Search results for 'Individuality' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Moral Determination Individuality (2009). Victor Gerald Rivas. In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.), Existence, Historical Fabulation, Destiny. Springer Verlag 113.
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  2. Alan C. Love & Ingo Brigandt (forthcoming). Philosophical Dimensions of Individuality. In Scott Lidgard & Lynn K. Nyhart (eds.), Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives. University of Chicago Press
    Although natural philosophers have long been interested in individuality, it has been of interest to contemporary philosophers of biology because of its role in different aspects of evolutionary biology. These debates include whether species are individuals or classes, what counts as a unit of selection, and how transitions in individuality occur evolutionarily. Philosophical analyses are often conducted in terms of metaphysics (“what is an individual?”), rather than epistemology (“how can and do researchers conceptualize individuals so as to address (...)
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  3. Mauro Dorato & Matteo Morganti (2013). Grades of Individuality. A Pluralistic View of Identity in Quantum Mechanics and in the Sciences. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):591-610.
    This paper offers a critical assessment of the current state of the debate about the identity and individuality of material objects. Its main aim, in particular, is to show that, in a sense to be carefully specified, the opposition between the Leibnizian ‘reductionist’ tradition, based on discernibility, and the sort of ‘primitivism’ that denies that facts of identity and individuality must be analysable has become outdated. In particular, it is argued that—contrary to a widespread consensus—‘naturalised’ metaphysics supports both (...)
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  4. Xabier Barandiaran, E. Di Paolo & M. Rohde (2009). Defining Agency: Individuality, Normativity, Asymmetry, and Spatio-Temporality in Action. Adaptive Behavior 17 (5):367-386.
    The concept of agency is of crucial importance in cognitive science and artificial intelligence, and it is often used as an intuitive and rather uncontroversial term, in contrast to more abstract and theoretically heavy-weighted terms like “intentionality”, “rationality” or “mind”. However, most of the available definitions of agency are either too loose or unspecific to allow for a progressive scientific program. They implicitly and unproblematically assume the features that characterize agents, thus obscuring the full potential and challenge of modeling agency. (...)
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  5.  39
    Marc Ereshefsky & Makmiller Pedroso (2013). Biological Individuality: The Case of Biofilms. Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):331-349.
    This paper examines David Hull’s and Peter Godfrey-Smith’s accounts of biological individuality using the case of biofilms. Biofilms fail standard criteria for individuality, such as having reproductive bottlenecks and forming parent-offspring lineages. Nevertheless, biofilms are good candidates for individuals. The nature of biofilms shows that Godfrey-Smith’s account of individuality, with its reliance on reproduction, is too restrictive. Hull’s interactor notion of individuality better captures biofilms, and we argue that it offers a better account of biological (...). However, Hull’s notion of interactor needs more precision. We suggest some ways to make Hull’s notion of interactor and his account of individuality more precise. Generally, we maintain that biofilms are a good test case for theories of individuality, and a careful examination of biofilms furthers our understanding of biological individuality. (shrink)
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  6. Frédéric Bouchard & Philippe Huneman (eds.) (2013). From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press.
    Our intuitive assumption that only organisms are the real individuals in the natural world is at odds with developments in cell biology, ecology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and other fields. Although organisms have served for centuries as nature’s paradigmatic individuals, science suggests that organisms are only one of the many ways in which the natural world could be organized. When living beings work together—as in ant colonies, beehives, and bacteria-metazoan symbiosis—new collective individuals can emerge. In this book, leading scholars consider the (...)
     
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  7.  64
    Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon (1987). Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any species concept is (...)
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  8.  50
    Jack Wilson (1999). Biological Individuality: The Identity and Persistence of Living Entities. Cambridge University Press.
    What makes a biological entity an individual? Jack Wilson shows that past philosophers have failed to explicate the conditions an entity must satisfy to be a living individual. He explores the reason for this failure and explains why we should limit ourselves to examples involving real organisms rather than thought experiments. This book explores and resolves paradoxes that arise when one applies past notions of individuality to biological examples beyond the conventional range, and presents a new analysis of identity (...)
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  9.  8
    Jonas Rafael Becker Arenhart (forthcoming). The Received View on Quantum Non-Individuality: Formal and Metaphysical Analysis. Synthese:1-25.
    The Received View on quantum non-individuality is, roughly speaking, the view according to which quantum objects are not individuals. It seems clear that the RV finds its standard expression nowadays through the use of the formal apparatuses of non-reflexive logics, mainly quasi-set theory. In such logics, the relation of identity is restricted, so that it does not apply for terms denoting quantum particles; this “lack of identity” formally characterizes their non-individuality. We face then a dilemma: on the one (...)
