Search results for 'Information' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Robin S. Dillon (2010). Respect for Persons, Identity, and Information Technology. Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):17-28.score: 21.0
    There is surprisingly little attention in Information Technology ethics to respect for persons, either as an ethical issue or as a core value of IT ethics or as a conceptual tool for discussing ethical issues of IT. In this, IT ethics is very different from another field of applied ethics, bioethics, where respect is a core value and conceptual tool. This paper argues that there is value in thinking about ethical issues related to information technologies, especially, though not (...)
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  2. Matteo Turilli & Luciano Floridi (2009). The Ethics of Information Transparency. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (2):105-112.score: 21.0
    The paper investigates the ethics of information transparency (henceforth transparency). It argues that transparency is not an ethical principle in itself but a pro-ethical condition for enabling or impairing other ethical practices or principles. A new definition of transparency is offered in order to take into account the dynamics of information production and the differences between data and information. It is then argued that the proposed definition provides a better understanding of what sort of information should (...)
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  3. Simon D'Alfonso (2011). On Quantifying Semantic Information. Information 2 (1):61-101.score: 21.0
    The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn (...)
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  4. Richard Heersmink, Jeroen van den Hoven, Nees Jan van Eck & Jan van den Berg (2011). Bibliometric Mapping of Computer and Information Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):241-249.score: 21.0
    This paper presents the first bibliometric mapping analysis of the field of computer and information ethics (C&IE). It provides a map of the relations between 400 key terms in the field. This term map can be used to get an overview of concepts and topics in the field and to identify relations between information and communication technology concepts on the one hand and ethical concepts on the other hand. To produce the term map, a data set of over (...)
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  5. Rafael Capurro (2006). Towards an Ontological Foundation of Information Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):175-186.score: 21.0
    The paper presents, firstly, a brief review of the long history\nof information ethics beginning with the Greek concept of parrhesia\nor freedom of speech as analyzed by Michel Foucault. The recent concept\nof information ethics is related particularly to problems which arose\nin the last century with the development of computer technology and\nthe internet. A broader concept of information ethics as dealing\nwith the digital reconstruction of all possible phenomena leads to\nquestions relating to digital ontology. Following Heidegger{\textquoteright}s\nconception of the relation between (...)
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  6. Herman T. Tavani (2005). Locke, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Information Commons. Ethics and Information Technology 7 (2):87-97.score: 21.0
    This paper examines the question whether, and to what extent, John Locke’s classic theory of property can be applied to the current debate involving intellectual property rights (IPRs) and the information commons. Organized into four main sections, Section 1 includes a brief exposition of Locke’s arguments for the just appropriation of physical objects and tangible property. In Section 2, I consider some challenges involved in extending Locke’s labor theory of property to the debate about IPRs and digital information. (...)
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  7. Philip Brey (2008). Do We Have Moral Duties Towards Information Objects? Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):109-114.score: 21.0
    In this paper, a critique will be developed and an alternative proposed to Luciano Floridi’s approach to Information Ethics (IE). IE is a macroethical theory that is to both serve as a foundation for computer ethics and to guide our overall moral attitude towards the world. The central claims of IE are that everything that exists can be described as an information object, and that all information objects, qua information objects, have intrinsic value and are therefore (...)
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  8. Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). Human Development or Human Enhancement? A Methodological Reflection on Capabilities and the Evaluation of Information Technologies. Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):81-92.score: 21.0
    Nussbaum’s version of the capability approach is not only a helpful approach to development problems but can also be employed as a general ethical-anthropological framework in ‘advanced’ societies. This paper explores its normative force for evaluating information technologies, with a particular focus on the issue of human enhancement. It suggests that the capability approach can be a useful way of to specify a workable and adequate level of analysis in human enhancement discussions, but argues that any interpretation of what (...)
