Search results for 'Institutions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Shaun Gallagher & Anthony Crisafi (2009). Mental Institutions. Topoi 28 (1):45-51.score: 24.0
    We propose to extend Clark and Chalmer’s concept of the extended mind to consider the possibility that social institutions (e.g., legal systems, museums) may operate in ways similar to the hand-held conveniences (notebooks, calculators) that are often used as examples of extended mind. The inspiration for this suggestion can be found in the writings of Hegel on “objective spirit” which involves the mind in a constant process of externalizing and internalizing. For Hegel, social institutions are pieces of the (...)
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  2. James Wood Bailey (1997). Utilitarianism, Institutions, and Justice. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    This book is a rebuttal of the common charge that the moral doctrine of utilitarianism permits horrible acts, justifies unfair distribution of wealth and other social goods, and demands too much of moral agents. Bailey defends utilitarianism by applying central insights of game theory regarding feasible equilibria and evolutionary stability of norms to elaborate an account of institutions that real-world utilitarians would want to foster. With such an account he shows that utilitarianism, while still a useful doctrine for criticizing (...)
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  3. N. MacCormick (1998). Norms, Institutions, and Institutional Facts. Law and Philosophy 17 (3):301-345.score: 24.0
    Norms explained as grounds of practical judgment, using example of queue. Some norms informal, inexact, depend on common understanding (`conventions'); some articulated in context of two-tier normative order: `rules', explicit or implicit. Logical structure of rules displayed. Informal and formal normative order explained, `institutional facts' depend on acts and events interpreted in the light of normative order. Practical force of rules differentiated; either `absolute application' or `strict application' or `discretionary application', depending on second-tier empowerment. Discretion can be guided by values, (...)
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  4. Tim Ray (2009). Rethinking Polanyi's Concept of Tacit Knowledge: From Personal Knowing to Imagined Institutions. [REVIEW] Minerva 47 (1):75-92.score: 24.0
    Half a century after Michael Polanyi conceptualised ‘the tacit component’ in personal knowing, management studies has reinvented ‘tacit knowledge’—albeit in ways that squander the advantages of Polanyi’s insights and ignore his faith in ‘spiritual reality’. While tacit knowing challenged the absurdities of sheer objectivity, expressed in a ‘perfect language’, it fused rational knowing, based on personal experience, with mystical speculation about an un-experienced ‘external reality’. Faith alone saved Polanyi’s model from solipsism. But Ernst von Glasersfeld’s radical constructivism provides scope to (...)
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  5. Thom Brooks (2012). After Fukushima Daiichi: New Global Institutions for Improved Nuclear Power Policy. Ethics, Policy and Environment 15 (1):63 - 69.score: 24.0
    This comment argues for the importance of global institutions to regulate nuclear power. Nuclear power presents challenges across national borders irrespective of whether plants are maintained safely. There are international agreements in place on the disposal of nuclear waste, an issue of great concern in terms of environmental and health effects for any nuclear power policy. However, there remains a pressing need for an international agreement to ensure the safe maintenance of nuclear facilities. Safe nuclear power beyond waste disposal (...)
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  6. Francesc Prior & Antonio Argandoña (2009). Best Practices in Credit Accessibility and Corporate Social Responsibility in Financial Institutions. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):251 - 265.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this article is to present and discuss some of the best practices of financial industry, in three emerging economies: Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The main thesis is that, notwithstanding the importance of certain specific deficiencies, such as an inadequate regulatory context or the lack of financial education among the population, the main factor that explains the low banking levels in emerging and developing economies, affecting mostly lower-income segments, is the use of inefficient financial service distribution models. In (...)
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  7. Carla C. J. M. Millar, Chong-Ju Choi & Philip Y. K. Cheng (2009). Co-Evolution: Law and Institutions in International Ethics Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):455 - 462.score: 24.0
    Despite the importance of the co-evolution approach in various branches of research, such as strategy, organisation theory, complexity, population ecology, technology and innovation (Lewin et al., 1999; March, 1991), co-evolution has been relatively neglected in international business and ethics research (Madhok and Phene, 2001). The purpose of this article is to show how co-evolution theory provides a theoretical framework within which some issues of ethics research are addressed. Our analysis is in the context of the contrasts between business systems (North, (...)
