Search results for 'International agencies' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. P. Athukorala (2007). The Role of the International Donor Agencies in the Politics of Sri Lanka. Japanese Journal of Political Science 8 (2):263-282.score: 126.0
    The objective of the paper is to examine the role of the two donor agencies, the IMF and the World Bank in the formulation of social welfare policies in the post-independence Sri Lanka. The ideologies of the two major parties in Sri Lanka, the United National Party (UNP) and the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), became the determining factor in the formulation of social welfare policies before 1977. In this context, the IMF and the World Bank played two different (...)
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  2. Julio Faundez (2012). Legal Pluralism and International Development Agencies : State Building or Legal Reform. In Brian Z. Tamanaha, Caroline Mary Sage & Michael J. V. Woolcock (eds.), Legal Pluralism and Development: Scholars and Practitioners in Dialogue. Cambridge University Press.score: 120.0
     
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  3. Karen J. Maschke & Thomas H. Murray (2004). Ethical Issues in Tissue Banking for Research: The Prospects and Pitfalls of Setting International Standards. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (2):143-155.score: 96.0
    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or (...)
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  4. J. Samuel Barkin (2006). International Organization: Theories and Institutions. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 96.0
    Primarily focused on the theoretical aspects of International Organization, this book provides an in-depth examination of competing theories through thematic chapters. Intended to fill the gap between introductory textbooks and primary sources of theory, International Organization , is useful for upper-level international relations courses with a significant emphasis on theory.
     
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  5. C. Martinez (1997). [International Symposium in the Congreso de Los Diputados Madrid November 18 1996]. Dialogos 30:19.score: 90.0
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  6. Gil Friedman (1997). Agency, Structure, and International Politics: From Ontology to Empirical Inquiry. Routledge.score: 68.0
    This book is the first in-depth study of the concepts of agency and structure in the context of international relations and politics. It is an important contribution, examing the ways in which explanations of social phenomenon integrate and account for the interrelationship between agency and structure.
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  7. David Miller (2007). National Responsibility and Global Justice. Oxford University Press.score: 66.0
    This chapter outlines the main ideas of my book National responsibility and global justice. It begins with two widely held but conflicting intuitions about what global justice might mean on the one hand, and what it means to be a member of a national community on the other. The first intuition tells us that global inequalities of the magnitude that currently exist are radically unjust, while the second intuition tells us that inequalities are both unavoidable and fair once national responsibility (...)
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  8. Keith Horton (2011). Aid Agencies: The Epistemic Question. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):29-43.score: 66.0
    For several decades, there has been a debate in the philosophical literature concerning whether those of us who live in developed countries are morally required to give some of our money to aid agencies. Many contributors to this debate have apparently taken it that one may simply assume that the effects of the work such agencies do are overwhelmingly positive. If one turns to the literature on such agencies that has emerged in recent decades, however, one finds (...)
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  9. Patricia A. Marshall (2005). Human Rights,Cultural Pluralism, and International Health Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (6):529-557.score: 66.0
    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor (...)
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  10. John R. Schermerhorn & William B. Lamb (2008). Social Agency in International Business Practices. Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:74-79.score: 64.0
    Constructive engagement in international business practice is defined as purpose-driven behavior in which economic contributions by the foreign investor also advance social progress in the host country. This paper distinguishes between amoral and moral social agency, and proposes a model of principled constructive engagement that describes a principled constructive engagement regime enacted in a disciplined, morally-directed manner.
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  11. Leif Wenar (2006). Accountability in International Development Aid. Ethics and International Affairs 20 (1):1–23.score: 60.0
    Contemporary movements for the reform of global institutions advocate greater transparency, greater democracy, and greater accountability. Of these three, accountability is the master value. Transparency is valuable as means to accountability: more transparent institutions reveal whether officials have performed their duties. Democracy is valuable as a mechanism of accountability: elections enable the people peacefully to remove officials who have not done what it is their responsibility to do. “Accountability,” it has been said, “is the central issue of our time.” The (...)