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  9. Luciano Floridi (2002). On the Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):287-304.score: 21.0
    What is the most general common set ofattributes that characterises something asintrinsically valuableand hence as subject to some moral respect, andwithout which something would rightly beconsidered intrinsically worthless or even positivelyunworthy and therefore rightly to bedisrespected in itself? Thispaper develops and supports the thesis that theminimal condition of possibility of an entity'sleast intrinsic value is to be identified with itsontological status as an information object.All entities, even when interpreted as only clusters ofinformation, still have a minimal moral worthqua (...) objects and so may deserve to be respected. Thepaper is organised into four main sections.Section 1 models moral action as an information systemusing the object-oriented programmingmethodology (OOP). Section 2 addresses the question of whatrole the several components constituting themoral system can have in an ethical analysis. If theycan play only an instrumental role, thenComputer Ethics (CE) is probably bound to remain at most apractical, field-dependent, applied orprofessional ethics. However, Computer Ethics can give rise to amacroethical approach, namely InformationEthics (IE), if one can show that ethical concern should beextended to include not only human, animal orbiological entities, but also information objects. Thefollowing two sections show how this minimalistlevel of analysis can be achieved. Section 3 provides anaxiological analysis of information objects. Itcriticises the Kantian approach to the concept ofintrinsic value and shows that it can beimproved by using the methodology introduced in the first section.The solution of the Kantian problem prompts thereformulation of the key question concerningthe moral worth of an entity: what is theintrinsic value of x qua an object constituted by itsinherited attributes? In answering thisquestion, it is argued that entitiescan share different observable propertiesdepending on the level of abstraction adopted,and that it is still possible to speak of moral value even at thehighest level of ontological abstractionrepresented by the informational analysis. Section 4 develops aminimalist axiology based on the concept ofinformation object. It further supports IE's position byaddressing five objections that may undermineits acceptability. (shrink)
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  10. Richard A. Spinello (2004). Property Rights in Genetic Information. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (1):29-42.score: 21.0
    The primary theme of this paper is the normative case against ownership of one's genetic information along with the source of that information (usually human tissues samples). The argument presented here against such “upstream” property rights is based primarily on utilitarian grounds. This issue has new salience thanks to the Human Genome Project and “bio-prospecting” initiatives based on the aggregation of genetic information, such as the one being managed by deCODE Genetics in Iceland. The rationale for ownership (...)
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  11. Martin Brigham & Lucas D. Introna (2007). Invoking Politics and Ethics in the Design of Information Technology: Undesigning the Design. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (1):1-10.score: 21.0
    It is a truism that the design and deployment of information and communication technologies is vital to everyday life, the conduct of work and to social order. But how are individual, organisational and societal choices made? What might it mean to invoke a politics and an ethics of information technology design and use? This editorial paper situates these questions within the trajectory of preoccupations and approaches to the design and deployment of information technology since computerisation began in (...)
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  12. Soraj Hongladarom (2008). Floridi and Spinoza on Global Information Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):175-187.score: 21.0
    Floridi’s ontocentric ethics is compared with Spinoza’s ethical and metaphysical system as found in the Ethics. Floridi’s is a naturalistic ethics where he argues that an action is right or wrong primarily because the action does decrease the ‹entropy’ of the infosphere or not. An action that decreases the amount entropy of the infosphere is a good one, and one that increases it is a bad one. For Floridi, ‹entropy’ refers to destruction or loss of diversity of the infosphere, or (...)
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  13. Charles Ess (2008). Luciano Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics: Critical Reflections and the State of the Art. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):89-96.score: 21.0
    I describe the emergence of Floridi’s philosophy of information (PI) and information ethics (IE) against the larger backdrop of Information and Computer Ethics (ICE). Among their many strengths, PI and IE offer promising metaphysical and ethical frameworks for a global ICE that holds together globally shared norms with the irreducible differences that define local cultural and ethical traditions. I then review the major defenses and critiques of PI and IE offered by contributors to this special issue, and (...)
