Search results for 'International agencies' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Evelyn White (1960). International Survey:Catholics and the International Agencies. New Blackfriars 41 (484):332-334.
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  2.  7
    P. Athukorala (2007). The Role of the International Donor Agencies in the Politics of Sri Lanka. Japanese Journal of Political Science 8 (2):263-282.
    The objective of the paper is to examine the role of the two donor agencies, the IMF and the World Bank in the formulation of social welfare policies in the post-independence Sri Lanka. The ideologies of the two major parties in Sri Lanka, the United National Party (UNP) and the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), became the determining factor in the formulation of social welfare policies before 1977. In this context, the IMF and the World Bank played two different (...)
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  3. Julio Faundez (2012). Legal Pluralism and International Development Agencies : State Building or Legal Reform. In Brian Z. Tamanaha, Caroline Mary Sage & Michael J. V. Woolcock (eds.), Legal Pluralism and Development: Scholars and Practitioners in Dialogue. Cambridge University Press
     
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  4.  22
    Karen J. Maschke & Thomas H. Murray (2004). Ethical Issues in Tissue Banking for Research: The Prospects and Pitfalls of Setting International Standards. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (2):143-155.
    Bauer, Taub, and Parsi's review of an international sample of standards on informed consent, confidentiality, commercialization, and quality of research in tissue banking reveals that no clear national or international consensus exists for these issues. The authors' response to the lack of uniformity in the meaning, scope, and ethical significance of the policies they examined is to call for the creation of uniform ethical guidelines. This raises questions about whether harmonization should consist of voluntary international standards or (...)
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  5. J. Samuel Barkin (2006). International Organization: Theories and Institutions. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Primarily focused on the theoretical aspects of International Organization, this book provides an in-depth examination of competing theories through thematic chapters. Intended to fill the gap between introductory textbooks and primary sources of theory, International Organization , is useful for upper-level international relations courses with a significant emphasis on theory.
     
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  6.  2
    C. Martinez (1997). [International Symposium in the Congreso de Los Diputados Madrid November 18 1996]. Dialogos 30:19.
  7. David Miller (2007). National Responsibility and Global Justice. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter outlines the main ideas of my book National responsibility and global justice. It begins with two widely held but conflicting intuitions about what global justice might mean on the one hand, and what it means to be a member of a national community on the other. The first intuition tells us that global inequalities of the magnitude that currently exist are radically unjust, while the second intuition tells us that inequalities are both unavoidable and fair once national responsibility (...)
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  8.  31
    Keith Horton (2011). Aid Agencies: The Epistemic Question. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):29-43.
    For several decades, there has been a debate in the philosophical literature concerning whether those of us who live in developed countries are morally required to give some of our money to aid agencies. Many contributors to this debate have apparently taken it that one may simply assume that the effects of the work such agencies do are overwhelmingly positive. If one turns to the literature on such agencies that has emerged in recent decades, however, one finds (...)
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  9.  40
    Patricia A. Marshall (2005). Human Rights,Cultural Pluralism, and International Health Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (6):529-557.
    In the field of bioethics, scholars have begun to consider carefully the impact of structural issues on global population health, including socioeconomic and political factors influencing the disproportionate burden of disease throughout the world. Human rights and social justice are key considerations for both population health and biomedical research. In this paper, I will briefly explore approaches to human rights in bioethics and review guidelines for ethical conduct in international health research, focusing specifically on health research conducted in resource-poor (...)
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  10.  6
    Alyson V. F. Holland & Timothy A. Holland (2015). Response to the Case of Short-Term International Development Work. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (1):155-156.
    The conventional approach to international development by civil society—that is, the installation of “Western” programs and institutions by “Western” groups in “underdeveloped” regions—has remained largely unchanged since global poverty reduction, whether for political or social justice motivations, gained prominence in public discourse after World War II. Yet poverty rates, literacy, life expectancy, and unemployment in one of the poorest regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa, has remained the same if not worsened since the 1970s . And, still, the great (...)
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  11.  9
    Leslie London, Godfrey Tangwa, Reginald Matchaba-Hove, Nhlanhla Mkhize, Remi Nwabueze, Aceme Nyika & Peter Westerholm (2014). Ethics in Occupational Health: Deliberations of an International Workgroup Addressing Challenges in an African Context. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundInternational codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the (...)
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  12.  3
    Leslie London, Godfrey Tangwa, Reginald Matchaba-Hove, Nhlanhla Mkhize, Reginald Nwabueze, Aceme Nyika & Peter Westerholm (2014). Ethics in Occupational Health: Deliberations of an International Workgroup Addressing Challenges in an African Context. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):48.
