Search results for 'Infant' (try it on Scholar)

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Bibliography: Infanticide in Applied Ethics
  1.  54
    Esther Thelen, Gregor Schöner, Christian Scheier & Linda B. Smith (2001). The Dynamics of Embodiment: A Field Theory of Infant Perseverative Reaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):1-34.
    The overall goal of this target article is to demonstrate a mechanism for an embodied cognition. The particular vehicle is a much-studied, but still widely debated phenomenon seen in 7–12 month-old-infants. In Piaget's classic “A-not-B error,” infants who have successfully uncovered a toy at location “A” continue to reach to that location even after they watch the toy hidden in a nearby location “B.” Here, we question the traditional explanations of the error as an indicator of infants' concepts of objects (...)
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  2.  37
    Joseph Soltis (2004). The Signal Functions of Early Infant Crying. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):443-458.
    In this article I evaluate recent attempts to illuminate the human infant cry from an evolutionary perspective. Infants are born into an uncertain parenting environment, which can range from indulgent care of offspring to infanticide. Infant cries are in large part adaptations that maintain proximity to and elicit care from caregivers. Although there is not strong evidence for acoustically distinct cry types, infant cries may function as a graded signal. During pain-induced autonomic nervous system arousal, for example, (...)
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  3.  2
    James J. McKenna (1990). Evolution and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Human Nature 1 (2):145-177.
    This paper and its subsequent parts (Part II and Part III) build on an earlier publication (McKenna 1986). They suggest that important clinical data on the relationship between infantile constitutional deficits and microenvironmental factors relevant to SIDS can be acquired by examining the physiological regulatory effects (well documented among nonhuman primates) that parents assert on their infants when they sleep together.I attempt to show why access to parental sensory cues (movement, touch, smell, sound) that induce arousals in infants while they (...)
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  4.  19
    Jørn Bjerre (2012). Does Infant Cognition Research Undermine Sociological Theory? A Critique of Bergesen's Attack on Durkheim. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):444-464.
    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, (...)
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  5.  8
    Eldar Sarajlic (2014). Can Culture Justify Infant Circumcision? Res Publica 20 (4):327-343.
    The paper addresses arguments in the recent philosophical and bioethical literature claiming that social and cultural benefits can justify non-therapeutic male infant circumcision. It rejects these claims by referring to the open future argument, according to which infant circumcision is morally unjustifiable because it violates the child’s right to an open future. The paper also addresses an important objection to the open future argument and examines the strength of the objection to refute the application of the argument to (...)
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  6.  13
    Anthony Volk & Vernon L. Quinsey (2002). The Influence of Infant Facial Cues on Adoption Preferences. Human Nature 13 (4):437-455.
    Trivers’s theory of parental investment suggests that adults should decide whether or not to invest in a given infant using a cost-benefit analysis. To make the best investment decision, adults should seek as much relevant information as possible. Infant facial cues may serve to provide information and evoke feelings of parental care in adults. Four specific infant facial cues were investigated: resemblance (as a proxy for kinship), health, happiness, and cuteness. It was predicted that these cues would (...)
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  7.  60
    Colin Boyd (2012). The Nestlé Infant Formula Controversy and a Strange Web of Subsequent Business Scandals. Journal of Business Ethics 106 (3):283-293.
    The marketing of infant formula in third-world countries in the 1970s by Nestlé S.A. gave rise to a consumer boycott that came to be a widely taught case study in the field of Business Ethics. This article extends that case study by identifying three specific individuals who were associated with managing Nestlé’s response to that boycott. It reveals their subsequent direct involvement in a number of additional “classic” 1980s business scandals (some of which ended with major criminal trials and (...)
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  8.  15
    Helen Ball (2006). Parent-Infant Bed-Sharing Behavior. Human Nature 17 (3):301-318.
