Search results for 'Individual being' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Petr Kouba (2008). Embodiment and Thinking on the Border of Individual Being. Filosoficky Casopis 56 (5):651-668.
     
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  2.  27
    Alois Stutzer & Bruno S. Frey (2010). Recent Advances in the Economics of Individual Subjective Well-Being. Social Research: An International Quarterly 77 (2):679-714.
    Over the last decades, empirical research on subjective well-being in the social sciences has provided a major new stimulation of the discourse on individual happiness. Recently this research has also been linked to economics where reported subjective well-being is often taken as a proxy measure for individual welfare. In our review, we intend to provide an evaluation of where the economic research on happiness stands and of three directions it might develop. First, it offers new ways (...)
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  3. Corrina J. Frye, Hillary S. Schaefer & Andrew L. Alexander, Individual Differences in Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity Are Associated with Evaluation Speed and Psychological Well-Being.
    & Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether individual differences in amygdala activation in response to negative relative to neutral information are related to differences in the speed with which such information is evaluated, the extent to which such differences are associated with medial prefrontal cortex function, and their relationship with measures of trait anxiety and psychological well-being (PWB). Results indicated that faster judgments of negative relative to neutral information were associated with increased left and right amygdala (...)
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  4.  20
    Hongmei Peng (2008). Toward a Fully Realized Human Being: Dewey's Active-Individual-Always-in-the-Making. Education and Culture 24 (1):pp. 20-32.
    This essay explores the conception of the individual in Dewey's democratic writings. Following Dewey's lead, I argue that it is human individuality, including our impulses, habits, and capacities, along with an appropriate environment, that represents the uniqueness and power of every individual. In achieving our individuality, we form habits to live and to grow; we strive toward a fully realized human being, while we perform a unique function in keeping the community growing. Dewey's theory of self-construction provides (...)
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  5.  92
    Joseph Raz (1992). Rights and Individual Well-Being. Ratio Juris 5 (2):127-142.
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  6.  5
    Arthur W. Frank (2012). Commentary: Being Their Worst Nightmare: On David Perusek's “Cancer, Culture, and Individual Experience”. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 40 (4):512-516.
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  7.  6
    Can Nonhuman Primates Read Minds & Joëlle Proust (1999). Attributing Mental Concepts to Nonlinguistic Animals Poses Wellknown Problems to Ethologists and Philosophers. It is All Too Easy to Interpret a Piece of Animal Social Behavior (Ie a Behavior Performed Inside a Group on the Basis of Information Being Displayed by Behaviors From Other Members of the Group) as Involving Representations of Other Individual's Beliefs And. Philosophical Topics 27 (1):203-232.
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  8.  12
    Léonard Ducharme (1979). The Individual Human Being in Saint Albert's Earlier Writings. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 10 (3):131-160.
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  9.  1
    Karsten Weber (2015). Promoting Individual Well-Being, Increasing Social Welfare, and Securing Genetic Diversity Simultaneously: It Is a Matter of Degree. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (6):36-37.
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  10.  9
    Heta Aleksandra Gylling (2000). Women, Culture, and Violence: Traditional Values as a Threat to Individual Well-Being. Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (4):439–446.
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  11.  3
    John Deigh (1985). Book Review:Personal Being: A Theory for Individual Psychology. Rom Harre. [REVIEW] Ethics 95 (4):947-.
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  12.  1
    J. M. Howarth (1985). Personal Being: A Theory for Individual Psychology. Philosophical Books 26 (2):110-112.
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  13. E. D. Butler & Joseph Cozy (1973). The Individual Human Being: A Sometime Variable For an Educational Rationale. Journal of Thought 73.
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  14. Lawrence Dewan (1999). The Individual as a Mode of Being According to Thomas Aquinas. The Thomist 63 (3):403-424.
     
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  15. Arthur W. Frank (2012). Commentary: Being Their Worst Nightmare: On David Perusek's “Cancer, Culture, and Individual Experience”. Ethos 40 (4):512-516.
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  16. Robert A. Giacalone, Carole L. Jurkiewicz & Mark Promislo (forthcoming). Ethics and Well-Being: The Paradoxical Implications of Individual Differences in Ethical Orientation. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  17. U. Perezpaoli (1996). One Individual Creates Another, on the Aristotelian Concept of Ousia, the Sensory Perceptable Being. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 103 (1):103-122.