    International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developing by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an African Working Group addressed key challenges for (...)
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  13.  85
    Leif Wenar (2006). Accountability in International Development Aid. Ethics and International Affairs 20 (1):1–23.
    Contemporary movements for the reform of global institutions advocate greater transparency, greater democracy, and greater accountability. Of these three, accountability is the master value. Transparency is valuable as means to accountability: more transparent institutions reveal whether officials have performed their duties. Democracy is valuable as a mechanism of accountability: elections enable the people peacefully to remove officials who have not done what it is their responsibility to do. “Accountability,” it has been said, “is the central issue of our time.” The (...)
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  14. Daniel M. Weinstock (ed.) (2007). Global Justice, Global Institutions. University of Calgary Press.
    Defining the principles of justice that ought to govern the global economic and political sphere is one of the most urgent tasks that contemporary political philosophers face. But they must also contribute to working through the institutional implications of these principles. How might principles of global justice be realized? Must the institutions that aim to implement them be transnational, or can global justice be attained within the context of the state system? Can institutions of democratic self-governance be imagined beyond the (...)
     
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  15.  1
    N. Sadik (1997). [Reproductive Health: A Challenge for the 21st Century]. Dialogos 33:16-8.
  16. Wolfgang Büttner (2004). Die Menschenrechte Im Comité Sur les Principes Philosophiques des Droits de l'Homme der Unesco (1947/48). Ibidem-Verlag.
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  17. Michael Köhler & David Hössl (eds.) (2007). Si Vis Pacem, Para Pacem?: Friede Durch Internationale Organisation Als Option für Das 21. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt Am Main [U.A.]Lang.
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  18. Kosha Shah (2013). Evolving Beyond Borders: The United Nations From the Perspective of Sri Aurobindo's Philosophy. Readworthy Publications.
     
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  19.  42
    Philippe Calain, Nathalie Fiore, Marc Poncin & Samia A. Hurst (2009). Research Ethics and International Epidemic Response: The Case of Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers. Public Health Ethics 2 (1):7-29.
    Institute for Biomedical Ethics, Geneva University Medical School * Corresponding author: Médecins Sans Frontières (OCG), rue de Lausanne 78, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland. Tel.: +41 (0)22 849 89 29; Fax: +41 (0)22 849 84 88; Email: philippe_calain{at}hotmail.com ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> Abstract Outbreaks of filovirus (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fevers in Africa are typically the theater of rescue activities involving international experts and agencies tasked with reinforcing national authorities in clinical management, biological (...)
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  20.  19
    Gopalkrishnan R. Iyer (2001). International Exchanges as the Basis for Conceptualizing Ethics in International Business. Journal of Business Ethics 31 (1):3 - 24.
    Extant business ethics literature available for application to international business demonstrates some variety but no comprehensive principles. While the domains of both international business and business ethics are expanding, they are also becoming increasingly divergent. At the same time, the primacy accorded to the multinational enterprise in both fields ignores the socio-cultural and political embeddedness of economic activities, and multiple agencies in international business (individuals, firms, nations, etc.). Some international business theorists have offered the view (...)
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  21.  31
    Messaoud Mehafdi (2000). The Ethics of International Transfer Pricing. Journal of Business Ethics 28 (4):365 - 381.
    The pursuit of economic opportunity has frequently put transnational manufacturing enterprises in the spotlight, accused of contributing to, if not causing, economic hardship, social deprivation, unsustainable growth, labour exploitation, resource plundering and ecological degradation in home and host countries. A substantial part of international trade now consists of intra-firm sales, or commercial transactions between units of the same business corporation, within or beyond the national borders of the parent company. Known as transfer pricing and viewed as a legitimate business (...)
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  22.  5
    Mark A. Rothstein (2016). International Health Research After Schrems V. Data Protection Commissioner. Hastings Center Report 46 (2):5-6.
    On October 6, 2015, in Schrems v. Data Protection Commissioner, the European Court of Justice, the European Union's highest court, held that the fifteen-year-old Safe Harbor Framework Agreement with the United States was invalid. Under the agreement, about forty-five hundred American companies each year self-certified to the U.S. Department of Commerce that they were in compliance with the essential privacy protections of the European Union, and therefore it was permissible for entities in the European Union to send personal data to (...)
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  23.  29
    James C. Baker (1985). The International Infant Formula Controversy: A Dilemma in Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 4 (3):181 - 190.