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  10.  7
    Warwick Anderson & Ian R. Mackay (2014). Fashioning the Immunological Self: The Biological Individuality of F. Macfarlane Burnet. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 47 (1):147-175.
    During the 1940s and 1950s, the Australian microbiologist F. Macfarlane Burnet sought a biologically plausible explanation of antibody production. In this essay, we seek to recover the conceptual pathways that Burnet followed in his immunological theorizing. In so doing, we emphasize the influence of speculations on individuality, especially those of philosopher Alfred North Whitehead; the impact of cybernetics and information theory; and the contributions of clinical research into autoimmune disease that took place in Melbourne. We point to the influence (...)
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  11.  5
    Jorge J. E. Gracia (1988). Individuality: An Essay on the Foundations of Metaphysics. State University of New York Press.
    The author begins by distinguishing six fundamental issues on the metaphysics of individuality.
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  12. Roberta De Monticelli (2008). Subjectivity and Essential Individuality: A Dialogue with Peter Van Inwagen and Lynne Baker. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):225-242.
    Each person is perceived by others and by herself as an individual in a very strong sense, namely as a unique individual. Moreover, this supposed uniqueness is commonly thought of as linked with another character that we tend to attribute to persons (as opposed to stones or chairs and even non-human animals): a kind of depth, hidden to sensory perception, yet in some measure accessible to other means of knowledge. I propose a theory of strong or essential individuality. This (...)
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  13.  78
    Jean Gayon (1996). The Individuality of the Species: A Darwinian Theory? — From Buffon to Ghiselin, and Back to Darwin. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):215-244.
    Since the 1970s, there has been a tremendous amount of literature on Ghiselin's proposal that species are individuals. After recalling the origins and stakes of this thesis in contemporary evolutionary theory, I show that it can also be found in the writings of the French naturalist Buffon in the 18th Century. Although Buffon did not have the conception that one species could be derived from another, there is an interesting similarity between the modern argument and that of Buffon regarding the (...)
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  14.  37
    Miri Rozmarin (2005). Power, Freedom, and Individuality: Foucault and Sexual Difference. [REVIEW] Human Studies 28 (1):1 - 14.
    This paper offers a detailed account of Foucaults ethical and political notion of individuality as presented in his late work, and discusses its relationship to the feminist project of the theory of sexual difference. I argue that Foucaults elaboration of the classical ethos of care for the self opens the way for regarding the I-woman as an ethical, political and aesthetic self-creation. However, it has significant limitations that cannot be ignored. I elaborate on two aspects of Foucaults avoidance of (...)
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  15.  31
    Austin Booth (2014). Symbiosis, Selection, and Individuality. Biology and Philosophy 29 (5):657-673.
    A recent development in biology has been the growing acceptance that holobionts, entities comprised of symbiotic microbes and their host organisms, are widespread in nature. There is agreement that holobionts are evolved outcomes, but disagreement on how to characterize the operation of natural selection on them. The aim of this paper is to articulate the contours of the disagreement. I explain how two distinct foundational accounts of the process of natural selection give rise to competing views about evolutionary individuality.
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  16.  49
    Olli Pyyhtinen (2008). Ambiguous Individuality: Georg Simmel on the “Who” and the “What” of the Individual. [REVIEW] Human Studies 31 (3):279 - 298.
    The essay discusses the philosopher and sociologist Georg Simmel’s theorizing about the individual. Whereas it is typically within the context of the modern metropolis and the mature money economy that Simmel’s ideas have been discussed in the secondary literature, I render those ideas in another light by addressing the ontological and existential issues crucial to his conception of the individual. In Simmel, the individual is divided between the “what” and the “who,” between the qualities which make one something individual and (...)
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  17.  20
    Samuel Clark (2013). Under the Mountain: Basic Training, Individuality, and Comradeship. Res Publica 19 (1):67-79.
    This paper addresses questions of friendship and political community by investigating a particular complex case, comradeship in the life of the soldier. Close attention to soldiers’ accounts of their own lives, successes and failures shows that the relationship of friendship to comradeship, and of both to the success of the soldier’s individual and communal life, is complex and tense. I focus on autobiographical accounts of basic training in order to describe, and to explore the tensions between, two positions: (1) Becoming (...)
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  18.  10
    Roberta Monticelli (2008). Subjectivity and Essential Individuality: A Dialogue with Peter Van Inwagen and Lynne Baker. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (2):225-242.