    An evolutionarily informed perspective on parent-infant sleep contact challenges recommendations regarding appropriate parent-infant sleep practices based on large epidemiological studies. In this study regularly bed-sharing parents and infants participated in an in-home video study of bed-sharing behavior. Ten formula-feeding and ten breast-feeding families were filmed for 3 nights for 8 hours per night. For breast-fed infants, mother-infant orientation, sleep position, frequency of feeding, arousal, and synchronous arousal were all consistent with previous sleep-lab studies of mother-infant bed-sharing (...)
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  9.  70
    Andrew Chignell (2001). Infant Suffering Revisited. Religious Studies 37 (4):475-484.
    I respond to two sets of objections to my characterization of infant suffering and the problem that it presents to traditional theism. My main theses were that infant suffering to death is not ‘horrendous’ in the technical sense defined, but that a good God still needs to "balance off" rather than "defeat" such suffering. David Basinger, on the other hand, claims that some infant suffering should be considered horrendous, while Nathan Nobis suggests that such suffering must be (...)
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  10.  40
    Faith E. Fletcher, Paul Ndebele & Maureen C. Kelley (2008). Infant Feeding and Hiv in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Lies Beneath the Dilemma? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (5):307-330.
    The debate over how to best guide HIV-infected mothers in resource-poor settings on infant feeding is more than two decades old. Globally, breastfeeding is responsible for approximately 300,000 HIV infections per year, while at the same time, UNICEF estimates that not breastfeeding (formula feeding with contaminated water) is responsible for 1.5 million child deaths per year. The largest burden of these infections and deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using this region as an example of the burden faced more generally (...)
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  11.  12
    Katherine L. Waller, Anthony Volk & Vernon L. Quinsey (2004). The Effect of Infant Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Facial Features on Adoption Preference. Human Nature 15 (1):101-117.
    Infant facial characteristics may affect discriminative parental solicitude because they convey information about the health of the offspring. We examined the effect of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) infant facial characteristics on hypothetical adoption preferences, ratings of attractiveness, and ratings of health. As expected, potential parents were more likely to adopt “normal” infants, and they rated the FAS infants as less attractive and less healthy. Cuteness/attractiveness was the best predictor of adoption likelihood.
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  12.  4
    Marilee Monnot (1999). Function of Infant-Directed Speech. Human Nature 10 (4):415-443.
    The relationship between a biological process and a behavioral trait indicates a proximate mechanism by which natural selection can act. In that context, examining an aspect of infant health is one method of investigating the adaptive significance of infant-directed speech (ID speech), and it could help to explain the widespread use of this communication style. The correlation between infant growth and infant-directed speech is positive and significant, and provides a vehicle for testing evolutionary history hypotheses.
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  13.  13
    R. S. Howe (2013). Infant Circumcision: The Last Stand for the Dead Dogma of Parental (Sovereignal) Rights. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):475-481.
    J S Mill used the term ‘dead dogma’ to describe a belief that has gone unquestioned for so long and to such a degree that people have little idea why they accept it or why they continue to believe it. When wives and children were considered chattel, it made sense for the head of a household to have a ‘sovereignal right’ to do as he wished with his property. Now that women and children are considered to have the full complement (...)
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  14.  5
    Eva Mark (2001). Is the Self of the Infant Preserved in the Adult? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (3):347-353.
    What does a confrontation between philosophy and psychoanalysis look like? My task is a philosophical investigation of a psychoanalytic concept. Thus, I offer a conceptual analysis of a concept that is used both clinically and as a part of a metapsychology. The concept that I investigate in this article is regression. I work with the following two problems: What does a conceptual analysis of the phenomenon called regression look like? Regression can be regarded as an instrument that can give us (...)
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  15.  22
    John Michael (forthcoming). Putting Unicepts to Work: A Teleosemantic Perspective on the Infant Mindreading Puzzle. Synthese:1-24.
    In this paper, I show how theoretical discussion of recent research on the abilities of infants and young children to represent other agents’ beliefs has been shaped by a descriptivist conception of mental content, i.e., to the notion that the distal content of a mental representation is fixed by the core body of knowledge that is associated with that mental representation. I also show how alternative conceptions of mental content—and in particular Ruth Millikan’s teleosemantic approach—make it possible to endorse the (...)
