Search results for 'Indians Warfare' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  7
    Richard J. Chacon & Ruben G. Mendoza (eds.) (2012). The Ethics of Anthropology and Amerindian Research: Reporting on Environmental Degradation and Warfare. Springer.
    This work documents the ethical dilemmas faced by anthropologists and researchers in general when investigating Amerindian communities.
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  2.  36
    Mariarosaria Taddeo (2012). Information Warfare: A Philosophical Perspective. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 25 (1):105-120.
    This paper focuses on Information Warfare—the warfare characterised by the use of information and communication technologies. This is a fast growing phenomenon, which poses a number of issues ranging from the military use of such technologies to its political and ethical implications. The paper presents a conceptual analysis of this phenomenon with the goal of investigating its nature. Such an analysis is deemed to be necessary in order to lay the groundwork for future investigations into this topic, addressing (...)
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  3.  7
    Luke Glowacki & Richard W. Wrangham (2013). The Role of Rewards in Motivating Participation in Simple Warfare. Human Nature 24 (4):444-460.
    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this “cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis” with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare (...)
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  4. Tim Stevens (2013). Information Warfare: A Response to Taddeo. Philosophy and Technology 26 (2):221-225.
    Taddeo’s recent article, ‘Information Warfare: A Philosophical Perspective’ (Philos. Technol. 25:105–120, 2012) is a useful addition to the literature on information communications technologies (ICTs) and warfare. In this short response, I draw attention to two issues arising from the article. The first concerns the applicability of ‘information warfare’ terminology to current political and military discourse, on account of its relative lack of contemporary usage. The second engages with the political and ethical implications of treating ICT environments as (...)
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  5.  15
    Hannes Rusch (2014). The Two Sides of Warfare: An Extended Model of Altruistic Behavior in Ancestral Human Intergroup Conflict. Human Nature 25 (3):359-377.
    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (i) Altruism in this model is more likely to (...)
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  6.  47
    William C. Bradford (2006). Acknowledging and Rectifying the Genocide of American Indians: "Why is It That They Carry Their Lives on Their Fingernails?". Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):515–543.
  7.  7
    T. R. Garth (1922). The Color Preferences of Five Hundred and Fifty-Nine Full-Blood Indians. Journal of Experimental Psychology 5 (6):392.
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  8. John Ladd (1958). The Structure of a Moral Code: A Philosophical Analysis of Ethical Discourse Applied to the Ethics of the Navaho Indians. Journal of Philosophy 55 (18):785-790.
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  9. Hartley Burr Alexander (1953). The World's Rim Great Mysteries of the North American Indians. University of Nebraska Press.
     
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  10. June E. Downey (1927). Types of Dextrality Among North American Indians. Journal of Experimental Psychology 10 (6):478.
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  11. John Hausdoerffer (2009). Catlin's Lament: Indians, Manifest Destiny, and the Ethics of Nature. University Press of Kansas.
    Preface -- Introduction. Catlin, ethics, and ideology in the Age of Jackson -- 1. Catlin's epiphany -- 2. Catlin's gaze -- 3. Catlin's lament -- 4. Catlin's tragedy : Catlin in Europe -- Conclusion. Catlin's fetish : rethinking Catlin's role in environmental thought -- Notes -- Works cited -- Index.
     
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  12. Pauline M. Kaurin (2014). The Warrior, Military Ethics and Contemporary Warfare: Achilles Goes Asymmetrical. Ashgate Pub. Company.
     
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  13.  28
    Ted van Baarda & Désirée Verweij (eds.) (2009). The Moral Dimension of Asymmetrical Warfare: Counter-Terrorism, Democratic Values and Military Ethics. Martinus Nijhoff.
    PART I The superpower and asymmetry PART II Jus ad bellum, jus in bello, jus post bellum PART III Leadership and accountability PART IV Soldiersa (TM) ...
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  14.  3
    Mariarosaria Taddeo (forthcoming). Just Information Warfare. Topoi:1-12.
    In this article I propose an ethical analysis of information warfare, the warfare waged in the cyber domain. The goal is twofold: filling the theoretical vacuum surrounding this phenomenon and providing the conceptual grounding for the definition of new ethical regulations for information warfare. I argue that Just War Theory is a necessary but not sufficient instrument for considering the ethical implications of information warfare and that a suitable ethical analysis of this kind of warfare (...)
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  15.  9
    Harry van der Linden, Drone Warfare and Just War Theory.