    Each person is perceived by others and by herself as an individual in a very strong sense, namely as a unique individual. Moreover, this supposed uniqueness is commonly thought of as linked with another character that we tend to attribute\nto persons (as opposed to stones or chairs and even non-human animals): a kind of depth, hidden to sensory perception, yet in some measure accessible to other means of knowledge. I propose a theory of strong or essential individuality. This theory (...)
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  19.  3
    Amihud Gilead (2015). Cruelty, Singular Individuality, and Peter the Great. Philosophia 43 (2):337-354.
    In discussing cruelty toward human beings, I argue that disregarding the singularity of any human being is necessary for treating her or him cruelly. The cruelty of Peter the Great, relying upon the intolerance of any human singular individuality, serves me as a paradigm-case to illustrate that. The cruelty of Procrustes and that of Stalin rely upon similar grounds. Relating to a person’s singularity is sufficient to prevent cruelty toward that person. In contrast, a liberal state of mind (...)
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  20.  7
    T. Puolimatka (2004). Sphere Pluralism and Critical Individuality. Studies in Philosophy and Education 23 (1):21-39.
    While discussing critical individuality as oneof the main goals of liberal education, theemphasis has usually been on direct educationalmeasures. Much less attention has been given tothe social preconditions for its development.This paper discusses the societal aspect of thequestion by employing the notion of spherepluralism. The attempt is to point out someways in which the diversified nature of societycan be employed in its full potential for thedevelopment of critical individuality. Thearticle aims to outline a form of spherepluralism, which is (...)
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  21.  11
    Sarah Borden Sharkey (2010). Thine Own Self: Individuality in Edith Stein's Later Writings. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press.
    Individual form and relevant distinctions -- Reasons for affirming individual forms -- Types of essential structures -- Types of being -- Principles of individuality -- Individual form and mereology -- Challenges for individual forms -- Alternative accounts of individual form -- An alternative account revisited.
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  22. Cedric Paternotte (2015). Parallels Between Joint Action and Biological Individuality. In Thomas Pradeu & Alexandre Guay (eds.), Individuals Across The Sciences. Oxford University Press
    There exist many definitions of human joint action, or of what makes a group similar to an individual. However, they do not agree and are not directly reducible to each other. This multiplicity is due to a lack of constraints on them. I argue that they should at least meet an efficiency constraint: any account of joint action has to justify how it reliably leads agents to cooperation. One avenue consists in exploring the analogy between definitions of joint action and (...)
     
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  23.  1
    Erzsébet Rózsa (2012). Modern Individuality in Hegel's Practical Philosophy. Brill.
    Modern individuality is the not-so-secret protagonist of Hegel’s practical philosophy.
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  24.  19
    Thomas Pradeu (2013). 4 Immunity and the Emergence of Individuality. In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press 77.
    Since, it has become clear that individuality is not to be considered as a given, but rather as something which needs to be explained. How has individuality emerged through evolution, and how has it subsequently been maintained? In particular, why is it that multicellular organisms appeared and persisted, despite the obvious interest of each cell of favoring its own replication? Several biologists see the immune system as one of the key components for explaining the maintenance of multicellular organisms’ (...)
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  25. Etienne Balibar (1997). Spinoza From Individuality to Transindividuality.
     
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  26.  3
    John Kekes (1991). Moral Tradition and Individuality. Princeton University Press.
    This book is a nontechnical yet closely reasoned attempt to provide a contemporary answer to the age-old question of how to live well.
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  27.  23
    David N. Stamos (1998). Buffon, Darwin, and the Non-Individuality of Species – a Reply to Jean Gayon. Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):443-470.
    Gayon's recent claim that Buffon developed a concept of species as physical individuals is critically examined and rejected. Also critically examined and rejected is Gayon's more central thesis that as a consequence of his analysis of Buffon's species concept, and also of Darwin's species concept, it is clear that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be physical individuals. While I agree with Gayon's conclusion that modern evolutionary theory does not require species to be physical individuals, I disagree with (...)
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  28.  53
    Décio Krause & Jonas R. B. Arenhart (2014). Separability and Non-Individuality: Is It Possible to Conciliate (At Least A Form Of) Einstein's Realism with Quantum Mechanics? Foundations of Physics 44 (12):1269-1288.
    In this paper we argue that physical theories, including quantum mechanics, refer to some kind of ‘objects’, even if only implicitly. We raise questions about the logico-mathematical apparatuses commonly employed in such theories, bringing to light some metaphysical presuppositions underlying such apparatuses. We point out to some incongruities in the discourse holding that quantum objects would be entities of some ‘new kind’ while still adhering to the logico-mathematical framework we use to deal with classical objects. The use of such apparatus (...)