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  8. Bertrand Venard & Mohamed Hanafi (2008). Organizational Isomorphism and Corruption in Financial Institutions: Empirical Research in Emerging Countries. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):481 - 498.score: 24.0
    The globalizations of capital markets in the last 20 years has led to a historic degree of financial integration in the world. It is clear, however, that globalization is not conducive to a complete homogeneity of financial markets and institutions. Among others, one element of diversity is the importance of the impact of corruption in emerging countries. Corruption decreases the credibility of financial institutions and markets. Scandals and unethical behavior in financial institutions erode confidence in such firms. (...)
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  9. Marilynn P. Fleckenstein & John C. Bowes (2000). When Trust is Betrayed: Religious Institutions and White Collar Crime. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 23 (1):111 - 115.score: 24.0
    In 1990, the comptroller of the Catholic Diocese of Buffalo was charged with the embezzlement of eight million dollars of money belonging to the Diocese, He was subsequently convicted and served several years in state prison. Using this case as a starting point, this paper looks at several examples of white-collar crime and religious institutions. Should justice or mercy be the operative virtue in dealing with such criminals?
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  10. Cristiano Castelfranchi (2014). Minds as Social Institutions. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):121-143.score: 24.0
    I will first discuss how social interactions organize, coordinate, and specialize as “artifacts,” tools; how these tools are not only for coordination but for achieving something, for some outcome (goal/function), for a collective work. In particular, I will argue that these artifacts specify (predict and prescribe) the mental contents of the participants, both in terms of beliefs and acceptances and in terms of motives and plans. We have to revise the behavioristic view of “scripts” and “roles”; when we play a (...)
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  11. Mukesh Sud, Craig V. VanSandt & Amanda M. Baugous (2009). Social Entrepreneurship: The Role of Institutions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):201 - 216.score: 24.0
    A relatively small segment of business, known as social entrepreneurship (SE), is increasingly being acknowledged as an effective source of solutions for a variety of social problems. Because society tends to view "new" solutions as "the" solution, we are concerned that SE will soon be expected to provide answers to our most pressing social ills. In this paper we call into question the ability of SE, by itself, to provide solutions on a scope necessary to address large-scale social issues. SE (...)
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  12. Thomas F. Cosimano (2004). Financial Institutions and Trustworthy Behavior in Business Transactions. Journal of Business Ethics 52 (2):179-188.score: 24.0
    This paper uses the bankruptcy proceedings for Enron to discuss the role of financial institutions in business transactions. Using recent work by Dixit a business transaction is portrayed as a prisoners' dilemma problem between competing firms. The financial institution's role in this world is to provide information and enforce contracts so that the parties to the business deal act cooperatively. This role is recognized in the law under the heading of Fiduciary Responsibility. In the Enron case the bankruptcy examiner (...)
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  13. M. Krishnamurthy (2014). International Financial Institutions. In Darrell Moellendorf Heather Widdows (ed.), The Handbook for Global Ethics. Routledge Press.score: 24.0
    In this chapter, my main aim is to explore some of the central moral critiques of international financial institutions as well as proposals to overcome the moral problems that they face.
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  14. Benedetto Lepori, Lukas Baschung & Carole Probst (2010). Patterns of Subject Mix in Higher Education Institutions: A First Empirical Analysis Using the AQUAMETH Database. Minerva 48 (1):73-99.score: 24.0
    Teaching and research are organised differently between subject domains: attempts to construct typologies of higher education institutions, however, often do not include quantitative indicators concerning subject mix which would allow systematic comparisons of large numbers of higher education institutions among different countries, as the availability of data for such indicators is limited. In this paper, we present an exploratory approach for the construction of such indicators. The database constructed in the AQUAMETH project, which includes also data disaggregated at (...)
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  15. Seumas Miller (2010). The Moral Foundations of Social Institutions: A Philosophical Study. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    Part A: Theory -- A teleological account of institutions -- The moral foundations of institutions -- Individual autonomy : agency and structure -- Collective moral responsibility -- Institutional corruption -- Part B: Applications -- The professions -- Welfare institutions -- The university -- The police -- The business corporation -- Institutions and information and communication technology -- Government.
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  16. Richard P. Nielsen (2013). Whistle-Blowing Methods for Navigating Within and Helping Reform Regulatory Institutions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):385-395.score: 24.0
    There are at least four important, institutional obstacles to whistle-blowing to regulatory institutions. First, regulatory institutions are often systematically understaffed and do not have the resources needed to adequately process whistle-blowing cases. Second, regulators who process whistle-blowing cases are often systematically inexperienced and do not understand the strategic importance of whistle-blowing cases. Third, regulators are often under systemic pressure from the politicians who appoint them to ignore whistle-blowing cases relevant to their sources of financial and/or ideological political support. (...)
