Author: Bogaczyk Małgorzata Title: THE DIFFERENT ART. ON THE PRIMITIVE ART, NAÏVE ART AND ART BRUT (Sztuka Inna. O sztuce prymitywnej, naiwnej i surowej) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2006, vol:.6, number: 2006/1, pages: 239-256 Keywords: DIFFERENT ART, PRIMITIVE ART, ART BRUT, NAÏVE ART Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail:In the sketch I show some similarities in the artist’s way of perceiving the work of art, the process of artistic creativity, and the (...) fate of work in the inner reality, to quote Proust. The fact that all art is met with wider or narrower reception is the background for my analysis of the general phenomenon of the popularity of art fascinating or being rejected because of its variety. (shrink)
This essay interprets the meaning of one of the cards in aTarot deck, "The Magician," in the context of process philosophy in the tradition of Alfred North Whitehead. It brings into the conversation the philosophical legacy of American semiotician Charles Sanders Peirce as well as French poststructuralist Gilles Deleuze. Some of their conceptualizations are explored herein for the purpose of explaining the symbolic function of the Magician in the world. From the perspective of the logic of explanation, the sign of (...) the Magician is an index of nonmechanistic, mutualist or circular, causality that enables self-organization embedded in coordination dynamics. Its action is such as to establish an unorthodox connection crossing over the dualistic gap between mind and matter, science and magic, process and structure, the world without and the world within, subject and object, and human experience and the natural world, thereby overcoming what Whitehead called the paradox of the connectedness of things. The Magician represents a certain quality that acts as a catalytic agent capable of eliciting transmutations, that is, the emergence of novelty. I present a model for process∼structure that uses mathematics on the complex plane and the rules of projective geometry. The corollary is such that the presence of the Magician in the world enables a particular organization of thought that makes pre-cognition possible. (shrink)
While teaching values is an important part of education, contemporary moral education, however, presents a set of pre-established values to be inculcated rather than comprising a critical inquiry into their possible rightness and wrongness. This essay proposes a somewhat different direction by saying that education, rather than concerning itself with the moral, should concern itself with the ethical. Although morals and ethics are usually equated, we use ethical here as posited by Gilles Deleuze's question of who we might be, based (...) on the recognition that we have no real idea of who we might be because we do not yet know what a body (which for Deleuze, after Spinoza, is both physical and mental, corporeal and incorporeal) is capable of. This essay addresses the ethical dimension of Deleuze's philosophy in the context of education and pedagogy as based on several important conceptual shifts. First, it proposes a broader inquiry into who we might be. Second, it proposes that it is what we do not know, rather than what we do, that is of educational significance. Third, it asserts that much of our world, as well as our learning, are unconscious rather than conscious. This postulate accords with Deleuze's larger ontology, in which there is more to this world than appears to common sense in immediate experience. And fourth, it proposes education as committed to experimentation rather than the transmission of facts or inculcation of values. (shrink)
This paper addresses the unconscious dimension as articulated in Carl Jung's depth psychology and in Gilles Deleuze's philosophy. Jung's theory of the archetypes and Deleuze's pedagogy of the concept are two complementary resources that posit individuation as the goal of human development and self-education in practice. The paper asserts that educational theory should explore the role of the unconscious in learning, especially with regard to adult education in the process of learning from life-experiences. The integration of the unconscious into consciousness (...) becomes a constitutive part of subject-formation and self-knowledge, which in turn serves as a basis for experiential self-education. (shrink)
This paper situates moral education in the context of Gilles Deleuze's philosophy and as embedded in lived experience qualified by three dimensions, namely critical, clinical, and creative ('3C'). The construct of '3C' education will be enriched by reference to the theoretical corpus of Nel Noddings, specifically her 2006 book Critical Lessons: What our schools should teach . The paper argues that only as embodying all three 'C's in experience can education become genuinely moral and bring the missing element of values (...) into quality teaching (cf. Lovat, 2006a). The novel concept 'pedagogy of values' is proposed, analysed and synthesized alongside Deleuze's unorthodox 'pedagogy of the concept'. (shrink)