    One of the most controversial issues to face any industry has been the infant formula problem, especially in the less-developed countries (LDCs). Producers of infant formula were confronted with a boycott which evolved from a grass-roots level to one which involved many nations, international and national public agencies, non-profit organizations, scientific research institutions, large church denominations, and every company in the industry. An international boycott was aimed at Nestlé, one of the largest producers of infant formula.The aim (...)
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  24.  14
    Michael Walzer (1999). International Society: What is the Best We Can Do? Ethical Perspectives 6 (3):201-210.
    I finished the first draft of this lecture just before the NATO bombing campaign against Serbia began — a campaign that provides, I think, a prime example of the failure of international society. A double failure in this case: its political agencies were not able to respond in a timely fashion to the disaster of the former Yugoslavia, and then they were not able to find a more effective form of military intervention. The problem both times wasn't one (...)
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  25.  6
    Keith Horton (2008). Transnational Medical Aid and the Wrongdoing of Others. Public Health Ethics 1 (2):171-179.
    One of the ways in which transnational medical agencies (TMAs) such as Medicins Sans Frontieres aim to increase the access of the global poor to health services is by supplying medical aid to people who need it in developing countries. The moral imperative supporting such work is clear enough, but a variety of factors can make such work difficult. One of those factors is the wrongdoing of other agents and agencies. For as a result of such wrongdoing, the (...)
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  26.  8
    Helen Charnley (2007). Reflections on the Roles and Performance of International Organizations in Supporting Children Separated From Their Families by War. Ethics and Social Welfare 1 (3):253-268.
    During the 16-year civil war in Mozambique thousands of children were separated from their families as a direct or indirect result of conflict and displacement. International organizations lent support to a national family tracing and reunification programme coordinated by the government Department for Social Action. Drawing on the findings of an empirical study of the sustainability of substitute family care, this article describes the tensions associated with the involvement of international organizations during the emergency conditions of the war, (...)
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  27.  15
    D. Guenter (2000). Ethical Considerations in International HIV Vaccine Trials: Summary of a Consultative Process Conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (1):37-43.
    Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered “developing” countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating (...)
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  28. Joel E. Cohen & Martin B. Malin (eds.) (2009). International Perspectives on the Goals of Universal Basic and Secondary Education. Routledge.
    Although universal schooling has been adopted as a goal by international organizations, bilateral aid agencies, national governments, and non-profit organizations, little sustained international attention has been devoted to the purposes or goals of universal education. What is universal primary and secondary education intended to accomplish? This book, which grew out of a project of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, offers views from Asia, Africa, Europe, North America and South America on the purposes of universal education (...)
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  29. Becca McBride (2016). The Globalization of Adoption: Individuals, States, and Agencies Across Borders. Cambridge University Press.
    This book expands our understanding of a growing, yet largely unstudied phenomenon: the flow of children across borders through intercountry adoption. What explains the spread of intercountry adoption through the international system over time? McBride investigates the interconnected networks of states, individuals, and adoption agencies that have collaborated to develop the practice of intercountry adoption we see today. This book tells the story of how adoption agencies mediate between individuals and states in two ways: first by teaching (...)
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  30.  45
    Keith Horton (2004). International Aid: The Fair Shares Factor. Social Theory and Practice 30 (2):161-174.
    Some philosophers have argued that relatively affluent individuals are morally obligated to give nearly all of their money to aid agencies. In this paper, I discuss one objection – the Fair Shares Objection – to this claim. Most philosophers who discuss this objection dismiss it quickly, by invoking comparison cases in which it seems clear that the relevant notion of fair shares has no deontological significance. Those who press the objection, on the other hand, tend to give that notion (...)
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  31.  5
    Jess Bonnan-White, Andrea Hightower & Ameena Issa (2013). Of Couscous and Occupation: A Case Study of Women's Motivations to Join and Participate in Palestinian Fair Trade Cooperatives. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):337-350.
    Economic opportunities and the status of women are mediated by socio-political structural factors, as well as cultural-specific norms and patterns of behavior. As consumers (and, in many cases, regulators) of resources at the household level, women are integral to the analysis of economic and political development. This paper examines the role of motivation and perception on women’s participation in Palestinian Fair Trade projects. In the occupied Palestinian Territories, Fair Trade projects have been recently introduced by both international agencies (...)
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  32.  5
    David P. Forsythe (1993). Choices More Ethical Than Legal: The International Committee of the Red Cross and Human Rights. Ethics and International Affairs 7 (1):131–151.
    ICRC has coordinated relief for victims who are ignored by the world, in more places than all the UN agencies combined. When law is silent, as often during war time it is, human rights policies must be built on ethical choice.