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  17. Matthew J. Lister (2011). Are Institutions and Empiricism Enough? [REVIEW] Transnational Legal Theory 2 (1).score: 24.0
    Legal philosophers have given relatively little attention to international law in comparison to other topics, and philosophers working on international or global justice have not taken international law as a primary focus, either. Allen Buchanan's recent work is arguably the most important exception to these trends. For over a decade he has devoted significant time and philosophical skill to questions central to international law, and has tied these concerns to related issues of global justice more generally. In what follows I (...)
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  18. Christine Parsons & Brian Fidler (2005). A New Theory of Educational Change: Punctuated Equilibrium: The Case of the Internationalisation of Higher Education Institutions. British Journal of Educational Studies 53 (4):447 - 465.score: 24.0
    This article argues for a new theoretical paradigm for the analysis of change in educational institutions that is able to deal with such issues as readiness for change, transformational change and the failure of change strategies. Punctuated equilibrium (Tushman and Romanelli, 1985) is a theory which has wide application. It envisages long-term change as being made up of a succession of long periods of relative stability interspersed by brief periods of rapid profound change. In the periods of stability only (...)
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  19. Suzan Langenberg (2004). Parrèsiastic Stakeholders: A Different Approach to Ethical Institutions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 53 (1-2):39-50.score: 24.0
    Are we really in need of (new) ethical institutions that regulate and control the ethical quality of corporate behavior? The various scandals (Enron, WorldOnline, Ahold) prove that ethical institutions, as well as deontological codes, public social commitments, social annual reports directly linked to financial overviews, are not enough to prevent fraud, corruption or bribery. Does the existence of those institutions partly provoke and legitimize the unbridled and immense power of organizational and CEO-(non-ethical) behavior and window-dressing? Do we (...)
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  20. Sigrid Aubert & Jean-Pierre Müller (2013). Incorporating Institutions, Norms and Territories in a Generic Model to Simulate the Management of Renewable Resources. Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (1):47 - 78.score: 24.0
    Management of the renewable natural resources in Madagascar is gradually being transferred to the local communities, particularly that of forest resources. However, these local communities are struggling to assess the consequences of management plans that they themselves must develop and implement on ecologically, economically and socially sustainable grounds. In order to highlight key aspects of different management options beforehand, we have developed MIRANA, a computer model to simulate various scenarios of management plan implementation. MIRANA differs from other simulation models by (...)
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  21. Eric Palmer (2008). Real Institutions and Really Legitimate Institutions. In David Mark, Bary Smith & Isaac Ehrlich (eds.). Open Court. 331-347.score: 24.0
    This essay develops a thesis regarding the manner through which social institutions such as property come to be, and a second thesis regarding how such institutions ought to be legitimated. The two theses, outlined below, are in need of explication largely because of the entrenched cultural influence of an erroneous reading of social contract theory concerning the historical origins of the state. In part A, I introduce that error. I proceed in parts B and C to present two (...)
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  22. George Voutsadakis (2003). Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Equivalent Institutions. Studia Logica 74 (1-2):275 - 311.score: 24.0
    A category theoretic generalization of the theory of algebraizable deductive systems of Blok and Pigozzi is developed. The theory of institutions of Goguen and Burstall is used to provide the underlying framework which replaces and generalizes the universal algebraic framework based on the notion of a deductive system. The notion of a term -institution is introduced first. Then the notions of quasi-equivalence, strong quasi-equivalence and deductive equivalence are defined for -institutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the (...)
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  23. Daniel G. Arce M. (1997). Correlated Strategies as Institutions. Theory and Decision 42 (3):271-285.score: 24.0
    Two institutions that are often implicit or overlooked in noncooperative games are the assumption of Nash behavior to solve a game, and the ability to correlate strategies. We consider two behavioral paradoxes; one in which maximin behavior rules out all Nash equilibria (‘Chicken’), and another in which minimax supergame behavior leads to an ‘inefficient’ outcome in comparison to the unique stage game equilibrium (asymmetric ‘Deadlock’). Nash outcomes are achieved in both paradoxes by allowing for correlated strategies, even when individual (...)