    This book chapter addresses two questions. First, can targeted killing by drones in non-battlefield zones be justified on basis of just war theory? Second, will the proliferation and expansion of combat drones in warfare, including the introduction of autonomous drones, be an obstacle to initiating or executing wars in a just manner in the future? The first question is answered by applying traditional jus ad bellum and jus in bello principles to the American targeted killing campaign in Pakistan; the (...)
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  16.  4
    Dr James L. Cook (2014). Killing Without Heart: Limits on Robotic Warfare in an Age of Persistent Conflict. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (1):106-111.
    (2014). Killing without Heart: Limits on Robotic Warfare in an Age of Persistent Conflict. Journal of Military Ethics: Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 106-111. doi: 10.1080/15027570.2014.910017.
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  17.  31
    Steven Lee (2004). Double Effect, Double Intention, and Asymmetric Warfare. Journal of Military Ethics 3 (3):233-251.
    Modern warfare cannot be conducted without civilians being killed. In order to reconcile this fact with the principle of discrimination in just war theory, the principle is applied through the doctrine of double effect. But this doctrine is morally inadequate because it is too permissive regarding the risk to civilians. For this reason, Michael Walzer has suggested that the doctrine be supplemented with what he calls the idea of double intention: combatants are not only to refrain from intending to (...)
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  18.  43
    C. O'Driscoll (2012). A 'Fighting Chance' or Fighting Dirty? Irregular Warfare, Michael Gross and the Spartans. European Journal of Political Theory 11 (2):112-130.
    Among the most vexed moral issues in contemporary conflict is the matter of whether irregular forces waging wars of national liberation should be expected to abide by the same jus in bello rules as state actors, even though these rules may prejudice their cause. Is it, in other words, reasonable to demand that irregular forces, including guerrilla groups and national liberation movements, should comport themselves like state armies, even in cases where this would stymie their capacity to effectively pursue their (...)
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  19. Mariarosaria Taddeo (forthcoming). An Analysis For A Just Cyber Warfare. In Warfare. Fourth International Conference of Cyber Conflict. NATO CCD COE and IEEE Publication
     
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  20.  24
    Ping-Cheung Lo (2012). Warfare Ethics in Sunzi'sart of War?Historical Controversies and Contemporary Perspectives. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (2):114-135.
    Abstract Contemporary English and Chinese scholars alike have interpreted Sunzi's Art of War as advocating amoralism in warfare. That charge has a long history in pre-modern China and has not been fully refuted. This essay argues that the alleged amoral Machiavellianism is more appropriate for ancient Qin military thought than for Sunzi. The third chapter of Sunzi's treatise contains a distinctive moral perspective that cannot be found in the military thought of the state of Qin, which succeeded in defeating (...)
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  21.  86
    Toby Handfield & Patrick Emerton (2009). Order and Affray: Defensive Privileges in Warfare. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (4):382 - 414.
    Just war theory is a difficult, even paradoxical, philosophical topic. It is not just that warfare involves large-scale, organised, deliberate killing, and hence might seem the very paradigm of immorality. The just war tradition sharply divorces the question of whether or not it is permissible to resort to war – the question of jus ad bellum – from the question of how and against whom one may inflict harm once at war – the question of jus in bello. As (...)
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  22.  2
    Marouf Hasian Jr (2013). The Deployment of Ethnographic Sciences and Psychological Warfare During the Suppression of the Mau Mau Rebellion. Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (3):329-345.
    This essay provides readers with a critical analysis of the ethnographic sciences and the psychological warfare used by the British and Kenyan colonial regimes during the suppression of the Mau Mau rebellion. In recent years, several survivors of several detention camps set up for Mau Mau suspects during the 1950s have brought cases in British courts, seeking apologies and funds to help those who argue about systematic abuse during the times of “emergency.” The author illustrates that the difficulties confronting (...)
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  23.  39
    John Arquilla (1999). Can Information Warfare Ever Be Just? Ethics and Information Technology 1 (3):203-212.
    The information revolution has fostered the rise of new ways of waging war, generally by means of cyberspace-based attacks on the infrastructures upon which modern societies increasingly depend. This new way of war is primarily disruptive, rather than destructive; and its low barriers to entry make it possible for individuals and groups (not just nation-states) easily to acquire very serious war-making capabilities. The less lethal appearance of information warfare and the possibility of cloaking the attacker''s true identity put serious (...)
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  24.  12
    G. R. Pitman (2011). The Evolution of Human Warfare. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (3):352-379.
    Here we propose a new theory for the origins and evolution of human warfare as a complex social phenomenon involving several behavioral traits, including aggression, risk taking, male bonding, ingroup altruism, outgroup xenophobia, dominance and subordination, and territoriality, all of which are encoded in the human genome. Among the family of great apes only chimpanzees and humans engage in war; consequently, warfare emerged in their immediate common ancestor that lived in patrilocal groups who fought one another for females. (...)