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  18. Josiah Royce (1901). The world and the Individual. first series : the four historical conceptions of Being. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 51:409-411.
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  19. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (1983). The Theme: The Human Being - Individual and Moral - as the Articulating Factor of the Human Sciences. Analecta Husserliana 15.
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  20.  35
    Matthew D. Adler (2011). Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis. Oxford University Press.
    This book addresses a range of relevant theoretical issues, including the possibility of an interpersonally comparable measure of well-being, or “utility” metric; the moral value of equality, and how that bears on the form of the social welfare function; social choice under uncertainty; and the possibility of integrating considerations of individual choice and responsibility into the social-welfare-function framework. This book also deals with issues of implementation, and explores how survey data and other sources of evidence might be used (...)
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  21.  10
    Pietro Gori (2012). Small Moments and Individual Taste. In Volker Caysa & Konstanze Schwarzwald (eds.), Nietzsche - macht - größe. Nietzsche - philosoph der größe der macht oder der macht der größe? deGruyter 155-168.
    In a note from 1881 (KSA 9, 11 [156]) Nietzsche talks about the “infinitely small moment” as “the highest reality and truth” for the individual who tries to contrast the “uniformity of sensations” and to affirm his “idiosyncratic taste”. In doing so, he gives to the briefest of moments a leading role, since one can see it as the reference point of a dialectic between man and society. In fact, the single moment reveals the unavoidable becoming even of human (...)
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  22. Paul-Jean Sartre (2013). Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology. Routledge.
    Being and Nothingness is without doubt one of the most significant books of the twentieth century. The central work by one of the world's most influential thinkers, it altered the course of western philosophy. Its revolutionary approach challenged all previous assumptions about the individual's relationship with the world. Known as 'the Bible of existentialism', its impact on culture and literature was immediate and was felt worldwide, from the absurd drama of Samuel Beckett to the soul-searching cries of the (...)
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  23. Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West (2000). Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):645-665.
    Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational (...)
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  24.  3
    Mariarosaria Taddeo (2015). The Struggle Between Liberties and Authorities in the Information Age. Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (5):1125-1138.
    The “struggle between liberties and authorities”, as described by Mill, refers to the tension between individual rights and the rules restricting them that are imposed by public authorities exerting their power over civil society. In this paper I argue that contemporary information societies are experiencing a new form of such a struggle, which now involves liberties and authorities in the cyber-sphere and, more specifically, refers to the tension between cyber-security measures and individual liberties. Ethicists, political philosophers and political (...)
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  25.  69
    Henry Laycock, Object. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    In The Principles of Mathematics, Russell writes: Whatever may be an object of thought, or may occur in any true or false proposition, or can be counted as one, I call a term. This, then, is the widest word in the philosophical vocabulary. I shall use as synonymous with it the words unit, individual and entity. The first two emphasize the fact that every term is one, while the third is derived from the fact that every term has (...), i.e. is in some sense. A man, a moment, a number, a class, a relation, a chimera, or anything else that can be mentioned, is sure to be a term'. Now in this remark, a certain extremely general, topic-neutral use of ‘object’ is singled out, a use in which the expression is treated as equivalent to (equally neutral) uses of ‘term’, ‘entity’, ‘unit’, ‘individual’, and ‘thing’. In addition, a claim is made to the effect that the content of the expression, with its emphasis on one, is such as to be adequate to comprehend the sum-total of existence, to include whatever there may be. The paper addresses the question of what this claim means, and whether it might be true. (shrink)
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  26.  23
    Jonathan Morgan (2013). Untangling False Assumptions Regarding Atheism and Health. Zygon 48 (1):9-19.
    In the past decade, the cognitive science of religion has worked to find an evolutionary explanation for supernatural belief. The explanations are convincing, but have created the stereotype that atheism is unnatural. In a similar way studies linking religious belief and health have vilified atheism as unhealthy. But belief is too complex, health is too nuanced, and the data are too varied to draw such a generalization. Catherine Caldwell-Harris has developed a psychological profile to understand nonbelief as an expected outcome (...)
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  27. Sonia Roca-Royes (2011). Essential Properties and Individual Essences. Philosophy Compass 6 (1):65-77.
    According to Essentialism, an object’s properties divide into those that are essential and those that are accidental. While being human is commonly thought to be essential to Socrates, being a philosopher plausibly is not. We can motivate the distinction by appealing—as we just did—to examples. However, it is not obvious how best to characterize the notion of essential property, nor is it easy to give conclusive arguments for the essentiality of a given property. In this paper, I elaborate (...)