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  29.  30
    Thomas C. Heller & Christine Brooke-Rose (eds.) (1986). Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy, Individuality, and the Self in Western Thought. Stanford University Press.
    Introduction THOMAS C. HELLER AND DAVID E. WELLBERY A he essays that follow originated in a conference entitled "Reconstructing Individualism," held at ...
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  30.  13
    Matteo Morganti (2012). Identity in Physics: Properties, Statistics and the (Non-) Individuality of Quantum Particles. In Henk W. de Regt (ed.), Epsa Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer 227--237.
    An argument to the effect that non-relativistic quantum particles can be understood as individual objects in spite of the empirical evidence seemingly lending support to the opposite conclusion. Ways to understand quantum indistinguishability and quantum statistics in terms of individuals are indicated.
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  31.  21
    Charles L. Creegan (1989). Wittgenstein and Kierkegaard: Religion, Individuality, and Philosophical Method. Routledge.
  32.  1
    Sophie Botros & Shirley Robin Letwin (1983). The Gentleman In Trollope: Individuality and Moral Conduct. Philosophical Quarterly 33 (133):408.
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  33.  4
    Carlos Másmela (2011). Don Quixote's individuality as grasped by Hegel. [Spanish]. Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 8:66-81.
    El objetivo de este artículo consiste en desentrañar, con base en los elementos proporcionados por la Estética, la constitución irónica de la individualidad en la interiorización de los mitos, tal como ocurre en El Quijote. Para realizar esta tarea nos apoyaremos en dos textos de la Fenomenología del espíritu, a saber, “la ley del corazón y el desvarío de la infatuación” y “la virtud y el curso del mundo”, en los cuales se hará corresponder el despliegue que Hegel ejecuta en (...)
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  34.  4
    Romina Surugiu (2010). Nae Ionescu on Democracy, Individuality, Leadership and Nation Philosophical (Re)Sources for a Right-Wing Ideology. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (23):68-81.
    Nae Ionescu is one of the most influential and controversial Romanian thinkers. The present article explores a less used perspective in studying Nae Ionescu’s philosophical, political and journalistic activity: the philosophical roots of his major political ideas. The anti-democratic position of Nae Ionescu was, theoretically explained, by the criticism to Rene Descartes and J.J. Rousseau’s ideas. The individual is supposed to be an instrument of history and nation. Any individualizing tendency is allegedly a betrayal to the nation. Moreover, the leader (...)
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  35. David P. Barash (1997). In Search of Behavioral Individuality. Human Nature 8 (2):153-169.
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  36. Hans Driesch (1914). The Problem of Individuality a Course of Four Lectures Delivered Before the University of London in October 1913. Macmillan and Co., Limited.
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  37. Uday Singh Mehta (1992). The Anxiety of Freedom: Imagination and Individuality in Locke's Political Thought. Cornell University Press.
  38. Charles Larrabee Street (1926). Individualism and Individuality in the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill. Milwaukee, Morehouse Publishing Co..
     
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  39.  69
    Charlotte Baumann (forthcoming). Hegel and Marx on Individuality and the Universal Good. Hegel Bulletin.
    Picking up on Marx’s and Hegel’s analyses of human beings as social and individual, the article shows that what is at stake is not merely the possibility of individuality, but also the correct conception of the universal good. Both Marx and Hegel suppose that individuals must be social or political as individuals, which means, at least in Hegel’s case, that particular interests must form part of the universal good. The good and the rational cannot be something beside individuals and (...)
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  40. Ellen Clarke (2011). The Problem of Biological Individuality. Biological Theory 5 (4):312-325.
    Darwin’s classic ‘Origin of Species’ (Darwin 1859) described forces of selection acting upon individuals, but there remains a great deal of controversy about what exactly the status and definition of a biological individual is. Recently some authors have argued that the individual is dispensable – that an inability to pin it down is not problematic because little rests on it anyway. The aim of this paper is to show that there is a real problem of biological individuality, and an (...)
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  41.  27
    Karen Kovaka (2015). Biological Individuality and Scientific Practice. Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1092-1103.
    I consider the relationship between scientific practice and the philosophical debate surrounding biological individuality. I argue for the sensitivity account, on which biologists do not require a resolution to the individuality debate. This view puts me in disagreement with much of the literature on biological individuality, where it has become common to claim that there is a relationship of dependence between biologists’ conceptions of individuality and the quality of their empirical work.