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  12. Leslie London, Godfrey Tangwa, Reginald Matchaba-Hove, Nhlanhla Mkhize, Remi Nwabueze, Aceme Nyika & Peter Westerholm (2014). Ethics in Occupational Health: Deliberations of an International Workgroup Addressing Challenges in an African Context. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):1-11.score: 60.0
    BackgroundInternational codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the (...)
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  13. Joyce M. Turk (1995). An Assessment of Animal Health Projects: U.S. Agency for International Development, 1960–93. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 12 (2):81-89.score: 60.0
    What are the more significant broad-based needs of animal health programs in developing countries? Essentially they are: health management programs, delivery systems, disease surveillance and monitoring of livestock movements, and improved technologies that are cost-effective and environmentally sound.Responsible program planning elicits important considerations that strengthen final results if integrated early into project design. Examples of these considerations include•the potential for intervention;•producers' requirements for animal health services;•present and future effect(s) of disease;•trends in livestock production and marketing;•affect of improved animal health technology (...)
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  14. Wolfgang Büttner (2004). Die Menschenrechte Im Comité Sur les Principes Philosophiques des Droits de l'Homme der Unesco (1947/48). Ibidem-Verlag.score: 60.0
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  15. Michael Köhler & David Hössl (eds.) (2007). Si Vis Pacem, Para Pacem?: Friede Durch Internationale Organisation Als Option für Das 21. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt Am Main [U.A.]Lang.score: 60.0
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  16. Leslie London, Godfrey Tangwa, Reginald Matchaba-Hove, Nhlanhla Mkhize, Reginald Nwabueze, Aceme Nyika & Peter Westerholm (2014). Ethics in Occupational Health: Deliberations of an International Workgroup Addressing Challenges in an African Context. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):48.score: 60.0
    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developing by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an African Working Group addressed key challenges for (...)
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  17. N. Sadik (1997). [Reproductive Health: A Challenge for the 21st Century]. Dialogos 33:16-8.score: 60.0
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  18. Kosha Shah (2013). Evolving Beyond Borders: The United Nations From the Perspective of Sri Aurobindo's Philosophy. Readworthy Publications.score: 60.0
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  19. Daniel M. Weinstock (ed.) (2007). Global Justice, Global Institutions. University of Calgary Press.score: 60.0
    Defining the principles of justice that ought to govern the global economic and political sphere is one of the most urgent tasks that contemporary political philosophers face. But they must also contribute to working through the institutional implications of these principles. How might principles of global justice be realized? Must the institutions that aim to implement them be transnational, or can global justice be attained within the context of the state system? Can institutions of democratic self-governance be imagined beyond the (...)
     
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  20. Messaoud Mehafdi (2000). The Ethics of International Transfer Pricing. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (4):365 - 381.score: 54.0
    The pursuit of economic opportunity has frequently put transnational manufacturing enterprises in the spotlight, accused of contributing to, if not causing, economic hardship, social deprivation, unsustainable growth, labour exploitation, resource plundering and ecological degradation in home and host countries. A substantial part of international trade now consists of intra-firm sales, or commercial transactions between units of the same business corporation, within or beyond the national borders of the parent company. Known as transfer pricing and viewed as a legitimate business (...)
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  21. James C. Baker (1985). The International Infant Formula Controversy: A Dilemma in Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 4 (3):181 - 190.score: 54.0
    One of the most controversial issues to face any industry has been the infant formula problem, especially in the less-developed countries (LDCs). Producers of infant formula were confronted with a boycott which evolved from a grass-roots level to one which involved many nations, international and national public agencies, non-profit organizations, scientific research institutions, large church denominations, and every company in the industry. An international boycott was aimed at Nestlé, one of the largest producers of infant formula.The aim (...)
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  22. Philippe Calain, Nathalie Fiore, Marc Poncin & Samia A. Hurst (2009). Research Ethics and International Epidemic Response: The Case of Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):7-29.score: 54.0
    Institute for Biomedical Ethics, Geneva University Medical School * Corresponding author: Médecins Sans Frontières (OCG), rue de Lausanne 78, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland. Tel.: +41 (0)22 849 89 29; Fax: +41 (0)22 849 84 88; Email: philippe_calain{at}hotmail.com ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract Outbreaks of filovirus (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fevers in Africa are typically the theater of rescue activities involving international experts and agencies tasked with reinforcing national authorities in clinical management, biological (...)