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  14. Dan L. Burk (2008). Information Ethics and the Law of Data Representations. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):135-147.score: 21.0
    The theories of information ethics articulated by Luciano Floridi and his collaborators have clear implications for law. Information law, including the law of privacy and of intellectual property, is especially likely to benefit from a coherent and comprehensive theory of information ethics. This article illustrates how information ethics might apply to legal doctrine, by examining legal questions related to the ownership and control of the personal data representations, including photographs, game avatars, and consumer profiles, that have (...)
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  15. Kenneth Einar Himma (2007). The Concept of Information Overload: A Preliminary Step in Understanding the Nature of a Harmful Information-Related Condition. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (4):259-272.score: 21.0
    The amount of content, both on and offline, to which people in reasonably affluent nations have access has increased to the point that it has raised concerns that we are now suffering from a harmful condition of ‹information overload.’ Although the phrase is being used more frequently, the concept is not yet well understood – beyond expressing the rather basic idea of having access to more information than is good for us. This essay attempts to provide a philosophical (...)
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  16. Livia Polanyi, Martin van den Berg & David Ahn (2003). Discourse Structure and Sentential Information Structure. An Initial Proposal. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):337-350.score: 21.0
    In this article we argue that discourse structure constrains the set ofpossible constituents in a discourse that can provide the relevantcontext for structuring information in a target sentence, whileinformation structure critically constrains discourse structureambiguity. For the speaker, the discourse structure provides a set of possible contexts for continuation while information structure assignment is independent of discourse structure. For the hearer, the information structure of a sentence together with discourse structure instructs dynamic (...)
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  17. Utpal Bose (2012). An Ethical Framework in Information Systems Decision Making Using Normative Theories of Business Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):17-26.score: 21.0
    As business environments become more complex and reliant on information systems, the decisions made by managers affect a growing number of stakeholders. This paper proposes a framework based on the application of normative theories in business ethics to facilitate the evaluation of IS related ethical dilemmas and arrive at fair and consistent decisions. The framework is applied in the context of an information privacy dilemma to demonstrate the decision making process. The ethical dilemma is analyzed using each one (...)
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  18. Adam Henschke (2010). Did You Just Say What I Think You Said? Talking About Genes, Identity and Information. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):435-456.score: 21.0
    Genetic information is becoming increasingly used in modern life, extending beyond medicine to familial history, forensics and more. Following this expansion of use, the effect of genetic information on people’s identity and ultimately people’s quality of life is being explored in a host of different disciplines. While a multidisciplinary approach is commendable and necessary, there is the potential for the multidisciplinarity to produce conceptual misconnection. That is, while experts in one field may understand their use of a term (...)
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  19. Peter Milne (2012). Probability as a Measure of Information Added. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (2):163-188.score: 21.0
    Some propositions add more information to bodies of propositions than do others. We start with intuitive considerations on qualitative comparisons of information added . Central to these are considerations bearing on conjunctions and on negations. We find that we can discern two distinct, incompatible, notions of information added. From the comparative notions we pass to quantitative measurement of information added. In this we borrow heavily from the literature on quantitative representations of qualitative, comparative conditional probability. We (...)
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  20. Jelle Gerbrandy & Willem Groeneveld (1997). Reasoning About Information Change. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (2):147-169.score: 21.0
    In this paper we introduce Dynamic Epistemic Logic, which is alogic for reasoning about information change in a multi-agent system. Theinformation structures we use are based on non-well-founded sets, and canbe conceived as bisimulation classes of Kripke models. On these structures,we define a notion of information change that is inspired by UpdateSemantics (Veltman, 1996). We give a sound and complete axiomatization ofthe resulting logic, and we discuss applications to the puzzle of the dirtychildren, and to knowledge programs.
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  21. Peter D. Grünwald & Paul M. B. Vitányi (2003). Kolmogorov Complexity and Information Theory. With an Interpretation in Terms of Questions and Answers. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (4):497-529.score: 21.0
    We compare the elementary theories of Shannon information and Kolmogorov complexity, the extent to which they have a common purpose, and wherethey are fundamentally different. We discuss and relate the basicnotions of both theories: Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov complexity, Shannon mutual informationand Kolmogorov (``algorithmic'') mutual information. We explainhow universal coding may be viewed as a middle ground betweenthe two theories. We consider Shannon's rate distortion theory, whichquantifies useful (in a certain sense) information.We use the communication of information (...)