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  42. Ellen Clarke (2012). Plant Individuality: A Solution to the Demographer's Dilemma. Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):321-361.
    The problem of plant individuality is something which has vexed botanists throughout the ages, with fashion swinging back and forth from treating plants as communities of individuals (Darwin 1800 ; Braun and Stone 1853 ; Münch 1938 ) to treating them as organisms in their own right, and although the latter view has dominated mainstream thought most recently (Harper 1977 ; Cook 1985 ; Ariew and Lewontin 2004 ), a lively debate conducted mostly in Scandinavian journals proves that the (...)
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  43.  63
    Décio Krause (2010). Logical Aspects of Quantum (Non-)Individuality. Foundations of Science 15 (1):79-94.
    In this paper I consider some logical and mathematical aspects of the discussion of the identity and individuality of quantum entities. I shall point out that for some aspects of the discussion, the logical basis cannot be put aside; on the contrary, it leads us to unavoidable conclusions which may have consequences in how we articulate certain concepts related to quantum theory. Behind the discussion, there is a general argument which suggests the possibility of a metaphysics of non-individuals, based (...)
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  44.  63
    Minus van Baalen (2013). The Unit of Adaptation, the Emergence of Individuality, and the Loss of Evolutionary Sovereignty. In Philippe Huneman & Frédéric Bouchard (eds.), From Groups to Individuals. Evolution and Emerging Individuality. MIT Press
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  45.  25
    Beckett Sterner (2015). Pathways to Pluralism About Biological Individuality. Biology and Philosophy 30 (5):609-628.
    What are the prospects for a monistic view of biological individuality given the multiple epistemic roles the concept must satisfy? In this paper, I examine the epistemic adequacy of two recent accounts based on the capacity to undergo natural selection. One is from Ellen Clarke, and the other is by Peter Godfrey-Smith. Clarke’s position reflects a strong monism, in that she aims to characterize individuality in purely functional terms and refrains from privileging any specific material properties as important (...)
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  46. Matteo Morganti (2011). Identity in Physics: Statistics and the (Non-)Individuality of Quantum Particles. In H. De Regt, S. Hartmann & S.: Okasha (eds.), EPSA Philosophy of Science: Amsterdam 2009. Springer
    This paper discusses the issue of the identity and individuality (or lack thereof) of quantum mechanical particles. It first reconstructs, on the basis of the extant literature, a general argument in favour of the conclusion that such particles are not individual objects. Then, it critically assesses each one of the argument’s premises. The upshot is that, in fact, there is no compelling reason for believing that quantum particles are not individual objects.
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  47.  25
    Stephen Jay Gould & Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1999). Individuality and Adaptation Across Levels of Selection: How Shall We Name and Generalize the Unit of Darwinism? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21):11904-09.
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast with Darwin’s own emphasis on the organismic level. But a piece of (...)
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  48.  48
    Steven French (1989). Individuality, Supervenience and Bell's Theorem. Philosophical Studies 55 (1):1-22.
    Some recent work in the philosophy of quantum mechanics has suggested that quantum systems can be thought of as non-separable and therefore non-individual, in some sense, in Bell and E.P.R. type situations. This suggestion is set in the context of previous work regarding the individuality of quantal particles and it is argued that such entities can be considered as individuals if their non-classical statistical correlations are understood in terms of non-supervenient relations holding between them. We conclude that such relations (...)
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  49.  20
    Jonas Becker Arenhart & Décio Krause (2014). From Primitive Identity to the Non-Individuality of Quantum Objects. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (2):273-282.
    We consider the claim by Dorato and Morganti 591–610) that primitive individuality should be attributed to the entities dealt with by non-relativistic quantum mechanics. There are two central ingredients in the proposal: in the case of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, individuality should be taken as a primitive notion and primitive individuality is naturalistically acceptable. We argue that, strictly understood, naturalism faces difficulties in helping to provide a theory with a unique principle of individuation. We also hold that even (...)
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  50. Richard E. Flathman (2002). Thomas Hobbes: Skepticism, Individuality, and Chastened Politics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    As its subtitle 'Skepticism, Individuality and Chastened Politics' indicates, this book is an exploration of and a largely favorable engagement with salient elements in the thinking of a theorist who is widely regarded as the greatest Anglophone political thinker and among the top rank of philosophical writers generally. In emphazing Hobbes's skepticism, Richard Flathman goes against the grain of much of the literature concerning Hobbes. The theme of individuality is more familiar, particularly from the celebrated writings on Hobbes (...)
     
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