From the perspective of semiotics, or a science of signs, communication exceeds the usual verbal mode of expression and covers extra linguistic modes. This paper addresses a specific communicative system represented by Tarot pictures. The semiotic approach not only presents Tarot as exceeding its function as a game but also de-mystifies, in part, its occult side by virtue of the analysis of semiosis, or the action of signs in nature. Using references from the Hermetic philosophy, to Dummett, to Peirce, to (...) Smolin, the paper asserts that, should we understand the language of signs, the memories of past and future events would be accessible to human reason. (shrink)
This article begins by revisiting the current model of values education (moral education) which has recently been set up in Australian schools. This article problematizes the pedagogical model of teaching values in the direct transmission mode from the perspective of the continuity of experience as central to the philosophies of John Dewey and Charles S. Peirce. In this context experience is to be understood as a collective (going beyond the realm of private) and continuous (importantly, non-atomistic) space. As such, human (...) behavior and decision-making are embedded in a broad range of possibilities that may become actualities in the process of responding intelligently to what is perceived in the environment. This article also brings into the conversation some contemporary discourse in bioethics and neuroscience that appears to have an uncanny affinity to Peirce's and Dewey's much earlier conceptualizations. Human intelligence proper arises in the interactions between mind, body, and the environing world: we learn from experience that necessarily has a value-element embedded in this triadic matrix. (shrink)
It is suggested that Charles Sanders Peirce's triadic semiotics provides a framework for a diagrammatic representation of a sign's proper structure. The action of signs is described at the logical and psychological levels. The role of (unconscious) abductive inference is analyzed, and a diagram of reasoning is offered. A series of interpretants transform brute facts into interpretable signs thereby providing human experience with value or meaning. The triadic structure helps in de-mystifying the relations between Penrose's three worlds when the latter (...) are considered as constituting a semiotic triangle. (shrink)
Richard Rorty, in his ‘Consequences of Pragmatism’ (1982), acknowledging the pragmatic direction taken by both modern and postmodern philosophy, declared that ‘James and Dewey were not only waiting at the end of the dialectical road which analytic philosophy traveled, but are waiting at the end of the road which, for example, Foucault and Deleuze are currently traveling’ (Rorty, 1982, p. xviii). This paper does not aim to establish who traveled the farthest along the road posited by Rorty. Instead, its purpose (...) is to trace a common direction as a sort of pragmatic trajectory that will map a territory constituting Gilles Deleuze’s new image of thought, or rather as he put it, a thought without image. By addressing some of Deleuze’s ideas on thinking and learning, especially with regard to the problematics of sources of knowledge, this paper posits the convergence between his philosophical position and Dewey’s philosophy of education despite the two being seemingly separated by time, place and culture. The paper further shifts the focus from the factual knowledge to an experimental and experiential process of knowing and asserts the latter’s far-reaching implications for education as a developing and generative practice. (shrink)
The present collection constitutes what French poststructuralist philosopher Gilles Deleuze (1925–1995) dubbed rhizome, using this biological notion as a metaphor for multidirectional growth and diverse productivity irreducible to a single root representing epistemology grounded on a firm foundation for knowledge. A philosophical site, for Deleuze, consists of a multiplicity of planes including at once social, artistic, ethical, and affective dimensions. Experience is rendered meaningful not by grounding empirical particulars in abstract universals but by active experimentation on ourselves. Several of Deleuze’s (...) philosophical works were written together with practicing psychoanalyst Felix Guattari, such a collaboration representing an approach to knowledge as shared and situated, and bringing philosophy ‘proper’ into closer contact with sociocultural issues and practical concerns. The potential of Deleuze and Guattari’s philosophical thought for educational theory and practice is explored in the seven papers comprising this special issue. Non-incidentally, the title of the first article, by Zelia Gregoriou (University of Cyprus), is ‘Commencing the Rhizome: Towards a minor philosophy of education’. (shrink)
This article is part of alarger project exploring the continuity betweentwo philosophical positions â that of Frenchpoststructuralist Gilles Deleuze (1925â1995)and John Dewey â that appear at first sight tobe separated by time, place and culture. Thescope of the present paper is necessarilylimited and focuses on one aspect of theproject, namely: the problematics ofsubjectivity, or subject formation, inDeleuze's philosophy. Deleuze's position isestablished as pragmatic by virtue of itssharing the value allotted by Dewey toexperiential and experimental inquiry inphilosophy. By drawing initial parallels (...) with anumber of selected Dewey's excerpts, this paperaims to open up a space for the imaginarydialogue between two philosophical thoughts soas to consider a possibility for applyingDeleuze's philosophy to educational theory andpractice in the context of current debates andin a manner continuous with the Deweyan legacy.The paper concludes by affirming Deleuze'splace in the contemporary scholarship on Dewey. (shrink)