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  22. Kenneth Einar Himma (2004). There's Something About Mary: The Moral Value of Things Qua Information Objects. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 6 (3):145-159.score: 21.0
    . Luciano Floridi argues that every existing entity is deserving of at least minimal moral respect in virtue of having intrinsic value qua information object. In this essay, I attempt a comprehensive assessment of this important view as well as the arguments Floridi offers in support of it. I conclude both that the arguments are insufficient and that the thesis itself is substantively implausible from the standpoint of ordinary intuitions.
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  23. Mikko Siponen (2004). A Pragmatic Evaluation of the Theory of Information Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):279-290.score: 21.0
    It has been argued that moral problems in relation to Information Technology (IT) require new theories of ethics. In recent years, an interesting new theory to address such concerns has been proposed, namely the theory of Information Ethics (IE). Despite the promise of IE, the theory has not enjoyed public discussion. The aim of this paper is to initiate such discussion by critically evaluating the theory of IE.
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  24. Bernd Carsten Stahl (2008). Discourses on Information Ethics: The Claim to Universality. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):97-108.score: 21.0
    An important question one can ask of ethical theories is whether and how they aim to raise claims to universality. This refers to the subject area that they intend to describe or govern and also to the question whether they claim to be binding for all (moral) agents. This paper discusses the question of universality of Luciano Floridi’s information ethics (IE). This is done by introducing the theory and discussing its conceptual foundations and applications. The emphasis will be placed (...)
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  25. Matthew P. Butcher (2009). At the Foundations of Information Justice. Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):57-69.score: 21.0
    Is there such a thing as information justice? In this paper, I argue that the current state of the information economy, particularly as it regards information and computing technology (ICT), is unjust, conferring power disproportionately on the information-wealthy at great expense to the information-poor. As ICT becomes the primary method for accessing and manipulating information, it ought to be treated as a foundational layer of the information economy. I argue that by maximizing the (...)
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  26. Tadashi Takenouchi (2006). Information Ethics as Information Ecology: Connecting Frankl's Thought and Fundamental Informatics. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):187-193.score: 21.0
    To overcome “digital reductionism,” a new kind of mechanical view on human beings, fundamental informatics provides some critical viewpoints. It regards information as “meaning” generated in living things which do not exist alone but are parts of ecological system. On the other hand, V. E. Frankl proposed two dimensions of humans: homo sapiens and homo patiens. The latter is the essential aspect of humans whose essence is “compassion,” while the former is the nature like a mechanical machine. As features (...)
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  27. Tere Vadén (2004). Digital Nominalism. Notes on the Ethics of Information Society in View of the Ontology of the Digital. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):223-231.score: 21.0
    The commodification of code demands two preconditions: a belief if the existence of code and a system of ownership for the code. An examination of these preconditions is helpful for resisting the further widening of digital divides. The ontological belief in the relatively independent existence of code is dependent on our understanding of what the “digital” is. Here it is claimed that the digital is not a natural kind, but a concept that is relative to our practices of interpretation. An (...)
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  28. Susan Leigh Star & Geoffrey C. Bowker (2007). Enacting Silence: Residual Categories as a Challenge for Ethics, Information Systems, and Communication. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 9 (4):273-280.score: 21.0
    Residual categories are those which cannot be formally represented within a given classification system. We examine the forms that residuality takes within our information systems today, and explore some silences which form around those inhabiting particular residual categories. We argue that there is significant ethical and political work to be done in exploring residuality.
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  29. Kevin M. Knight (2003). Two Information Measures for Inconsistent Sets. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):227-248.score: 21.0
    I present two measures of information for both consistentand inconsistent sets of sentences in a finite language ofpropositional logic. The measures of information are based onmeasures of inconsistency developed in Knight (2002).Relative information measures are then provided corresponding to thetwo information measures.