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  24. Guido Boella & Leendert van der Torre (2008). Institutions with a Hierarchy of Authorities in Distributed Dynamic Environments. Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):53-71.score: 24.0
    A single global authority is not sufficient to regulate heterogenous agents in multiagent systems based on distributed architectures, due to idiosyncratic local situations and to the need to regulate new issues as soon as they arise. On the one hand institutions should be structured as normative systems with a hierarchy of authorities able to cope with the dynamics of local situations, but on the other hand higher authorities should be able to delimit the autonomy of lower authorities to issue (...)
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  25. Chukwunonye O. Emenalo (2012). Corporate Governance Systems as Dynamic Institutions: Towards a Dynamic Model of Corporate Governance Systems. African Journal of Business Ethics 6 (1):39.score: 24.0
    Taking note of the evidence in extant literature that corporate governance systems are designed to incentivise, monitor, and guide agents to achieve firm mission, this paper develops a dynamic model of corporate governance systems that views these systems as artificial realities (Simon 1996) in general, and institutions in particular. The paper suggests that viewing these systems as institutions has theoretical and practical implications for the study and design of these systems, and illuminates how the process of double hermeneutic (...)
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  26. Nicoletta Fornara, Francesco Viganò, Mario Verdicchio & Marco Colombetti (2008). Artificial Institutions: A Model of Institutional Reality for Open Multiagent Systems. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):89-105.score: 24.0
    Software agents’ ability to interact within different open systems, designed by different groups, presupposes an agreement on an unambiguous definition of a set of concepts, used to describe the context of the interaction and the communication language the agents can use. Agents’ interactions ought to allow for reliable expectations on the possible evolution of the system; however, in open systems interacting agents may not conform to predefined specifications. A possible solution is to define interaction environments including a normative component, with (...)
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  27. Shannon Drysdale Walsh (2009). Engendering Justice: Constructing Institutions to Address Violence Against Women. Studies in Social Justice 2 (1):48-66.score: 24.0
    This paper addresses how states improve their responsiveness to violence against women in developing countries with little political will and few resources to do so. One key to engendering justice and improving responsiveness is building specialized institutions within the state that facilitate the implementation of laws addressing violence against women. Why and how do states engage in institution-building to protect marginalized populations in these contexts? I propose that developing countries are more likely to create and maintain specialized institutions (...)
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  28. Angelo Abignente & Francesca Scamardella (forthcoming). Risk and Catastrophe. The Failure of Science and Institutions: Finding Precarious Solutions in a Precarious Life. Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.score: 24.0
    The aim of this article is to investigate around the life in the contemporary society, characterized by risks and catastrophes. What does mean to live fearing that in any moment a catastrophe could happen (a tsunami, an earthquake, a nuclear explosion)? Despite of the failure of science and public institutions in the prevention of the catastrophes, the question is the following: Can we use the catastrophe as a paradigm of the contemporary uncertain life, trying to mean it as a (...)
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  29. Giacomo Cabri, Luca Ferrari & Rossella Rubino (2008). Building Computational Institutions for Agents with Rolex. Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):129-145.score: 24.0
    While the sociality of software agents drives toward the definition of institutions for multi agent systems, their autonomy requires that such institutions are ruled by appropriate norm mechanisms. Computational institutions represent useful abstractions. In this paper we show how computational institutions can be built on top of the RoleX infrastructure, a role-based system with interesting features for our aim. We achieve a twofold goal: on the one hand, we give concreteness to the institution abstractions; on the (...)
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  30. Răzvan Diaconescu & Marius Petria (2010). Saturated Models in Institutions. Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (6):693-723.score: 24.0
    Saturated models constitute one of the powerful methods of conventional model theory, with many applications. Here we develop a categorical abstract model theoretic approach to saturated models within the theory of institutions. The most important consequence is that the method of saturated models becomes thus available to a multitude of logical systems from logic or from computing science. In this paper we define the concept of saturated model at an abstract institution-independent level and develop the fundamental existence and uniqueness (...)
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  31. Frances Cleaver (1998). Incentives and Informal Institutions: Gender and the Management of Water. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 15 (4):347-360.score: 24.0
    In this paper I consider thecontribution that theories about common propertyresource management and policies relating toparticipation can make to our understanding ofcommunal water resource management. Common totheoretical and policy approaches are the ideas thatincentives are important in defining the problem ofcollective action and that institutions apparentlyoffer a solution to it. The gendered dynamics ofincentives and institutions are explored. This paperbriefly outlines theoretical approaches toinstitutions as solutions to collective actionproblems and indicates the linkages with policiesregarding participation in water resource (...)