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  25.  17
    Luciano Floridi (2014). The Latent Nature of Global Information Warfare. Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):317-319.
    Information has always been at the core of conflicts. When Napoleon planned to invade Italy, he duly upgraded the first telegraph network in the world, the French “semaphore”. He famously remarked that “an army marches on its stomach,” but he also knew that the same army acted on information. As Von Clausewitz once stated “by the word ‘information’ we denote all the knowledge which we have of the enemy and his country; therefore, in fact, the foundation of all our ideas (...)
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  26.  3
    Brian Balmer (2002). Killing `Without the Distressing Preliminaries': Scientists' Defence of the British Biological Warfare Programme. [REVIEW] Minerva 40 (1):57-75.
    This article presents historical cases in which Britishscientists, principally scientific advisors, have attempted to defendresearch on biological weapons. Although the historical record is scant,there is a degree of continuity in their justifications, and a number ofthemes can be identified. It was argued, that biological weaponsresearch is morally justified because it produces humane weapons; thatit is no different from medical or other research; and that it is beingperformed for defensive purposes. It is argued that this defence isdirected primarily towards other scientists (...)
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  27.  68
    Richard Arneson, Just Warfare Theory and Noncombatant Immunity.
    ..............................................................................................101 I. The Idea of a Noncombatant ........................................................104 II. The Moral Shield Protecting Noncombatants.............................106 A. Accommodation.......................................................................107 B. Guilty Past ...............................................................................107 C. Guilty Bystander Trying to Inflict Harm .................................109 D. Guilty Bystander Disposed to Inflict Harm .............................109 E. Guilty Bystander Exulting in Anticipated Evil ........................109 F. Fault Forfeits First Doctrine in Just Warfare ...........................110 III. Noncombatants as Wrongful Trespassers ...................................110 IV. The Noncombatant Status of Captured Soldiers ........................111 V. Guerrilla Combat ..........................................................................116 VI. Morally Innocent Unjust Combatants.........................................118 VII. Should Rights Reflect (...)
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  28.  41
    Doyne Dawson (1999). Evolutionary Theory and Group Selection: The Question of Warfare. History and Theory 38 (4):79–100.
    Evolutionary anthropology has focused on the origins of war, or rather ethnocentricity, because it epitomizes the problem of group selection, and because war may itself have been the main agent of group selection. The neo-Darwinian synthesis in biology has explained how ethnocentricity might evolve by group selection, and the distinction between evoked culture and adopted culture, suggested by the emerging synthesis in evolutionary psychology, has explained how it might be transmitted. Ethnocentric mechanisms could have evolved by genetic selection in ancestral (...)
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  29. Roberto Cordeschi & Guglielmo Tamburrini (2005). Intelligent Machines and Warfare: Historical Debates and Epistemologically Motivated Concerns. In L. Magnani (ed.), European Computing and Philosophy Conference (ECAP 2004). College Publications
    The early examples of self-directing robots attracted the interest of both scientific and military communities. Biologists regarded these devices as material models of animal tropisms. Engineers envisaged the possibility of turning self-directing robots into new “intelligent” torpedoes during World War I. Starting from World War II, more extensive interactions developed between theoretical inquiry and applied military research on the subject of adaptive and intelligent machinery. Pioneers of Cybernetics were involved in the development of goal-seeking warfare devices. But collaboration occasionally (...)
     
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  30.  17
    Patrick D. Nolan (2003). Toward an Ecological-Evolutionary Theory of the Incidence of Warfare in Preindustrial Societies. Sociological Theory 21 (1):18-30.
    Prompted by the lack of attention by sociologists and the challenge of materialist explanations of warfare in "precivilized" societies posed by Keeley (1996), this paper tests and finds support for two materialist hypotheses concerning the likelihood of warfare in preindustrial societies: specifically, that, as argued by ecological-evolutionary theory, dominant mode of subsistence is systematically related to rates of warfare; and that, within some levels of technological development, higher levels of "population pressure" are associated with a greater likelihood (...)
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  31.  10
    Jane Tompkins (1986). "Indians": Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History. Critical Inquiry 13 (1):101-119.
    This essay enacts a particular instance of the challenge post-structuralism poses to the study of history. In simpler, language, it concerns the difference that point of view makes when people are giving account of events, whether at first or second hand. The problem is that if all accounts of events are determined through and through by the observer’s frame of reference, then one will never know, in any given case, what really happened.I encountered this problem in concrete terms while preparing (...)
