 'essential', rather than 'modal', independence from our mental lives. I explore the connections between the two kinds of independence, and argue that characterizations in terms of essence respect more intuitions about what realism is, harmonize better with standard characterizations of anti-realism, and avert the threat of subversion from Blackburn's quasi-realist.
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  50. Phil Corkum (2013). Substance and Independence in Aristotle. In B. Schnieder, A. Steinberg & M. Hoeltje (eds.), Varieties of Dependence: Ontological Dependence, Supervenience, and Response-Dependence. Basic Philosophical Concepts Series, Philosophia Verlag. 36-67.score: 12.0
    Individual substances are the ground of Aristotle’s ontology. Taking a liberal approach to existence, Aristotle accepts among existents entities in such categories other than substance as quality, quantity and relation; and, within each category, individuals and universals. As I will argue, individual substances are ontologically independent from all these other entities, while all other entities are ontologically dependent on individual substances. The association of substance with independence has a long history and several contemporary metaphysicians have pursued the connection. In (...)
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