Search results for 'Infancy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  78
    Peter Carruthers (2002). The Roots of Scientific Reasoning: Infancy, Modularity, and the Art of Tracking. In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), [Book Chapter]. Cambridge University Press 73--95.
    This chapter examines the extent to which there are continuities between the cognitive processes and epistemic practices engaged in by human hunter-gatherers, on the one hand, and those which are distinctive of science, on the other. It deploys anthropological evidence against any form of 'no-continuity' view, drawing especially on the cognitive skills involved in the art of tracking. It also argues against the 'child-as-scientist' accounts put forward by some developmental psychologists, which imply that scientific thinking is present in early (...) and universal amongst humans who have sufficient time and resources to devote to it. In contrast, a modularist kind of 'continuity' account is proposed, according to which the innately channelled architecture of human cognition provides all the materials necessary for basic forms of scientific reasoning in older children and adults, needing only the appropriate sorts of external support, social context, and background beliefs and skills in order for science to begin its advance. (shrink)
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  2. V. Slaughter, M. Heron & S. Sim (2002). Development of Preferences for the Human Body Shape in Infancy. Cognition 85 (3):71-81.
    Two studies investigated the development of infants' visual preferences for the human body shape. In Study 1, infants of 12,15 and 18 months were tested in a standard preferential looking experiment, in which they were shown paired line drawings of typical and scrambled bodies. Results indicated that the 18-month-olds had a reliable preference for the scrambled body shapes over typical body shapes, while the younger infants did not show differential responding. In Study 2, 12- and 18-month-olds were tested with the (...)
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  3.  4
    P. Rochat (ed.) (1995). The Self in Infancy: Theory and Research. Elsevier.
    This book is a collection of current theoretical views and research on the self in early infancy, prior to self-identification and the well-documented emergence ...
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  4.  6
    O. C. Irwin & H. P. Chen (1946). Development of Speech During Infancy: Curve of Phonemic Types. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (5):431.
  5.  5
    Orvis C. Irwin (1947). Development of Speech During Infancy: Curve of Phonemic Frequencies. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (2):187.
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  6.  1
    H. P. Chen & O. C. Irwin (1946). Development of Speech During Infancy: Curve of Differential Percentage Indices. Journal of Experimental Psychology 36 (6):522.
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  7. E. Fivaz-Depeursinge, N. Favez & F. Frascarolo (2004). Threesome Intersubjectivity in Infancy: A Contribution to the Development of Self-Awareness. In Dan Zahavi, T. Grunbaum & Josef Parnas (eds.), The Structure and Development of Self-Consciousness: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. John Benjamins
  8. Stefanie Hoehl & Tricia Striano (2010). Discrete Emotions in Infancy: Perception Without Production? Emotion Review 2 (2):132-133.
    Camras and Shutter review evidence suggesting that infants’ facial expressions do not represent discrete emotions and cannot easily be matched to the facial expressions of adults. This raises the important question of whether infants have a notion about the meanings of discrete emotions at all. The authors do not discuss whether infants are sensitive to discrete emotional expressions when perceiving others. In our commentary we discuss evidence for the perception of discrete emotional facial expressions in infancy.
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  9.  9
    Linda A. Camras & Jennifer M. Shutter (2010). Emotional Facial Expressions in Infancy. Emotion Review 2 (2):120-129.
    In this article, we review empirical evidence regarding the relationship between facial expression and emotion during infancy. We focus on differential emotions theory’s view of this relationship because of its theoretical and methodological prominence. We conclude that current evidence fails to support its proposal regarding a set of pre-specified facial expressions that invariably reflect a corresponding set of discrete emotions in infants. Instead, the relationship between facial expression and emotion appears to be more complex. Some facial expressions may have (...)
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  10.  1
    Robert A. Davis (2010). Government Intervention in Child Rearing: Governing Infancy. Educational Theory 60 (3):285-298.
    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for (...)
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  11.  4
    Igor Jasinski & Tyson E. Lewis (2015). Community of Infancy: Suspending the Sovereignty of the Teacher's Voice. Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (3).