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  23. Chris Brown (2001). Moral Agency and International Society. Ethics and International Affairs 15 (2):87–98.score: 54.0
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  24. Gopalkrishnan R. Iyer (2001). International Exchanges as the Basis for Conceptualizing Ethics in International Business. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (1):3 - 24.score: 54.0
    Extant business ethics literature available for application to international business demonstrates some variety but no comprehensive principles. While the domains of both international business and business ethics are expanding, they are also becoming increasingly divergent. At the same time, the primacy accorded to the multinational enterprise in both fields ignores the socio-cultural and political embeddedness of economic activities, and multiple agencies in international business (individuals, firms, nations, etc.). Some international business theorists have offered the view (...)
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  25. Helen Charnley (2007). Reflections on the Roles and Performance of International Organizations in Supporting Children Separated From Their Families by War. Ethics and Social Welfare 1 (3):253-268.score: 54.0
    During the 16-year civil war in Mozambique thousands of children were separated from their families as a direct or indirect result of conflict and displacement. International organizations lent support to a national family tracing and reunification programme coordinated by the government Department for Social Action. Drawing on the findings of an empirical study of the sustainability of substitute family care, this article describes the tensions associated with the involvement of international organizations during the emergency conditions of the war, (...)
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  26. Keith Horton (2008). Transnational Medical Aid and the Wrongdoing of Others. Public Health Ethics 1 (2):171-179.score: 54.0
    One of the ways in which transnational medical agencies (TMAs) such as Medicins Sans Frontieres aim to increase the access of the global poor to health services is by supplying medical aid to people who need it in developing countries. The moral imperative supporting such work is clear enough, but a variety of factors can make such work difficult. One of those factors is the wrongdoing of other agents and agencies. For as a result of such wrongdoing, the (...)
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  27. Saladin Meckled-Garcia (2008). On the Very Idea of Cosmopolitan Justice: Constructivism and International Agency. Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (3):245-271.score: 50.0
  28. Keith Horton (2004). International Aid: The Fair Shares Factor. Social Theory and Practice 30 (2):161-174.score: 48.0
    Some philosophers have argued that relatively affluent individuals are obligated to give nearly all of their money to aid agencies. In this paper, I discuss one objection -- the Fair Shares Objection -- to this claim. Most philosophers who discuss this objection dismiss it quickly, by invoking comparison cases in which it seems clear that the relevant notion of fair shares has no deontological significance. Those who press the objection, on the other hand, tend to give that notion a (...)
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  29. Jess Bonnan-White, Andrea Hightower & Ameena Issa (2013). Of Couscous and Occupation: A Case Study of Women's Motivations to Join and Participate in Palestinian Fair Trade Cooperatives. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):337-350.score: 42.0
    Economic opportunities and the status of women are mediated by socio-political structural factors, as well as cultural-specific norms and patterns of behavior. As consumers (and, in many cases, regulators) of resources at the household level, women are integral to the analysis of economic and political development. This paper examines the role of motivation and perception on women’s participation in Palestinian Fair Trade projects. In the occupied Palestinian Territories, Fair Trade projects have been recently introduced by both international agencies (...)