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  28.  86
    Robert A. Giacalone & Mark D. Promislo (2010). Unethical and Unwell: Decrements in Well-Being and Unethical Activity at Work. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):275 - 297.
    Previous research on unethical business behavior usually has focused on its impact from a financial or philosophical perspective. While such foci are important to our understanding of unethical behavior, we argue that another set of outcomes linked to individual well-being are critical as well. Using data from psychological, criminological, and epidemiological sources, we propose a model of unethical behavior and well-being. This model postulates that decrements in well-being result from stress or trauma stemming from being (...)
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  29.  16
    Mari Huhtala, Taru Feldt, Anna-Maija Lämsä, Saija Mauno & Ulla Kinnunen (2011). Does the Ethical Culture of Organisations Promote Managers' Occupational Well-Being? Investigating Indirect Links Via Ethical Strain. Journal of Business Ethics 101 (2):231-247.
    The present study had two major aims: first, to examine the construct validity of the Finnish 58-item Corporate Ethical Virtues scale (CEV; Kaptein in J Org Behav 29:923–947, 2008) and second, to examine whether the associations between managers’ perceptions of ethical organisational culture and their occupational well-being (emotional exhaustion and work engagement) are indirectly linked by ethical strain, i.e. the tension which arises from the difference in the ethical values of the individual and the organisation he or she (...)
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  30.  52
    Stephen E. Harris (2014). Suffering and the Shape of Well-Being in Buddhist Ethics. Asian Philosophy 24 (3):242-259.
    This article explores the defense Indian Buddhist texts make in support of their conceptions of lives that are good for an individual. This defense occurs, largely, through their analysis of ordinary experience as being saturated by subtle forms of suffering . I begin by explicating the most influential of the Buddhist taxonomies of suffering: the threefold division into explicit suffering , the suffering of change , and conditioned suffering . Next, I sketch the three theories of welfare that (...)
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  31.  10
    Simon M. Reader (2015). Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):451-468.
    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential net payoffs of exploration (...)
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  32.  8
    Fukushima Shintaro (2016). Multilayered Sociocultural Phenomena: Associations Between Subjective Well‐Being and Economic Status. Zygon 51 (1):191-203.
    In this article, incoherent results of the associations between subjective well-being and economic status at multiple social levels are shown. Although individual-level positive associations are shown within developed countries, national-level associations disappear among developed countries. Group/area-level associations, meanwhile, do exist within Japanese societies. From these inconsistent phenomena, a sociocultural unit is proposed, within which well-being of people is collectively shared based on mutual reciprocity. The simple addition of social scientific results themselves cannot reconstruct the whole range of (...)
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  33.  26
    Julien A. Deonna & Fabrice Teroni (2013). What Role for Emotions in Well-Being? Philosophical Topics 41 (1):123-142.
    It is striking that for each major theory of well-being, there exists a companion theory of the emotions. Thus, to classical hedonic views of well-being, there corresponds no less classical pure feeling views of the emotions; to desire views that conceive of well-being in terms of desire satisfaction, there corresponds a variety of theories approaching the emotions in terms of the satisfaction/frustration of desires; and finally, to so called objective list theories of well-being, there corresponds a (...)
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  34.  47
    Bruno S. Frey & Jana Gallus (2013). Subjective Well-Being and Policy. Topoi 32 (2):207-212.
    This paper analyses whether the aggregation of individual happiness scores to a National Happiness Index can still be trusted once governments have proclaimed their main objective to be the pursuit—or even maximization—of this National Happiness Index. The answer to this investigation is clear-cut: as soon as the National Happiness Index has become a policy goal, it can no longer be trusted to reflect people’s true happiness. Rather, the Index will be systematically distorted due to the incentive for citizens to (...)
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  35.  26
    Ihor Karivets (2014). BEING AND BECOMING IN THE KIERKEGAARD's EXISTENTIAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Идеи 1:179-186.
    In this paper the relation between being and becoming is analyzed and the Kierkegaard’s existential method is considered. Also the three stages of existence are described as the evolution of a human being. This evolution means gradual creation of true selfhood due to decisive choices and actions. The author stresses that Kierkegaard’s existential anthropology is a version of the dialectical religious existentialism. A human being is paradoxical and her or his conflicts cannot be resolved by rational way. (...)