    While some argue that the only way to make a place for Philosophy for Children in today's strict, standardised classroom is to measure its efficacy in promoting reasoning, we believe that this must be avoided in order to safeguard what is truly unique in P4C dialogue. When P4C acquiesces to the very same quantitative measures that define the rest of learning, then the philosophical dimension drops out and P4C becomes yet another progressive curriculum and pedagogy for enhancing argumentation skills that (...)
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  12.  43
    Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (1996). An Empirical-Phenomenological Critique of the Social Construction of Infancy. Human Studies 19 (1):1 - 16.
    Developmental and clinical psychological findings on infancy over the past twenty years and more refute in striking ways both Piaget's and Lacan's negative characterizations of infants. Piaget's thesis is that the infant has an undifferentiated sense of self; Lacan's thesis is that the infant is no more than a fragmented piece of goods — a corps morcelé. Through an examination of recent and notable analyses of infancy by infant psychiatrist Daniel Stern, this paper highlights important features within the (...)
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  13.  7
    Amy G. Halberstadt & Fantasy T. Lozada (2011). Emotion Development in Infancy Through the Lens of Culture. Emotion Review 3 (2):158-168.
    The goal of this review is to consider how culture impacts the socialization of emotion development in infancy, and infants’ and young children’s subsequent outcomes. First, we argue that parents’ socialization decisions are embedded within cultural structures, beliefs, and practices. Second, we identify five broad cultural frames (collectivism/individualism; power distance; children’s place in family and culture; ways children learn; and value of emotional experience and expression) that help to organize current and future research. For each frame, we discuss the (...)
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  14.  16
    Rachel Jones (2012). Irigaray and Lyotard: Birth, Infancy, and Metaphysics. Hypatia 27 (1):139-162.
    This paper examines the ways in which Luce Irigaray and Jean-François Lyotard critique western metaphysics by drawing on notions of birth and infancy. It shows how both thinkers position birth as an event of beginning that can be reaffirmed in every act of initiation and recommencement. Irigaray's reading of Diotima's speech from Plato's Symposium is positioned as a key text for this project alongside a number of essays by Lyotard in which he explores the potency of infancy as (...)
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  15. Martha E. Arterberry & Phillip J. Kellman (2016). Development of Perception in Infancy: The Cradle of Knowledge Revisited. Oxford University Press Usa.
    The developing infant can accomplish all important perceptual tasks that an adult can, albeit with less skill or precision. Through infant perception research, infant responses to experiences enable researchers to reveal perceptual competence, test hypotheses about processes, and infer neural mechanisms, and researchers are able to address age-old questions about perception and the origins of knowledge.In Development of Perception in Infancy: The Cradle of Knowledge Revisited, Martha E. Arterberry and Philip J. Kellman study the methods and data of scientific (...)
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  16. George Butterworth (1995). The Self as an Object of Consciousness in Infancy. In P. Rochat (ed.), The Self in Infancy: Theory and Research. Elsevier
  17.  51
    Peter Carruthers (2013). Mindreading in Infancy. Mind and Language 28 (2):141-172.
    Various dichotomies have been proposed to characterize the nature and development of human mindreading capacities, especially in light of recent evidence of mindreading in infants aged 7 to 18 months. This article will examine these suggestions, arguing that none is currently supported by the evidence. Rather, the data support a modular account of the domain-specific component of basic mindreading capacities. This core component is present in infants from a very young age and does not alter fundamentally thereafter. What alters with (...)
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  18. Gergely Csibra, György Gergely, Szilvia Bı́ró, Orsolya Koós & Margaret Brockbank (1999). Goal Attribution Without Agency Cues: The Perception of ‘Pure Reason’ in Infancy. Cognition 72 (3):237-267.
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  19.  17
    György Gergely & Gergely Csibra (2003). Teleological Reasoning in Infancy: The Naı̈ve Theory of Rational Action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (7):287-292.
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  20.  4
    Natasha Z. Kirkham, Jonathan A. Slemmer & Scott P. Johnson (2002). Visual Statistical Learning in Infancy: Evidence for a Domain General Learning Mechanism. Cognition 83 (2):B35-B42.