The problematics of language and communication, as pertaining to educational theory and practice, is closely connected with the understanding of human subjectivity (Biesta, 1995; Garrison, 1999). The discussion in this paper will focus on a specific philosophy of language as developed by Gilles Deleuze. In order to address some possible implications of such philosophy for moral education, this paper will position Deleuze’s philosophical thought against the background of Charles Taylor’s book The Ethics of Authenticity (1991), in which Taylor introduces his (...) quite influential notion of the language of personal resonance. Taylor’s assertion that such a language might play a central role in helping us to be more responsive to the claims of nature and the social world at large will be critically examined, as will Taylor’s distinction of the two kinds of subjectivation and the danger, which, according to Taylor, arises from the confusion between the two. While recognizing the appropriateness of conceptualizing subtle languages, and supporting in general Taylor’s intent of the idea of reconstruction, this paper will question Taylor’s views on what he specifically identifies as a deconstructive strand of philosophical thought. The paper’s argument—in an effort to consider poststructuralist thinking as a sign of cultural evolution rather than decline, posited by Taylor—will address Gilles Deleuze’s postmodern, yet thoroughly constructive and pragmatic, philosophy that he called a philosophy-becoming . Within the scope of this paper, the review of Deleuzian (and Deleuze and Guattari’s) thinking will be selective and limited to some aspects of the problematics of language in both its expression and content. The paper will conclude by presenting a brief summary of Deleuze’s ethics for the purpose of considering his philosophical method within the context of moral education. (shrink)
This essay addresses Gilles Deleuze's ?pedagogy of the concept? as grounded in the triadic relation between percepts, affects, and concepts. Philosophical thinking based on the ?logic of affects? necessarily leads to the creation of novel concepts in/for experience. Still, new concepts are themselves informed by the physicality of affects thus bridging the dualistic gap of the Cartesian subject. Deleuze's neorealist position considers the objects of real experience to be both actual and virtual. Experience exceeds private sense-data; it is a milieu (...) providing an ability to affect and be affected. The essay presents Deleuze's virtual ontology as an unorthodox ?foundation? for knowledge under the provision that the affective conditions in real experience for the actualization of the virtual will have been fulfilled. Deleuze's practical philosophy is used here to offer a model for solving the ?learning paradox? that has been haunting us since the days of Socrates. (shrink)
Tekst jest wyborem fragmentów przypisywanych Janowi Potockiemu. Jean Potocki (1761–1815), mistrz ironii, twardo usadowiony w nieuchwytnym na pozór miejscu pomiędzy oświeceniem a romantyzmem, pozostaje najczęściej plagiatowanym autorem Europy. Zapewne przysłużył się pośmiertnie sprawie praw autorskich, ale i stało się tak, jakby oryginalność i płodność jego myśli była na tyle inna, że nie sposób przedstawić go inaczej jak wymazując jego imię, jeśli po prostu nie niszcząc. Choć historia jego francuskich i amerykańskich plagiatów jest wyczerpująco udokumentowana, nie istnieje jeszcze definitywne wydanie (...) jego arcydzieła: Rękopisu znalezionego w Saragossie, już w 1809 roku przełożonego po części na niemiecki, a w 1847, również w Lipsku, zapewne z udziałem Societas Jablonoviana, w całości na polski (cytaty podług dotychczas najpełniejszego, francuskiego wydania René Radrizzianiego z 1989). W latach pięćdziesiątych XX wieku trud przywrócenia należnego mu miejsca podjęli R. Caillois, L. Kukulski, W. Has, Emanuel Rostworowski i Maria-Ewelina Żółtowska-Weintraub, której wciąż nieopublikowany doktorat (Yale, 1973) stanowi najpełniejszą biografię hrabiego Jana, powiązaną z karierą bohatera Rękopisu. Skromny ów oficer gwardii walońskiej: Alfons van Worden (nie tylko z habsburskiej Walonii, żeby nie powiedzieć: „Galonii”, ale i ze „Słów”), po wielu straszliwych próbach, które w gruncie rzeczy niczym innym dla niego nie były jak straszliwymi, teatralnie zaaranżowanymi opowieściami, awansował na gubernatora Saragossy, gdzie wiódł spokojny żywot troszcząc się o córeczkę swą Fatimę. […]. (shrink)