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  36.  6
    Jessica Begon (2016). Athletic Policy, Passive Well-Being: Defending Freedom in the Capability Approach. Economics and Philosophy 32 (1):51-73.
    The capability approach was developed as a response to the ‘equality of what?’ question, which asks what the metric of equality should be. The alternative answers are, broadly, welfare, resources or capabilities. G.A. Cohen has raised influential criticisms of this last response. He suggests that the capability approach’s focus on individuals’ freedom – their capability to control their own lives – renders its view of well-being excessively ‘athletic’, ignoring benefits achieved passively, without the active involvement of the benefitted (...). However, positing ‘capabilities’ as the appropriate metric of distributive justice need not commit capability theorists to a comprehensive account of well-being, and so not to the athletic conception Cohen ascribes to them. Their aim can, instead, be to delineate legitimate government action and guide egalitarian public policy. Capabilities, in this context, are not just components of individual well-being; they must also be the appropriate goal of just distributive policies. When understood in this way, as a guide to policy, I will argue that the capability approach’s focus on ‘athletic’ individual freedom and control is justified: in the public domain, it is important not just that individuals receive ‘benefits’, but that they participate in their achievement. (shrink)
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  37.  12
    R. Matthew Shockey (2011). Heidegger on Understanding One's Own Being. New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 11:128-143.
    One of the characteristics that define us as Dasein, according to Heidegger, is that our being is at issue for us. Most readers interpret this to mean that we each, as individuals situated in the world with others, face the questions of who, how, and whether to be within our unique situations. Yet what Heidegger identifies as Dasein’s being is a general structure—care—that is the same for all individuals. Adapting and modifying John Haugeland’s account of understanding as projecting (...)
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  38.  60
    Andrew Jason Cohen (2000). Does Communitarianism Require Individual Independence? Journal of Ethics 4 (3):283-304.
    Critics of liberalism have argued that liberal individualismmisdescribes persons in ignoring the degree to which they aredependent on their communities. Indeed, they argue that personsare essentially socially constituted. In this paper, however, Iprovide two arguments – the first concerning communitariandescriptive claims about persons, our society, and the communitarian ideal society, and the second regarding thecommunitarian view of individual autonomy – that the communitariantheory of Alasdair MacIntyre, Charles Taylor, and Michael Sandel,relies on individuals either being independent from theircommunities or (...)
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  39.  35
    Soraj Hongladarom (2009). Privacy, the Individual and Genetic Information: A Buddhist Perspective. Bioethics 23 (7):403-412.
    Bioinformatics is a new field of study whose ethical implications involve a combination of bioethics, computer ethics and information ethics. This paper is an attempt to view some of these implications from the perspective of Buddhism. Privacy is a central concern in both computer/information ethics and bioethics, and with information technology being increasingly utilized to process biological and genetic data, the issue has become even more pronounced. Traditionally, privacy presupposes the individual self but as Buddhism does away with (...)
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  40.  75
    Raffaele Rodogno (2008). On the Importance of Well-Being. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (2):197-212.
    Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it. This charge can be found in the recent work of both Joseph Raz and Thomas Scanlon. According to the latter the concept of well-being plays an unimportant role in an (...)
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  41.  8
    Esther Usborne & Roxane Sablonnière (2014). Understanding My Culture Means Understanding Myself: The Function of Cultural Identity Clarity for Personal Identity Clarity and Personal Psychological Well‐Being. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (4):436-458.
    Culture is acknowledged to be a critical element in the construction of an individual's identity; however, in today's increasingly multicultural environments, the influence of culture is no longer straightforward. It is now important to explore cultural identity clarity—the extent to which beliefs about identity that arise from one's cultural group membership are clearly and confidently understood. We describe a novel theoretical model to explain why having a clear and confident understanding of one's cultural identity is important for psychological well- (...), as it clarifies one's understanding of personal identity. We propose that a clear cultural identity clarifies one's personal existence, by providing a clear normative template, reducing personal uncertainty, providing an individual with a sense of continuity, and buffering an individual against the fear of death. We discuss the implications of this model within our complex cultural worlds. (shrink)
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  42.  5
    Shakuntala A. Singh Ajai R. Singh (2008). Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):187.
    _The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres. While there has been (...)
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  43.  4
    Maria Michela Sassi (2008). The Self, the Soul, and the Individual in the City of the Laws. In Brad Inwood (ed.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy Xxxv: Winter 2008. OUP Oxford 125.