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  21. G. Gergeley & C. Csibra (2003). ÔTeleological Reasoning in Infancy: The Naı Ve Theory of Rational ActionÕ. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7.
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  22.  52
    Gergely Csibra (2010). Recognizing Communicative Intentions in Infancy. Mind and Language 25 (2):141-168.
    I make three related proposals concerning the development of receptive communication in human infants. First, I propose that the presence of communicative intentions can be recognized in others' behaviour before the content of these intentions is accessed or inferred. Second, I claim that such recognition can be achieved by decoding specialized ostensive signals. Third, I argue on empirical bases that, by decoding ostensive signals, human infants are capable of recognizing communicative intentions addressed to them. Thus, learning about actual modes of (...)
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  23. Jaya Rachwani, Victor Santamaria, Sandra L. Saavedra & Marjorie H. Woollacott (2015). The Development of Trunk Control and its Relation to Reaching in Infancy: A Longitudinal Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  24. Arlette Streri & Maria Dolores de Hevia (2015). Manual Lateralization in Infancy. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  25. Marieke van Heugten & Elizabeth K. Johnson (2014). Learning to Contend with Accents in Infancy: Benefits of Brief Speaker Exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (1):340-350.
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  26.  11
    Jessica A. Sommerville & Amanda L. Woodward (2005). Pulling Out the Intentional Structure of Action: The Relation Between Action Processing and Action Production in Infancy. Cognition 95 (1):1-30.
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  27.  15
    Susan C. Johnson (2000). The Recognition of Mentalistic Agents in Infancy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (1):22-28.
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  28. Elizabeth M. Brannon, Sara Abbott & Donna J. Lutz (2004). Number Bias for the Discrimination of Large Visual Sets in Infancy. Cognition 93 (2):B59-B68.
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  29.  8
    Fei Xu (2002). The Role of Language in Acquiring Object Kind Concepts in Infancy. Cognition 85 (3):223-250.
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  30.  12
    Elizabeth M. Brannon (2002). The Development of Ordinal Numerical Knowledge in Infancy. Cognition 83 (3):223-240.
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  31.  28
    Malinda Carpenter (2009). Just How Joint Is Joint Action in Infancy? Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):380-392.
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  32.  19
    I. Kiraly, B. Jovanovic, W. Prinz, G. Aschersleben & G. Gergely (2003). The Early Origins of Goal Attribution in Infancy. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):752-769.
    We contrast two positions concerning the initial domain of actions that infants interpret as goal-directed. The 'narrow scope' view holds that goal-attribution in 6- and 9-month-olds is restricted to highly familiar actions (such as grasping) (). The cue-based approach of the infant's 'teleological stance' (), however, predicts that if the cues of equifinal variation of action and a salient action effect are present, young infants can attribute goals to a 'wide scope' of entities including unfamiliar human actions and actions of (...)
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  33. Philip J. Kellman & Elizabeth S. Spelke (1983). Perception of Partly Occluded Objects in Infancy* 1. Cognitive Psychology 15 (4):483–524.
    Four-month-old infants sometimes can perceive the unity of a partly hidden object. In each of a series of experiments, infants were habituated to one object whose top and bottom were visible but whose center was occluded by a nearer object. They were then tested with a fully visible continuous object and with two fully visible object pieces with a gap where the occluder had been. Pattems of dishabituation suggested that infants perceive the boundaries of a partly hidden object by analyzing (...)
     
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  34.  4
    Athena Vouloumanos & Sandra R. Waxman (2014). Listen Up! Speech is for Thinking During Infancy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (12):642-646.
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  35.  7
    Kim Plunkett, Jon-Fan Hu & Leslie B. Cohen (2008). Labels Can Override Perceptual Categories in Early Infancy. Cognition 106 (2):665-681.
  36.  11
    Jean M. Mandler & Laraine McDonough (1996). Drinking and Driving Don't Mix: Inductive Generalization in Infancy. Cognition 59 (3):307-335.