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  30. Ruth Hannah Wilkinson (2010). Genetic Information: Important but Not “Exceptional”. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):457-472.score: 21.0
    Much legislation dealing with the uses of genetic information could be criticised for exceptionalising genetic information over other types of information personal to the individual. This paper contends that genetic exceptionalism clouds the issues, and precludes any real debate about the appropriate uses of genetic information. An alternative to “genetically exceptionalist” legislation is to “legislate for fairness”. This paper explores the “legislating for fairness” approach, and concludes that it demonstrates a fundamental misunderstanding of both how legislation (...)
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  31. Mark Coeckelbergh (2013). Drones, Information Technology, and Distance: Mapping the Moral Epistemology of Remote Fighting. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):87-98.score: 21.0
    Ethical reflection on drone fighting suggests that this practice does not only create physical distance, but also moral distance: far removed from one’s opponent, it becomes easier to kill. This paper discusses this thesis, frames it as a moral-epistemological problem, and explores the role of information technology in bridging and creating distance. Inspired by a broad range of conceptual and empirical resources including ethics of robotics, psychology, phenomenology, and media reports, it is first argued that drone fighting, like other (...)
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  32. Nobo Komagata (2003). Information Structure in Subordinate and Subordinate-Like Clauses. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):301-318.score: 21.0
    While information structure has traditionally been viewed as a singlepartition of information within an utterance, there are opposing viewsthat identify multiple such partitions in an utterance. The existenceof alternative proposals raises questions about the notion ofinformation structure and also its relation to discoursestructure. Exploring various linguistic aspects, this paper supports thetraditional view by arguing that there is no information structure partition within a subordinate clause.
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  33. Kirsten Martin (2012). Information Technology and Privacy: Conceptual Muddles or Privacy Vacuums? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 14 (4):267-284.score: 21.0
    Within a given conversation or information exchange, do privacy expectations change based on the technology used? Firms regularly require users, customers, and employees to shift existing relationships onto new information technology, yet little is known as about how technology impacts established privacy expectations and norms. Coworkers are asked to use new information technology, users of gmail are asked to use GoogleBuzz, patients and doctors are asked to record health records online, etc. Understanding how privacy expectations change, if (...)
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  34. Emma Rooksby (2009). How to Be a Responsible Slave: Managing the Use of Expert Information Systems. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (1):81-90.score: 21.0
    Computer ethicists have for some years been troubled by the issue of how to assign moral responsibility for disastrous events involving erroneous information generated by expert information systems. Recently, Jeroen van den Hoven has argued that agents working with expert information systems satisfy the conditions for what he calls epistemic enslavement. Epistemically enslaved agents do not, he argues, have moral responsibility for accidents for which they bear causal responsibility. In this article, I develop two objections to van (...)
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  35. Edward H. Spence (2011). Information, Knowledge and Wisdom: Groundwork for the Normative Evaluation of Digital Information and its Relation to the Good Life. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):261-275.score: 21.0
    This paper provides a general philosophical groundwork for the theoretical and applied normative evaluation of information generally and digital information specifically in relation to the good life. The overall aim of the paper is to address the question of how Information Ethics and computer ethics more generally can be expanded to include more centrally the issue of how and to what extent information relates and contributes to the quality of life or the good life , for (...)
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  36. John Cantwell (1998). Resolving Conflicting Information. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (2):191-220.score: 21.0
    Information received from different sources can be inconsistent. Even when the sources of information can be ordered on the basis of their trustworthiness, it turns out that extracting an acceptable notion of support for information is a non-trivial matter, as is the question what information a rational agent should accept. Here it is shown how a support ordering on the information can be generated and how it can be used to decide what information to (...)