    The ideal which Plato consistently endorses and develops in the Laws is one of a city which, like the ideal soul, is perfectly at peace with its inner conflicts. The law is presented as a remedy for the destabilizing influence of the sensations and emotions which make every human being an individual, before he is a citizen. The authoritarian aspect of this remedy may worry contemporary readers, but Plato supports it with his presupposition regarding the extreme weakness of (...)
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  44. Keqian Xu (2015). Ren Xing: Mencian’s Understanding of Human Being and Human Becoming. Dialogue and Universalism 2 (2):29-39.
    “Ren xing shan”, or “Human nature is good”, is a famous thesis of Mencius. But it is questionable whether the Mencian concept of “ren xing” is an exact equivalent of the western concept of “human nature”, and whether Mencius really thinks that all human beings are naturally moral. This paper suggests that when talking about “ren xing”, Mencius actually refers to both human being and human becoming. “Ren xing” may have a root in the nature of human being, (...)
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  45.  61
    Tanya Augsburg (2014). Becoming Transdisciplinary: The Emergence of the Transdisciplinary Individual. Becoming Transdisciplinary: The Emergence of the Transdisciplinary Individual 70 (3-4):233-247.
    This article develops the idea of becoming a transdisciplinary individual, and begins by tracing the origins and contemporary currents of transdisciplinarity (from 1972 to present day). Using Nicolescu's earlier concept of a transdisciplinary attitude as an intellectual springboard, this article explores the traits of individuals involved in transdisciplinary projects. Emergent from the literature are four overarching dimensions of understanding what is entailed in becoming and being a transdisciplinary individual: (a) an appreciation of an array of skills, characteristics, (...)
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  46.  4
    Wenche S. Bjorbækmo & Gunn H. Engelsrud (2011). Experiences of Being Tested: A Critical Discussion of the Knowledge Involved and Produced in the Practice of Testing in Children's Rehabilitation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):123-131.
    Intensive professional testing of children with disabilities is becoming increasingly prominent within the field of children’s rehabilitation. In this paper we question the high quality ascribed to standardized assessment procedures. We explore testing practices using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach analyzing data from interviews and participant observations among 20 children with disabilities and their parents. All the participating children have extensive experience from being tested. This study reveals that the practices of testing have certain limitations when confronted with the lived experience (...)
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  47.  28
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2000). Being Singular Plural. Stanford University Press.
    One of the strongest strands in Nancy's philosophy is an attempt to rethink community and the very idea of the social in a way that does not ground these ideas in some individual subject or subjectivity. The fundamental argument of this book is that being is always 'being with', that 'I' is not prior to 'we', that existence is essentially co-existence. He thinks this being together, not as a comfortable enclosure in a pre-existing group, but as (...)
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  48. David Giles & Donna Rockwell (2009). Being a Celebrity: A Phenomenology of Fame. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 40 (2):178-210.
    The experience of being famous was investigated through interviews with 15 well-known American celebrities. The interviews detail the existential parameters of being famous in contemporary culture. Research participants were celebrities in various societal categories: government, law, business, publishing, sports, music, film, television news and entertainment. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine textural and structural relationship-to-world themes of fame and celebrity. The study found that in relation to self, being famous leads to loss of privacy, entitization, demanding expectations, (...)
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  49.  90
    D. S. Silva (2013). Powers and Faden's Concept of Self-Determination and What It Means to 'Achieve' Well-Being in Their Theory of Social Justice. Public Health Ethics 6 (1):35-44.
    Powers and Faden argue that social justice ‘is concerned with securing and maintaining the social conditions necessary for a sufficient level of well-being in all of its essential dimensions for everyone’ (2006: 50). Moreover, social justice is concerned with the ‘achievement of well-being, not the freedom or capability to achieve well-being’ (p. 40). Although Powers and Faden note that an agent alone cannot achieve well-being without the necessary social conditions of life (e.g. equal civil liberties and (...)
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  50. Shelly Kagan (1992). The Limits of Well-Being. Social Philosophy and Policy 9 (2):169-189.
    What are the limits of well-being? This question nicely captures one of the central debates concerning the nature of the individual human good. For rival theories differ as to what sort of facts directly constitute a person's being well-off. On some views, well-being is limited to the presence of pleasure and the absence of pain. But other views push the boundaries of well-being beyond this, so that it encompasses a variety of mental states, not merely (...)
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