Complex fear learning procedures might be better suited than the common differential fear conditioning paradigm for detecting individual differences related to vulnerability for anxiety disorders. Two such procedures are the blocking procedure and the protection-from-overshadowing procedure. Their comparison allows for the examination of discriminatory fear learning under conditions of ambiguity. The present study examined the role of individual differences in such discriminatory fear learning. We hypothesized that heightened trait anxiety would be related to a deficit in discriminatory fear learning. Participants (...) gave US-expectancy ratings as an index for the threat value of individual CSs following blocking and protection-from-overshadowing training. The difference in threat value at test between the protected-from-overshadowing CS and the blocked CS was negatively correlated with scores on a self-report tension-stress scale that approximates facets of generalized anxiety disorder (DASS-S), but not with other individual difference variables. In addition, a behavioral test showed that only participants scoring high on the DASS-S avoided the protected-from-overshadowing CS. This observed deficit in discriminatory fear learning for participants with high levels of tension-stress might be an underlying mechanism for fear overgeneralization in diffuse anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder. (shrink)
Competitive potential of higher educational institutions is presented as quality-quantitative parameters of supply. For the calculation of parameters an index "the licensed enrolment" is utilized. Proofs of absence of co-ordination in operating of educational under forming of competition potential are adduced. The low level of maturity of competitive relations of educational establishments results in uncontrolled growth of aggregate supply. This circumstance presupposes of competitive activity intensification local market of services of higher education.
In article the role of strategy of the enterprise in foreign trade activities has been defined and proved, practical recommendations concerning working out of strategy of an exit on the international commodity markets for the cake and by-product process are given the industry which are inherent for branch specialisation of east region.
Personal observations and survey data are used to examine the future of the village in a restructured food and agricultural sector in the former Soviet Union. Specific comparisons are made between the subjective quality of life of residents in two villages in the former Soviet Union (one in southern Russia and one in eastern Ukraine) and two villages in northwest Missouri. Residents of the Russian and Ukrainian villages have substantially lower assessments of specific domains of their lives than do American (...) villagers. Respondents in the Russian and Ukrainian sample express an interest in some aspects of privatization of services and consumer goods but, by and large, exhibit little interest in replacing the collective farms with household-level private farming. Historical factors, different incentive structures, and the possibilities for different institutional arrangements are discussed. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the problem of formation and development of system of military and topographical inspections in the Russian empire of ХІХc . Analyzing the problem of creation of military and topographical descriptions, the author first of all pays attention to the research of source base descriptively statistical sources, to establishment of level of their representativeness and reliability. Thanks to attraction of the historical and comparative method the author of article managed to reconstruct completely source base of military (...) and statistical works, to establish the level of proficiency of the authors of descriptions by methods of source criticism. By the analysis of semantic loading of descriptions of the Volynsk, Kiev, Taurian and Chernigov provinces the author succeeded to show all list of documentary sources which were used by authors of descriptions at creation of their creation (legislative, descriptive and statistical, office work, sources of a personal origin, etc.) in the article. Investigating a problem of the source basis of military and topographical descriptions the author established that the majority of descriptions have a compilation basis. However, the compilation as a method of writing of military and topographical works was a natural stage of development of military and geographical thought of that period. As to investigate a significant amount of versatile questions without relying on scientific researches it was rather difficult. Only by attraction of a significant amount of sources it was possible to provide descriptions a complete substantial form. Similar research opens new opportunities for reconsideration of a problem of informational content of military and topographical descriptions of Ukraine in the late 40th - early 50th of XIX century. (shrink)
The article is devoted to the origin problems of the topographical descriptions ofKharkovprovince of the last quarter of XVIII century and the definition of their origin bases. The historical circumstances that have been led to appearance of this groups of documents were defined by the author, the basic customer documents of realization the topographical descriptions, a number of authors of the topographical descriptions ofKharkovprovince were defined.