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  16. Andrew N. Meltzoff (1993). Molyneux's Babies: Cross-Modal Perception, Imitation, and the Mind of the Preverbal Infant. In Naomi M. Eilan (ed.), Spatial Representation. Cambridge: Blackwell 219--235.
     
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  17.  17
    Roger Lee Mendoza (2012). A Case Study of Infant Health Promotion and Corporate Marketing of Milk Substitutes. Health Care Analysis 20 (2):196-211.
    The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country’s Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine (...)
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  18.  4
    Hiroki Mishina, Joan F. Hilton & John I. Takayama (2013). Trends and Variations in Infant Mortality Among 47 Prefectures in Japan. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):849-854.
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  19.  3
    A. H. Riesen (1942). Galvanic Skin Responses of Infant Chimpanzees. Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (3):249.
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  20.  4
    F. C. Dockeray & W. L. Valentine (1939). A New Isolation Cabinet for Infant Research. Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (2):211.
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  21. E. M. Simms (2014). Intimacy and the Face of the Other: A Philosophical Study of Infant Institutionalization and Deprivation. Emotion, Space, and Society. Emotion, Space, and Society 13:80-86.
    The orphans of Romania were participants in what is sometimes called “the forbidden experiment”: depriving human infants of intimacy, affection, and human contact is an inhuman practice. It is an experiment which no ethical researcher would set out to do. This paper examines historical data, case histories, and research findings which deal with early deprivation and performs a phenomenological analysis of deprivation phenomena as they impact emotional and physical development. A key element of deprivation is the absence of intimate relationships (...)
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  22. Eva Maria Simms (1993). The Infant's Experience of the World: Stern, Merleau-Ponty and the Phenomenology of the Preverbal Self. Humanistic Psychologist 21 (1):26-40.
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  23.  9
    Allan J. Jacobs & Kavita Shah Arora (2015). Ritual Male Infant Circumcision and Human Rights. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (2):30-39.
    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term “human rights.” We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on (...)
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  24.  19
    Joseph Mazor (2013). The Child's Interests and the Case for the Permissibility of Male Infant Circumcision. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):421-428.
    Circumcision of a male child was recently ruled illegal by a court in Germany on the grounds that it violates the child's rights to bodily integrity and self-determination. This paper begins by challenging the applicability of these rights to the circumcision debate. It argues that, rather than a sweeping appeal to rights, a moral analysis of the practice of circumcision will require a careful examination of the interests of the child. I consider three of these interests in some detail. The (...)
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  25.  17
    D. Wilkinson (2006). Is It in the Best Interests of an Intellectually Disabled Infant to Die? Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (8):454-459.
    One of the most contentious ethical issues in the neonatal intensive care unit is the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from infants who may otherwise survive. In practice, one of the most important factors influencing this decision is the prediction that the infant will be severely intellectually disabled. Most professional guidelines suggest that decisions should be made on the basis of the best interests of the infant. It is, however, not clear how intellectual disability affects those interests. Why should (...)
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  26.  4
    Jon A. Willits, Mark S. Seidenberg & Jenny R. Saffran (2014). Distributional Structure in Language: Contributions to Noun–Verb Difficulty Differences in Infant Word Recognition. Cognition 132 (3):429-436.
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  27.  88
    Tadeusz Wieslaw Zawidzki (2011). How to Interpret Infant Socio-Cognitive Competence. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):483-497.
    I review recent evidence that very young, pre-verbal infants attribute belief-like states when anticipating the behavior of others. This evidence is drawn from infant performance on non-verbal false belief tasks. I argue that, contrary to typical interpretations, such evidence does not show that infants attribute belief-like states. Rather, it shows that infants apply an enhanced version of what Gergely ( 2011 ) calls the “teleological stance” to brief bouts of behavior. This requires them to parse behavioral sequences into goals (...)