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  30. Andrew A. G. Ross (2014). Political Self-Sacrifice: Agency, Body and Emotion in International Relations, K. M. Fierke (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 281 Pp., $95 Cloth. [REVIEW] Ethics and International Affairs 28 (1):149-151.score: 42.0
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  31. Tamar Schapiro (2010). Desires as Demands: How the Second-Person Standpoint Might Be Internal to Reflective Agency. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (1):229-236.score: 40.0
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  32. Alistair Mutch (2004). Review of Structure, Agency and the Internal Conversation by Margaret Archer. [REVIEW] Journal of Critical Realism 3 (2):384-389.score: 40.0
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  33. Hans D. Muller (2003). Kepa Korta, Ernest Sosa, and Xabier Arrazola, Eds., Cognition, Agency and Rationality: Proceedings of the Fifth International Colloquium on Cognitive Science, Philosophical Studies Series 79, Dordrecht/Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, XI + 187 Pp., $93.00 (Cloth), ISBN 0-792-35973-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 13 (3):452-457.score: 40.0
  34. Peter Alpert (1993). Support for Biodiversity Research From the US Agency for International Development. BioScience 43 (9):628-631.score: 40.0
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  35. Olle Söderhamn & Christina Cliffordson (2001). The Internal Structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency (ASA) Scale. Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory 10 (4):5-12.score: 40.0
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  36. Human Reflexivity (2007). Margaret S. Archer is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Warwick, a Past-President of the International Sociological Association and a Council Member of the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences. Her Last Book Was Structure, Agency and the Internal Conversation (CUP 2003). Under an ESRC Award She has Completed a Book Entitled Making Our Way Through the World. [REVIEW] In Clive Lawson, John Latsis & Nuno Martins (eds.), Contributions to Social Ontology. Routledge. 15.score: 40.0
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  37. Frederic H. Wagner (2001). Freeing Agency Research From Policy Pressures: A Need and an Approach Research Objectivity in Public Agencies, Essential to Effective Management of Natural Resources, Can Be Enhanced by Administrative Distancing of Policy Setting and Research, and Changing From Internal to Collaborative Procedures Involving Concerned Interests. BioScience 51 (6):445-450.score: 40.0
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  38. Emanuel Adler (2005). Communitarian International Relations: The Epistemic Foundations of International Relations. Routledge.score: 38.0
    In Emanuel Adler's distinctive constructivist approach to international relations theory, international practices evolve in tandem with collective knowledge of the material and social worlds. This book - comprising a selection of his journal publications, a new introduction and three previously unpublished articles - points IR constructivism in a novel direction, characterized as 'communitarian'. Adler's synthesis does not herald the end of the nation-state; nor does it suggest that agency is unimportant in international life. Rather, it argues that (...)
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  39. Beate Jahn (ed.) (2006). Classical Theory in International Relations. Cambridge University Press.score: 38.0
    Classical political theorists such as Thucydides, Kant, Rousseau, Smith, Hegel, Grotius, Mill, Locke and Clausewitz are often employed to explain and justify contemporary international politics and are seen to constitute the different schools of thought in the discipline. However, traditional interpretations frequently ignore the intellectual and historical context in which these thinkers were writing as well as the lineages through which they came to be appropriated in International Relations. This collection of essays provides alternative interpretations sensitive to these (...)
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  40. Steven Scalet & Thomas F. Kelly (2012). The Ethics of Credit Rating Agencies: What Happened and the Way Forward. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):477-490.score: 38.0
    During the short span of a few months in 2008, 14 trillion dollars of highly rated bonds fell into junk status, surprising the global financial system and accelerating an economic decline. The result was the worst fracture of the US financial system since the Great Depression. Credit rating agencies (CRAs) in particular have come under intense scrutiny as a result of this latest disaster, both domestically and internationally, including many congressional inquiries and government investigations. Most of the public and (...)
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  41. Colin Wight (2006). Agents, Structures and International Relations: Politics as Ontology. Cambridge University Press.score: 38.0
    The agent-structure problem is a much discussed issue in the field of international relations. In his comprehensive analysis of this problem, Colin Wight deconstructs the accounts of structure and agency embedded within differing IR theories and, on the basis of this analysis, explores the implications of ontology - the metaphysical study of existence and reality. Wight argues that there are many gaps in IR theory that can only be understood by focusing on the ontological differences that construct the theoretical (...)
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  42. Phan Minh Dung & Giovanni Sartor (2011). The Modular Logic of Private International Law. Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (2-3):233-261.score: 38.0
    We provide a logical analysis of private international law, a rather esoteric, but increasingly important, domain of the law. Private international law addresses overlaps and conflicts between legal systems by distributing cases between the authorities of such systems (jurisdiction) and establishing what rules these authorities have to apply to each case (choice of law). A formal model of the resulting interactions between legal systems is proposed based on modular argumentation. It is argued that this model may also be (...)