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  32. Derek F. Mahler (2010). Sacralized Warfare: The Fifth Dalai Lama and the Discourse of Religious Violence. In Michael Jerryson & Mark Juergensmeyer (eds.), Buddhist Warfare. OUP Usa
     
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  33.  26
    Robert Boyd & Simon A. Levin, Punishment Sustains Large-Scale Cooperation in Prestate Warfare.
    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur (...)
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  34.  15
    Jai C. Galliott (2012). Viewpoint Article Closing with Completeness: The Asymmetric Drone Warfare Debate. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (4):353-356.
    . VIEWPOINT ARTICLE CLOSING WITH COMPLETENESS: THE ASYMMETRIC DRONE WARFARE DEBATE. Journal of Military Ethics: Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 353-356. doi: 10.1080/15027570.2012.760245.
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  35.  16
    Ryan Tonkens (2012). The Case Against Robotic Warfare: A Response to Arkin. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (2):149-168.
    Abstract Semi-autonomous robotic weapons are already carving out a role for themselves in modern warfare. Recently, Ronald Arkin has argued that autonomous lethal robotic systems could be more ethical than humans on the battlefield, and that this marks a significant reason in favour of their development and use. Here I offer a critical response to the position advanced by Arkin. Although I am sympathetic to the spirit of the motivation behind Arkin's project and agree that if we decide to (...)
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  36.  7
    Vinayak Chaturvedi (2010). Rethinking Knowledge with Action: V. D. Savarkar, the Bhagavad Gita, and Histories of Warfare. Modern Intellectual History 7 (2):417-435.
    This essay examines the significance of the Bhagavad Gita for V. D. Savarkar's interpretations of religion, nationalism, and the idea of Hindu India. As one of the intellectual founders of Hindu nationalism, Savarkar has emerged as the most controversial Indian political thinker of the last century, gaining notoriety for his program to , for his anti-Muslim and anti-Christian politics, and for his advocacy of violence in everyday life. By bringing together key selections from Savarkar's seminal historical writings, the essay also (...)
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  37.  7
    Stephen Jenkins (2010). Making Merit Through Warfare and Torture According to the Ārya-Bodhisattva-Gocara-Upāyaviṣaya-Vikurvaṇa-Nirdeśa Sūtra. In Michael Jerryson & Mark Juergensmeyer (eds.), Buddhist Warfare. OUP Usa 59--75.
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  38.  3
    M. Shane Riza (2014). Two-Dimensional Warfare: Combatants, Warriors, and Our Post-Predator Collective Experience. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (3):257-273.
    This article explores the effects of our technological way of war, for the first time driving toward total combatant immunity, on the psyche of combatants and the ethos of a warrior. It is a plea for the preservation of a warrior spirit, or at least a warrior class, that views war in a philosophical and personal manner. The article posits that without a sense of the tragic, without a personal test of will and skill often at great individual risk, we (...)
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  39.  4
    Kurtis Hagen (1996). A Chinese Critique on Western Ways of Warfare. Asian Philosophy 6 (3):207 – 217.
    Abstract I will argue that there are two pervasive and enduring Western attitudes towards warfare: one involves the romanticism of violent conflict, the other concerns moral justification for it. These stand in sharp contrast to the traditional Chinese attitude as put forward in the Chinese classic treatises on warfare, the Sun?tzu and Sun Pin. I will reference similar concerns articulated in the Taoist and, to a lesser extent, Confucian classics both to confirm and clarify this position. Using the (...)
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  40.  10
    Shawn Kaplan (2013). Punitive Warfare, Counterterrorism, and Jus Ad Bellum. In Fritz Allhoff, Nicholas G. Evans & Adam Henschke (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of War and Ethics: Just War Theory in the 21st Century. Routledge
    In order to address whether states can ever have the proper authority to militarily punish other international agents, I examine three attempts to justify punitive warfare from Augustine, Grotius and Locke for their relevance to both our contemporary international legal and political order and our contemporary security threats from sporadic terrorist or militant violence. Once a plausible model for a state’s valid authority to punish international agents is found, I will consider what punitive aims it can support and what (...)
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  41.  15
    Darrell Cole (1999). Thomas Aquinas on Virtuous Warfare. Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (1):57 - 80.
    Thomas Aquinas, one of the "founding fathers" of just war theory, offers an account of virtuous warfare in practice. The author argues that Aquinas's approach to warfare, with its emphasis on justice and charity, is helpful in providing a coherent moral account of war to which Christians can subscribe. Particular attention is given to the role of charity, since this virtue is the distinguishing characteristic of the Christian soldier. Charity compels him to soldier justly, and by fighting justly, (...)