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  37. Svetlana McCoy (2003). Connecting Information Structure and Discourse Structure Through ``Kontrast'': The Case of Colloquial Russian Particles -TO, Že, and Ved'. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):319-335.score: 21.0
    The notion of kontrast, or the ability of certain linguistic expressions to generate a set of alternatives, originally proposed by Vallduví and Vilkuna (1998) as a clause-level concept, is re-analyzed here as connecting the level of information packaging in the clause and the level of discourse structure in the following way: kontrast is encoded at the clausal level but has repercussions for discourse structure. This claim is supported by evidence from the distribution properties of three colloquial Russian particles -to, (...)
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  38. Jennifer Spenader (2003). Factive Presuppositions, Accommodation and Information Structure. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (3):351-368.score: 21.0
    There are three ways to refer to a fact from the complement of afactive verb: (1) Via abstract object anaphoric reference, or, witha full sentential complement that will be interpreted either (2) asa bound presupposition or (3) as triggering a presupposition of afact that will have to be accommodated. Spoken corpus examplesreveal that these three possibilities differ in relation to thetype of information they tend to contribute, and this has twoeffects. First, the information status of the fact and (...)
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  39. Dietmar Berwanger & Łukasz Kaiser (2010). Information Tracking in Games on Graphs. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (4):395-412.score: 21.0
    When seeking to coordinate in a game with imperfect information, it is often relevant for a player to know what other players know. Keeping track of the information acquired in a play of infinite duration may, however, lead to infinite hierarchies of higher-order knowledge. We present a construction that makes explicit which higher-order knowledge is relevant in a game and allows us to describe a class of games that admit coordinated winning strategies with finite memory.
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  40. Toru Nishigaki (2006). The Ethics in Japanese Information Society: Consideration on Francisco Varela's the Embodied Mind From the Perspective of Fundamental Informatics. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):237-242.score: 21.0
    The ethics in an information society is discussed from the combined viewpoint of Eastern and Western thoughts. The breakdown of a coherent self threatens the Western ethics and causes nihilism. Francisco Varela, one of the founders of Autopoiesis Theory, tackled this problem and proposed Enactive Cognitive Science by introducing Buddhist middle-way philosophy. Fundamental Informatics gives further insights into the problem, by proposing the concept of a hierarchical autopoietic system. Here the ethics can be described in relation to a community (...)
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  41. Elizabeth Towell, J. Barrie Thompson & Kathleen L. McFadden (2004). Introducing and Developing Professional Standards in the Information Systems Curriculum. Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):291-299.score: 21.0
    In light of growing concerns in the public and recent mandates from business program accrediting bodies and curricular task forces, the importance of teaching ethical topics in information systems programs is discussed. Innovative strategies used for teaching the application of ethical criteria to common situations are reviewed. Results of a survey of information systems faculty members in the US are presented and are compared to previous studies that related primarily to computer science and software engineering programs. Insight is (...)
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  42. William F. Birdsall (2011). Human Capabilities and Information and Communication Technology: The Communicative Connection. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):93-106.score: 21.0
    The potential contributions information and communication technology (ICT) can make to advancing human capabilities are acknowledged by both the capability approach (CA) and ICT communities. However, there is a lack of genuine engagement between the two communities. This paper addresses the question: How can a collaborative dialogue between the CA and ICT communities be advanced? A prerequisite to exploring collaboratively the potential use of particular technologies with specific capabilities is a conceptual framework within which a dialogue can be undertaken (...)
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  43. Ruth Halperin & James Backhouse (2008). A Roadmap for Research on Identity in the Information Society. Identity in the Information Society 1 (1):71-87.score: 21.0
    As research into identity in the information society gets into its stride, with contributions from many scholarly disciplines such as technology, social sciences, the humanities and the law, a moment of intellectual stocktaking seems appropriate. This article seeks to provide a roadmap of research currently undertaken in the field of identity and identity management showing how the area is developing and how disparate contributions relate to each other. Five different perspectives are proposed through which work in the identity field (...)