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  37.  10
    Katherine A. Yoshida, John R. Iversen, Aniruddh D. Patel, Reiko Mazuka, Hiromi Nito, Judit Gervain & Janet F. Werker (2010). The Development of Perceptual Grouping Biases in Infancy: A Japanese-English Cross-Linguistic Study. Cognition 115 (2):356-361.
    Perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found differences in Japanese and English speakers' non-linguistic perceptual grouping, implicating language in non-linguistic perceptual processes (Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Two experiments test Japanese- and English-learning infants of 5-6 and 7-8 months of age to explore the development of grouping preferences. At 5-6 months, neither the Japanese nor the English infants revealed any systematic perceptual biases. However, by 7-8 months, the same age (...)
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  38.  20
    Renée Baillargeon & Su-hua Wang (2002). Event Categorization in Infancy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (2):85-93.
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  39.  4
    Jean-Rémy Hochmann, Ansgar D. Endress & Jacques Mehler (2010). Word Frequency as a Cue for Identifying Function Words in Infancy. Cognition 115 (3):444-457.
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  40.  41
    Charles H. Talbert (forthcoming). Book Review: Illuminating Luke: The Infancy Narrative in Italian Renaissance Painting. [REVIEW] Interpretation 59 (2):218-218.
  41.  16
    Thierry Nazzi & Alison Gopnik (2001). Linguistic and Cognitive Abilities in Infancy: When Does Language Become a Tool for Categorization? Cognition 80 (3):B11-B20.
  42.  6
    Marco Fenici (2013). Social Cognitive Abilities in Infancy: Is Mindreading the Best Explanation? Philosophical Psychology 28 (3):387-411.
    I discuss three arguments that have been advanced in support of the epistemic mentalist view, i.e., the view that infants' social cognitive abilities manifest a capacity to attribute beliefs. The argument from implicitness holds that SCAs already reflect the possession of an “implicit” and “rudimentary” capacity to attribute representational states. Against it, I note that SCAs are significantly limited, and have likely evolved to respond to contextual information in situated interaction with others. I challenge the argument from parsimony by claiming (...)
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  43. Elizabeth S. Spelke, Perceiving Bimodally Specified Events in Infancy.
    Four-month-old infants can perceive bimodally speciiied events. They respond to relationships between the optic and acoustic stimulation that carries information about an object. Infants can do this by detecting the temporal synchrony of an object’s sounds and its optically specified impacts. They are sensitive both to the common tempo and to the simultaneity of such sounds and visible impacts. These findings support the view that intermodal perception depends at least in part on the detection of invariant relationships in patterns of (...)
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  44. Lisa M. Oakes, Heidi A. Baumgartner, Frederick S. Barrett, Ian M. Messenger & Steven J. Luck (2013). Developmental Changes in Visual Short-Term Memory in Infancy: Evidence From Eye-Tracking. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  45.  12
    B. Elsner & G. Aschersleben (2003). Do I Get What You Get? Learning About the Effects of Self-Performed and Observed Actions in Infancy. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):732-751.
    The present study investigated whether infants learn the effects of other persons' actions like they do for their own actions, and whether infants transfer observed action-effect relations to their own actions. Nine-, 12-, 15- and 18-month-olds explored an object that allowed two actions, and that produced a certain salient effect after each action. In a self-exploration group, infants explored the object directly, whereas in two observation groups, infants first watched an adult model acting on the object and obtaining a certain (...)
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  46.  1
    György Gergely & Gergely Csibra (1997). Teleological Reasoning in Infancy: The Infant's Naive Theory of Rational Action: A Reply to Premack and Premack. Cognition 63 (2):227-233.
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  47. Su-hua Wang, Renée Baillargeon & Sarah Paterson (2005). Detecting Continuity Violations in Infancy: A New Account and New Evidence From Covering and Tube Events. Cognition 95 (2):129-173.
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  48. Denis Mareschal & Mark H. Johnson (2003). The “What” and “Where” of Object Representations in Infancy. Cognition 88 (3):259-276.
  49.  19
    Denis Mareschal (2000). Object Knowledge in Infancy: Current Controversies and Approaches. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (11):408-416.
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  50.  10
    Renee Baillargeon (1995). Physical Reasoning in Infancy. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences. MIT Press 181--204.
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