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  43. Vince W. Mitchell, George Balabanis, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & T. Bettina Cornwell (2009). Measuring Unethical Consumer Behavior Across Four Countries. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):395 - 412.score: 36.0
    The huge amounts spent on store security and crime prevention worldwide, not only costs international businesses, but also amounts to a hidden tax on those law-binding consumers who bear higher prices. Most previous research has focused on shoplifting and ignored many other ways in which consumers cheat businesses. Using a hybrid of both qualitative research and survey approaches in four countries, an index of 37 activities was developed to examine consumers’ unethical activities across UK, US, France, and Austria. The (...)
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  44. C. Colwell (2000). Agencies of the Body. International Studies in Philosophy 32 (4):13-22.score: 36.0
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  45. Peter Curwen (1994). The Ethics of International Trade. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (1):29-41.score: 36.0
    The measure proposed here, the ratio of the price reported in a given trade to the average world price for that commodity, is based on the average world price for a given commodity reported for all trades between the U.S. and all other countries for a given period. This new measure can be used to enable government agencies to identify trades between U.S. firms or individuals and their counterparts in other countries which are designed to further prohibited activities such (...)
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  46. Emma Avetisyan & Michel Ferrary (2013). Dynamics of Stakeholders' Implications in the Institutionalization of the CSR Field in France and in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (1):115-133.score: 36.0
    This study supports the idea that fields form around issues, and describes the roles of various stakeholders in the structuring, shaping, and legitimating of the emerging field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). A model of the institutional history of the CSR field is outlined, of which a key stage is the appearance of CSR rating agencies as the significant players and Institutional Entrepreneurs of the field. We show to which extent the creation and further development of CSR rating (...), and the activism of other significant stakeholders of the field (typically portrayed as “standard setters” and “regulatory agents”), contribute to the institutionalization of CSR. With this in mind, among various stakeholders that legitimate the field of CSR, we present the efforts of global and local stakeholders such as the European Union, the United Nations, the International Organization for Standardization, and governments and their interactions. We suggest that the different paths of CSR development and institutionalization in France and in the United States depend on the nature of local and global stakeholders’ involvement in this process and their interactions. (shrink)
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  47. Gregory F. Treverton (1999). Assessments of U.S. And British Intelligence Gathering Intelligence Power in Peace and War, Michael Herman (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 435 Pp., $59.95 Cloth. Secret Agencies: U.S. Intelligence in a Hostile World, Loch K. Johnson (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 336 Pp., $16.00 Paper. [REVIEW] Ethics and International Affairs 13:245-247.score: 36.0
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  48. Martin Voss Matthis Synofzik, Gottfried Vosgerau (2013). The Experience of Agency: An Interplay Between Prediction and Postdiction. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 34.0
    The experience of agency, i.e., the registration that I am the initiator of my actions, is a basic and constant underpinning of our interaction with the world. Whereas several accounts have underlined predictive processes as the central mechanism (e.g. the comparator model by C.Frith), others emphasized postdictive inferences (e.g. post hoc inference account by D. Wegner). Based on increasing evidence that both predictive and postdictive processes contribute to the experience of agency, we here present a unifying but at the same (...)
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  49. Paul B. Thompson (2010). Food Aid and the Famine Relief Argument (Brief Return). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (3):209-227.score: 30.0
    Recent publications by Pogge ( Global ethics: seminal essays. St. Paul: Paragon House 2008 ) and by Singer ( The life you can save: acting now to end world poverty. New York: Random House 2009 ) have resuscitated a debate over the justifiability of famine relief between Singer and ecologist Garrett Hardin in the 1970s. Yet that debate concluded with a general recognition that (a) general considerations of development ethics presented more compelling ethical problems than famine relief; and (b) some (...)
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  50. Aleksandar Jokic (2013). Go Local: Morality and International Activism. Ethics and Global Politics 6 (1):1-24.score: 30.0
    A step towards constructing an ethics of international activism is proposed by formulating a series of constraints on what would constitute morally permissible agency in the context that involves delivering services abroad, directly or indirectly. Perhaps surprisingly, in this effort the author makes use of the concept of ‘force multiplier’. This idea and its official applications have explanatory importance in considering the correlation between the post-Cold War phenomenal growth in the number of international non-governmental organizations and the emergence (...)
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