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  28.  51
    B. Lyons (2013). Male Infant Circumcision as a 'HIV Vaccine'. Public Health Ethics 6 (1):90-103.
    This article deals with the specific claim that prophylactic male infant circumcision should be employed to prevent HIV transmission in countries in which the prevalence of HIV is relatively low. In a recent editorial, Australian researchers sought to promote the procedure as a ‘surgical vaccine’ against HIV in their country. This raises the question whether it would be reasonable for the UK to adopt a policy of mass infant male circumcision in order to protect individuals from heterosexually acquired (...)
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  29.  43
    Francine Wynn (1997). The Embodied Chiasmic Relationship of Mother and Infant. Human Studies 20 (2):253-270.
    In this paper the very earliest relationship of mother and newborn will be described phenomenologically through an interlacing of Donald Winnicott''s work on maternal holding with Maurice Merleau-Ponty''s concepts of flesh and chiasm. Merleau-Ponty''s thinking suggests that the holding relationship described by Winnicott is formed as much by the infant''s holding of the mother as it is by mother''s holding of her infant. Both flex and bend towards each other and inscribe each other yet retain their own particularity. (...)
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  30.  12
    Brian D. Earp (2013). The Ethics of Infant Male Circumcision. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):418-420.
    INTRODUCTIONIs the non-therapeutic circumcision of infant males morally permissible? The most recent major development in this long-simmering debate was the 2012 release of a policy statement and technical report on circumcision by the American Academy of Pediatrics . In these documents, the US paediatricians’ organisation claimed that the potential health benefits of infant circumcision now outweigh the risks and costs. They went on to suggest that their analysis could be taken to justify the decision of parents to choose (...)
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  31.  14
    E. Ungar-Sargon (2015). On the Impermissibility of Infant Male Circumcision: A Response to Mazor. Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2):186-190.
    This is a response to Dr Joseph Mazor’s paper ‘The child's interests and the case for the permissibility of male infant circumcision.’ I argue that Dr Mazor fails to prove that bodily integrity and self-determination are mere interests as opposed to genuine rights in the case of infant male circumcision. Moreover, I cast doubt on the interest calculus that Dr Mazor employs to arrive at his conclusions about circumcision.
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  32.  7
    Eleanor Olds Batchelder (2002). Bootstrapping the Lexicon: A Computational Model of Infant Speech Segmentation. Cognition 83 (2):167-206.
    Prelinguistic infants must find a way to isolate meaningful chunks from the continuous streams of speech that they hear. BootLex, a new model which uses distributional cues to build a lexicon, demonstrates how much can be accomplished using this single source of information. This conceptually simple probabilistic algorithm achieves significant segmentation results on various kinds of language corpora - English, Japanese, and Spanish; child- and adult-directed speech, and written texts; and several variations in coding structure - and reveals which statistical (...)
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  33.  12
    Federico Rossano (2013). Sequence Organization and Timing of Bonobo Mother-Infant Interactions. Interaction Studies 14 (2):160-189.
    In recent years, some scholars have claimed that humans are unique in their capacity and motivation to engage in cooperative communication and extensive, fast-paced social interactions. While research on gestural communication in great apes has offered important findings concerning the gestural repertoires of different species, very little is known about the sequential organization of primates’ communicative behavior during interactions. Drawing on a conversation analytic framework, this paper addresses this gap by investigating the sequential organization of bonobo mother-infant interactions, and (...)
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  34.  9
    M. Jonas (2007). The Baby MB Case: Medical Decision Making in the Context of Uncertain Infant Suffering. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (9):541-544.
    The recent MB case involved a dispute between an infant’s parents and his medical team about the appropriateness of continued life support. The dispute reflected uncertainty about two key factors that inform medical decision making for seriously ill infants: both the amount of pain MB experiences and the extent of his cognitive capacities are uncertain. Uncertainty of this order makes decision making in accordance with the best-interests principle very problematic. This article addresses two of the problems that cases such (...)