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  42.  18
    Deane Baker (2005). Asymmetrical Morality in Contemporary Warfare. Theoria 44 (106):128-140.
    The latest catchphrase to enter the English language as a result of military conflict is the term 'asymmetrical warfare'. At its broadest, asymmetrical warfare is simply any conflict in which there is a significant qualitative 1 mismatch between opponents in any or all of the following: manpower, firepower, technology and tactics. While the phrase is new, the concept is not. Asymmetrical warfare has been going on for about as long as humans have fought each other in organized (...)
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  43.  4
    T. Terranova (2007). Futurepublic: On Information Warfare, Bio-Racism and Hegemony as Noopolitics. Theory, Culture and Society 24 (3):125-145.
    This article advances some considerations on the current production of hegemonic effects, starting with some problems posed by the work of one of the most influential writers in cultural studies – the American Palestinian critic Edward Said. Said's commentary on the coverage of Islam in the US media in the late 1970s allows for some challenging considerations on how hegemonic strategies directed at the formation of publics and public opinion are increasingly integrated within a global noopolitics of communication whose understanding (...)
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  44.  2
    Phillip W. Gray (2014). Weaponized NonCombatants: A Moral Conundrum of Future Asymmetrical Warfare. Journal of Military Ethics 13 (3):240-256.
    Do noncombatants in warfare receive immunity because of their subjective or objective characteristics? Can a noncombatant be ‘weaponized’, and if so, how does this weaponization change the noncombatant's moral status as protected from direct attack? The purpose of this article is to analyze the moral issues that arise when noncombatants are made into weapons, specifically as delivery systems for biological weaponry. Examining such a tactic, I go on to explore how the problems that arise from ‘weaponized’ noncombatants illustrate deeper (...)
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  45.  2
    Vojin Rakić (2012). The Moral Identity of Europe: From Warfare and Civil Strife to “In Varietate Concordia”. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 25 (2):249-261.
    It will be argued that the values of liberalism and peace are essential elements of the moral identity of Europe, as well as universal moral values. They will be contrasted to Europe’s history of warfare. An essential point of reference for the moral identity of Europe is going to be sought in Kant’s notions of the “ethical commonwealth” and “perpetual peace”. The link between this identity and cosmopolitanism will be established. In addition to that, the moral superiority of cosmopolitanism (...)
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  46.  9
    Martin L. Cook (1996). Review Essay: Moral and Legal Restraint in Warfare. Ethics and International Affairs 10 (1):175–190.
    Review of "Ethics, Killing and War" ; "The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular Perspectives" ; "The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Western World" ; and "War and Law Since 1945".
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  47.  9
    H. W. Siemens (1998). Nietzsche's Hammer: Philosophy, Destruction, or the Art of Limited Warfare. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 60 (2):321 - 347.
    The question posed in this paper concerns destruction: What part, if any, does destruction play in Nietzsche's life-project of critical transvaluation? Nietzsche's project, I argue, involves a total critique of Western values in the name of life, yet this does not entail total violence: the destruction of antagonistic values. Violent, destructive impulses cannot be subtracted from his thought; the question is whether they make for destruction as the goal of critique (I). Nietzsche's reflections on „critical history” are used to show (...)
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  48.  8
    Daphné Richemond-Barak (2011). Rethinking Private Warfare. Law and Ethics of Human Rights 5 (1):160-191.
    Waging war for money has been frowned upon since the Peace of Westphalia and the rise of the modern nation-state. The stigma associated with private warfare translates, in legal terms, into a prohibition on mercenary activity and denying mercenaries the protection afforded to regular combatants . Noting the apparent similarities between mercenaries and private military contractors, some have sought to extend to the latter the restrictive regime applicable to the former. But the resemblance between these two types of actors (...)
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  49.  7
    Andrew Ede (2011). Waiting to Exhale: Chaos, Toxicity and the Origins of the U.S. Chemical Warfare Service. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 39 (1):28-33.
    The development of chemical warfare by the United States in World War I reveals the chaotic nature of American science in the period, and how attempts to overcome problems helped to establish the modern relationship of military-scientific research.
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  50. George Johnson, Social Strife May Have Exiled Ancient Indians.
    UNTIL very recently, the most perplexing mystery of Southwestern archeology -- what caused the collapse of the ancient empire of the Anasazi -- seemed all but solved. Careful scrutiny of tree-ring records seemed to establish that in the late 1200's a prolonged dry spell called the Great Drought drove these people, the ancestors of today's pueblo Indians, to abandon their magnificent stone villages at Mesa Verde and elsewhere on the Colorado Plateau, never to return again.
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