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  32. George Voutsadakis (2005). Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Models of Π-Institutions. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (4):439-460.score: 24.0
    An important part of the theory of algebraizable sentential logics consists of studying the algebraic semantics of these logics. As developed by Czelakowski, Blok, and Pigozzi and Font and Jansana, among others, it includes studying the properties of logical matrices serving as models of deductive systems and the properties of abstract logics serving as models of sentential logics. The present paper contributes to the development of the categorical theory by abstracting some of these model theoretic aspects and results from the (...)
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  33. Benedetto Lepori & Andrea Bonaccorsi (2013). The Socio-Political Construction of a European Census of Higher Education Institutions: Design, Methodological and Comparability Issues. Minerva 51 (3):271-293.score: 24.0
    This paper reports on an experiment concerning the social construction of statistical definitions, where the first census of Higher Education Institutions in Europe has been developed. It conceptualizes the construction of indicators as a social process of definitions and boundaries’ negotiation, involving value judgments, social and political opinions, as well as practical interests and power strategies of actors. The paper exemplifies this process on three issues, namely the social demand for establishing a census, the controversy concerning the definition of (...)
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  34. Neil Joseph MacKinnon (2010). Self, Identity, and Social Institutions. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 24.0
    Introduction -- Cultural theories of people -- Identities in standard English -- Language and social institutions -- The cultural self -- The self's identities -- Theories of identities and selves -- Theories of norms and institutions -- Social reality and human subjectivity.
     
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  35. Roland Pongou, Bertrand Tchantcho & Lawrence Diffo Lambo (2011). Political Influence in Multi-Choice Institutions: Cyclicity, Anonymity, and Transitivity. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 70 (2):157-178.score: 24.0
    We study political influence in institutions where each member chooses a level of support for a collective goal. These individual choices determine the degree to which the goal is reached. Influence is assessed by newly defined binary relations, each of which ranks members on the basis of their relative performance at a corresponding level of participation. For institutions with three options (e.g., voting games in which each voter may vote “yes”, “abstain”, or vote “no”), we obtain three influence (...)
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  36. Natalia Vlas & Sergiu Gherghina (2010). Convergence or Replacement? Attitudes Towards Political and Religious Institutions in Contemporary Romania. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 8 (24):70-94.score: 24.0
    Unlike other Post-Communist countries, Romania displays three clear individual-level trends related to political and religious institutions. The Romanians are the most supportive for the EU and Church, and the most critical towards national political institutions in the region. By conducting an empirical longitudinal study on the Romanian population, we aim to understand the linkages between these two trends and to identify what can explain the high level of trust vested by the Romanian citizens in the Orthodox Church in (...)
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  37. Chong Ju Choi, Sae Won Kim & Jai Beom Kim (2010). Globalizing Business Ethics Research and the Ethical Need to Include the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Countries: Redefining the Global Triad as Business Systems and Institutions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):299 - 307.score: 22.0
    A majority of the countries in the world are still considered "developing," with a per capita income of less than U$1,000. Hahn (2008, Journal of Business Ethics 78, 711–721) recently proposed an ambitious business ethics research agenda for integrating the "bottom-of-the-pyramid" countries (Prahalad and Hart, 2002, Strategy and Competition 20, 22–14) through sustainable development and corporate citizenship. Hahn's work is among the growing field of research in comparative business ethics including the global business ethics index (Michalos, 2008, Journal of Business (...)
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  38. Daniel H. Cole & Peter Z. Grossman (2010). Institutions Matter! Why the Herder Problem is Not a Prisoner's Dilemma. Theory and Decision 69 (2):219-231.score: 22.0
    In the game theory literature, Garrett Hardin’s famous allegory of the “tragedy of the commons” has been modeled as a variant of the Prisoner’s Dilemma, labeled the Herder Problem (or, sometimes, the Commons Dilemma). This brief paper argues that important differences in the institutional structures of the standard Prisoner’s Dilemma and Herder Problem render the two games different in kind. Specifically, institutional impediments to communication and cooperation that ensure a dominant strategy of defection in the classic Prisoner’s Dilemma are absent (...)