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  35. Robert S. Van Howe (2013). Infant Circumcision: The Last Stand for the Dead Dogma of Parental (Sovereignal) Rights. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):475-481.
    J S Mill used the term ‘dead dogma’ to describe a belief that has gone unquestioned for so long and to such a degree that people have little idea why they accept it or why they continue to believe it. When wives and children were considered chattel, it made sense for the head of a household to have a ‘sovereignal right’ to do as he wished with his property. Now that women and children are considered to have the full complement (...)
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  36. Andrew Chignell (1998). The Problem of Infant Suffering. Religious Studies 34 (2):205-217.
    The problem of infant suffering and death is often regarded as one of the more difficult versions of the problem of evil (see Ivan Karamazov), especially when one considers how God can be thought good to infant victims by the infant victims. In the first section of this paper, I examine two recent theodicies that aim to solve this problem but (I argue) fail. In the second section, I suggest that the only viable approach to the problem (...)
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  37.  12
    James Edward Swain, Linda C. Mayes & James F. Leckman (2004). The Development of Parent-Infant Attachment Through Dynamic and Interactive Signaling Loops of Care and Cry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):472-473.
    In addition to the infant cry being a signal for attention, it may also be a critical component of the early formation of attachments with caregivers. We consider the complex development of that attachment, which involves reciprocal interactive signaling and a host of evolutionarily conserved caregiver factors.
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  38.  6
    Jane Lymer (2012). Infant Imitation and the Self—A Response to Welsh. Philosophical Psychology (2):1-23.
    Talia Welsh (2006) argues that Shaun Gallagher and Andrew Meltzoff's (1996) application of neonatal imitation research is insufficient grounds for their claim that neonates are born with a primitive body image and thus an innate self-awareness. Drawing upon an understanding of the self that is founded upon a ?theory of mind,? Welsh challenges the notion that neonates have the capacity for self-awareness and charges the supposition with an essentialism which threatens to disrupt more social constructionist understandings of the self. In (...)
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  39.  94
    Francine Wynn (2002). The Early Relationship of Mother and Pre-Infant: Merleau-Ponty and Pregnancy. Nursing Philosophy 3 (1):4–14.
    This paper critically evaluates current conceptions of pregnancy as a possession of either mother or infant. In opposition to the more common stance that marks birth as the beginning of intercorporeality and perception, pregnancy is instead phenomenologically delineated as a chiasmic relationship between mother and her pre‐infant from a Merleau‐Pontian perspective. This paper maintains that during pregnancy a mother‐to‐be and her pre‐infant are deepened and modified through their intertwining.
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  40.  21
    E. Schmidt (2010). The Argument From Animal and Infant Perception. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 29 (2).
    I discuss an argument for non-conceptualism based on animal and infant per- ception. Crudely put, some animals and infants who possess no concepts nonetheless have perceptual states with non-conceptual content. Perceptual experiences of adult humans have the same kind of content as the experiences of animals and infants, so the content of the perceptual experiences of adult humans is also non-conceptual. I defend this argument against potential attacks from the conceptualist. I argue that there are indeed creatures which possess (...)
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  41.  25
    Marinus H. van IJzendoorn & Marian J. Bakermans‐Kranenburg (2004). Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Temperament in the Formation of Attachment. In Gavin Bremner & Alan Slater (eds.), Theories of Infant Development. Blackwell
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  42.  30
    James C. Baker (1985). The International Infant Formula Controversy: A Dilemma in Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 4 (3):181 - 190.
    One of the most controversial issues to face any industry has been the infant formula problem, especially in the less-developed countries (LDCs). Producers of infant formula were confronted with a boycott which evolved from a grass-roots level to one which involved many nations, international and national public agencies, non-profit organizations, scientific research institutions, large church denominations, and every company in the industry. An international boycott was aimed at Nestlé, one of the largest producers of infant formula.The aim (...)
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  43.  21
    Stein Braten (2004). Hominin Infant Decentration Hypothesis: Mirror Neurons System Adapted to Subserve Mother-Centered Participation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):508-509.