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  44. Niva Elkin-Koren (2001). The Privatization of Information Policy. Ethics and Information Technology 2 (4):201-209.score: 21.0
    Copyright law in recent years has undergone a process of privatization. While weakening the enforceability of conventional legislation (copyright rules), cyberspace facilitates alternative types of regulation such as contracts and technical self-help measures. Regulation by the code is significantly different from traditional types of public ordering (copyright law) and private ordering (contracts). Norms that technically regulate the use of information are not merely self-made they are also self-enforced. Furthermore, the law was recruited to uphold the superiority of such technical (...)
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  45. Akhlaque Haque (2003). Information Technology, GIS and Democraticvalues: Ethical Implications for ITprofessionals in Public Service. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):39-48.score: 21.0
    Information technologies (IT) play a criticalrole in transforming public administration andredefining the role of bureaucracy in ademocratic society. New applications of ITbring great promises for government, but at thesame time raise concerns about administrativepower and its abuse. Using GeographicInformation Systems (GIS) as the centralexample, this paper provides the philosophicalunderpinnings of the role of technology anddiscusses the importance of an ethicaldiscourse in IT for public serviceprofessionals. Such ethical discourse must bebased on upholding the democratic values andpreserving the institutional integrity of (...)
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  46. Nikiforos Karamanis (2007). Supplementing Entity Coherence with Local Rhetorical Relations for Information Ordering. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (4):445-464.score: 21.0
    This paper investigates whether the model of local rhetorical coherence suggested in Knott et al. (2001) can boost the performance of the Centering-based metrics of entity coherence employed by Karamanis et al. (2004) for the task of information ordering. Rhetorical coherence is integrated into the way Centering’s basic data structures are derived from the annotated features of the GNOME corpus. The results indicate that (a) the simplest metric continues to perform better than its competitors even when local rhetorical coherence (...)
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  47. Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (2011). Why Machine-Information Metaphors Are Bad for Science and Science Education. Science and Education 20 (453):471.score: 18.0
    Genes are often described by biologists using metaphors derived from computa- tional science: they are thought of as carriers of information, as being the equivalent of ‘‘blueprints’’ for the construction of organisms. Likewise, cells are often characterized as ‘‘factories’’ and organisms themselves become analogous to machines. Accordingly, when the human genome project was initially announced, the promise was that we would soon know how a human being is made, just as we know how to make airplanes and buildings. Impor- (...)
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  48. Fred Dretske (1981/1999). Knowledge and the Flow of Information. MIT Press.score: 18.0
    This book presents an attempt to develop a theory of knowledge and a philosophy of mind using ideas derived from the mathematical theory of communication developed by Claude Shannon. Information is seen as an objective commodity defined by the dependency relations between distinct events. Knowledge is then analyzed as information caused belief. Perception is the delivery of information in analog form (experience) for conceptual utilization by cognitive mechanisms. The final chapters attempt to develop a theory of meaning (...)
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  49. Pavel Baryshnikov (2012). Information, meaning and sense Iin the linguistic process of consciousness. RIVISTA ITALIANA DI FILOSOFIA DEL LINGUAGGIO.score: 18.0
    In this article the linguistic processes of consciousness are discussed at the informational and semantic levels. The key question is devoted to the distinction between the information, meaning and sense in the physical, logico-semantic and historic levels of brain and consciousness. The principal point runs that the human linguistic process of sense producing takes the variety and indistinctness in the cultural presupposition. The modern theories of philosophy of mind relying on the theories of Soviet psychological school propose some new (...)
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  50. Gualtiero Piccinini & Andrea Scarantino (2011). Information Processing, Computation, and Cognition. Journal of Biological Physics 37 (1):1-38.score: 18.0
    Computation and information processing are among the most fundamental notions in cognitive science. They are also among the most imprecisely discussed. Many cognitive scientists take it for granted that cognition involves computation, information processing, or both – although others disagree vehemently. Yet different cognitive scientists use ‘computation’ and ‘information processing’ to mean different things, sometimes without realizing that they do. In addition, computation and information processing are surrounded by several myths; first and foremost, that they are (...)
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