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  39. André D. Robert (2013). Certitudes et hésitations des institutions scolaires françaises entre instruction, socialisation et qualification. Un point de vue historique sur la longue durée. Phronesis 2 (2-3):105-113.score: 21.0
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  40. Andrew Hurrell (2001). Global Inequality and International Institutions. Metaphilosophy 32 (1-2):34-57.score: 21.0
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  41. Daniel Pokrywczyński & Grant Malcolm (2014). Towards a Functional Approach to Modular Ontologies Using Institutions. Studia Logica 102 (1):117-143.score: 21.0
    We propose a functional view of ontologies that emphasises their role in determining answers to queries, irrespective of the formalism in which they are written. A notion of framework is introduced that captures the situation of a global language into which both an ontology language and a query language can be translated, in an abstract way. We then generalise existing notions of robustness from the literature, and relate these to interpolation properties that support modularisation of ontologies.
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  42. Mario Coccia (2009). Bureaucratization in Public Research Institutions. Minerva 47 (1):31-50.score: 21.0
    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the nature of bureaucratization within public research bodies and its relationship to scientific performance, focusing on an Italian case-study. The main finding is that the bureaucratization of the research sector has two dimensions: public research labs have academic bureaucratization since researchers spend an increasing part of their time in administrative matters (i.e., preparing grant applications, managing grants/projects, and so on); whereas universities mainly have administrative bureaucratization generated by the increase over time of (...)
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  43. Rémi Chéno (2007). Les retractationes d'Yves Congar sur le rôle de l'Esprit Saint dans les institutions ecclésiales. Revue des Sciences Philosophiques Et Théologiques 2:265-284.score: 21.0
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  44. George Voutsadakis (2005). Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Gentzen Π ‐Institutions and the Deduction‐Detachment Property. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (6):570-578.score: 21.0
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  45. George Voutsadakis (2013). Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Algebraic Semantics for (Documentclass{Article}Usepackage{Amssymb}Begin{Document}Pagestyle{Empty}$Bf{Pi }$End{Document})‐Institutions. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 59 (3):177-200.score: 21.0
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  46. David Wiens (2012). Prescribing Institutions Without Ideal Theory. Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (1):45-70.score: 20.0
    It is conventional wisdom among political philosophers that ideal principles of justice (i.e., principles that would regulate the constitutions of fully just institutional arrangements) must guide our attempts to design institutions to avert actual injustice. Call this the ideal guidance approach. I argue that this view is misguided—ideal principles of justice are not appropriate "guiding principles" that actual institutions must aim to realize, even if only approximately. Fortunately, the conventional wisdom is also avoidable. In this paper, I develop (...)
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  47. Graham Hubbs (2014). Transparency, Corruption, and Democratic Institutions. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 9 (1):65-83.score: 20.0
    This essay examines some of the institutional arrangements that underlie corruption in democracy. It begins with a discussion of institutions as such, elaborating and extending some of John Searle’s remarks on the topic. It then turns to an examination of specifically democratic institutions; it draws here on Joshua Cohen’s recent Rousseau: A Free Community of Equals. One of the central concerns of Cohen’s Rousseau is how to arrange civic institutions so that they are able to perform their (...)
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  48. Min-Dong Paul Lee (2011). Configuration of External Influences: The Combined Effects of Institutions and Stakeholders on Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (2):281-298.score: 20.0
    This article introduces a theoretical framework that combines institutional and stakeholder theories to explain how firms choose their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy. Organizational researchers have identified several distinct CSR strategies (e.g., obstructionist, defensive, accommodative, and proactive), but did not explain the sources of divergence. This article argues that the divergence comes from the variability in the configuration of external influences that consists of institutional and stakeholder pressures. While institutions affect firms’ social behavior by shaping the macro-level incentive structure (...)
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  49. Henry John Pratt (2012). Artistic Institutions, Valuable Experiences: Coming to Terms with Artistic Value. Philosophia 40 (3):591-606.score: 20.0
    Supposing that talk of a distinctively artistic type of value is warranted, what separates it from other sorts of value? Any plausible answer must explain both what is of value and what is artistic about artistically valuable properties. Flaws with extant accounts stem from neglect of one component or the other; the account offered here, based on careful attention to actual art-critical practices, brings both together. The “value” component depends on the capacity of artworks to provide subjectively valuable experiences, while (...)
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  50. Corrado Roversi (2014). Conceptualizing Institutions. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):201-215.score: 20.0
    Being part of the life of institutions requires a considerable amount of conceptual knowledge. In institutional settings, we must learn the relevant concepts to act meaningfully, and these concepts are internal in a peculiar way, namely, they are strictly relative to the rules of a given institution because they are constituted by those rules. However, institutions do not come out of nothing: They are inscribed in a social setting and this setting determines, at least in a broad sense, (...)
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