    Falk's hominin mother-infant model presupposes an emerging infant capacity to perceive and learn from afforded gestures and vocalizations. Unlike back-riding offspring of other primates, who were in no need to decenter their own body-centered perspective, a mirror neurons system may have been adapted in hominin infants to subserve the kind of (m)other-centered mirroring we now see manifested by human infants soon after birth.
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  44.  15
    Gavin Bremner & Alan Slater (eds.) (2004). Theories of Infant Development. Blackwell.
    This volume provides an authoritative, up-to-date survey of theories of infant development.
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  45.  25
    Francesca M. Bosco & Maurizio Tirassa (1998). Sharedness as an Innate Basis for Communication in the Infant. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 162-166.
    From a cognitive perspective, intentional communication may be viewed as an agent's activity overtly aimed at modifying a partner's mental states. According to standard Gricean definitions, this requires each party to be able to ascribe mental states to the other, i.e., to entertain a so-called theory of mind. According to the relevant experimental literature, however, such capability does not appear before the third or fourth birthday; it would follow that children under that age should not be viewed as communicating agents. (...)
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  46.  13
    Hillary N. Fouts, Michael E. Lamb & Barry S. Hewlett (2004). Infant Crying in Hunter-Gatherer Cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):462-463.
    By synthesizing evolutionary, attachment, and acoustic perspectives, Soltis has provided an innovative model of infant cry acoustics and parental responsiveness. We question some of his hypotheses, however, because of the limited extant data on infant crying among hunter-gatherers. We also question Soltis' distinction between manipulative and honest signaling based upon recent contributions from attachment theory.
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  47.  58
    Neven Sesardic (2007). Sudden Infant Death or Murder? A Royal Confusion About Probabilities. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (2):299 - 329.
    In this article I criticize the recommendations of some prominent statisticians about how to estimate and compare probabilities of the repeated sudden infant death and repeated murder. The issue has drawn considerable public attention in connection with several recent court cases in the UK. I try to show that when the three components of the Bayesian inference are carefully analyzed in this context, the advice of the statisticians turns out to be problematic in each of the steps.
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  48.  2
    Alex Harrop & Jeremy Swinson (2003). Teachers' Questions in the Infant, Junior and Secondary School. Educational Studies 29 (1):49-57.
    Ten teachers in infant schools, 10 in junior schools and 10 in secondary schools had their teaching recorded. Subsequent analysis was made of the teachers' use of questions categorised as of fact, closed solution, open solution, task supervision and routine. When the first two categories were combined, the results for the junior schools were very similar to those reported by Galton and his colleagues in 1980 and 1999. Moreover, the results for both the infant and secondary schools differed (...)
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  49.  2
    Marcelo Zubaran Goldani, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Roberto Jorge Rona, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva & Heloisa Bettiol (2004). Increasing Pre-Term and Low-Birth- Weight Rates Over Time and Their Impact on Infant Mortality in South-East Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science 36 (2):177-188.
    This study investigates the possible effects of pre-term births and low birth weight on infant mortality rates (IMRs) over a 15-year period in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, based on surveys carried out in 1978/79 and 1994. The 1978/79 survey included 6750 births over a 12-month period and the 1994 survey 2846 births over a 4-month period. Infant deaths were retrieved monthly from the city register. Infant mortality rate decreased from 36·6 to 16·9 deaths per 1000 over 15 years. (...)
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    Nathan Nobis (2002). The Real Problem of Infant and Animal Suffering. Philo 5 (2):216-225.
    The problem of infant suffering and death has remained one of the most intractable problems for theists. Andrew Chignell has attempted to develop a theodicy for this problem that is based on Marilyn Adam’s paradigm for theodicy. However, his discussion repeatedly avoids the argument that, traditionally, most have thought to be the basis of this problem of evil. Thus, his theodicy provides the traditional theist with no adequate response to the problem. I argue that since infant suffering is (...)
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