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  33.  17
    Vince W. Mitchell, George Balabanis, Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & T. Bettina Cornwell (2009). Measuring Unethical Consumer Behavior Across Four Countries. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):395 - 412.
    The huge amounts spent on store security and crime prevention worldwide, not only costs international businesses, but also amounts to a hidden tax on those law-binding consumers who bear higher prices. Most previous research has focused on shoplifting and ignored many other ways in which consumers cheat businesses. Using a hybrid of both qualitative research and survey approaches in four countries, an index of 37 activities was developed to examine consumers’ unethical activities across UK, US, France, and Austria. The (...)
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  34.  1
    Emma Avetisyan & Michel Ferrary (2013). Dynamics of Stakeholders' Implications in the Institutionalization of the CSR Field in France and in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (1):115-133.
    This study supports the idea that fields form around issues, and describes the roles of various stakeholders in the structuring, shaping, and legitimating of the emerging field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). A model of the institutional history of the CSR field is outlined, of which a key stage is the appearance of CSR rating agencies as the significant players and Institutional Entrepreneurs of the field. We show to which extent the creation and further development of CSR rating (...), and the activism of other significant stakeholders of the field (typically portrayed as “standard setters” and “regulatory agents”), contribute to the institutionalization of CSR. With this in mind, among various stakeholders that legitimate the field of CSR, we present the efforts of global and local stakeholders such as the European Union, the United Nations, the International Organization for Standardization, and governments and their interactions. We suggest that the different paths of CSR development and institutionalization in France and in the United States depend on the nature of local and global stakeholders’ involvement in this process and their interactions. (shrink)
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  35.  19
    David B. Resnik (2004). The Distribution of Biomedical Research Resources and International Justice. Developing World Bioethics 4 (1):42–57.
    ABSTRACTAccording to some estimates, less than 10% of the world's biomedical research funds are dedicated to addressing problems that are responsible for 90% of the world's burden of disease. This paper explains why this disparity exists and what should be done about it. It argues that the disparity exists because: 1) multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies do not regard research and development investments on the health problems of developing nations to be economically lucrative; and 2) governmental agencies that sponsor (...)
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  36.  16
    Peter Curwen (1994). The Ethics of International Trade. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (1):29-41.
    The measure proposed here, the ratio of the price reported in a given trade to the average world price for that commodity, is based on the average world price for a given commodity reported for all trades between the U.S. and all other countries for a given period. This new measure can be used to enable government agencies to identify trades between U.S. firms or individuals and their counterparts in other countries which are designed to further prohibited activities such (...)
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  37.  2
    Karen Paul, Simon Pak, John Zdanowicz & Peter Curwen (1994). The Ethics of International Trade: Use of Deviation From Average World Price to Indicate Possible Wrongdoing. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (1):29-41.
    The measure proposed here, the ratio of the price reported in a given trade to the average world price for that commodity, is based on the average world price for a given commodity reported for all trades between the U.S. and all other countries for a given period. This new measure can be used to enable government agencies to identify trades between U.S. firms or individuals and their counterparts in other countries which are designed to further prohibited activities such (...)
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  38.  3
    C. Colwell (2000). Agencies of the Body. International Studies in Philosophy 32 (4):13-22.
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  39. Gregory F. Treverton (1999). Assessments of U.S. And British Intelligence Gathering Intelligence Power in Peace and War, Michael Herman , 435 Pp., $59.95 Cloth. Secret Agencies: U.S. Intelligence in a Hostile World, Loch K. Johnson , 336 Pp., $16.00 Paper. [REVIEW] Ethics and International Affairs 13:245-247.
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  40.  13
    Thomas W. Pogge, The Hunger Games.
    Governments and their international agencies conceive of the eradication of hunger and poverty as a worthy wish that will eventually be realized through economic growth. They also make great cosmetic efforts to present as good-looking trend pictures as they can. Citizens ought to insist that the eradication of severe deprivations is a human rights correlative duty that permits no avoidable delay. Academics ought to collaborate toward providing a systematic alternative monitoring of what progress has really been made against (...)
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  41. Philip Pettit (2010). A Republican Law of Peoples. European Journal of Political Theory 9 (1):70-94.
    Assuming that states will remain a permanent feature of our world, what is the ideal that we should hold out for the international order? An attractive proposal is that those peoples that are already organized under non-dominating, representative states should pursue a twin goal: first, arrange things so that they each enjoy the republican ideal of freedom as non-domination in relation to one another and to other multi-national and international agencies; and second, do everything possible and productive (...)
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  42. Andrei Kortunov (2009). Russian Higher Education. Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (1):203-224.
    The paper gives an overview of the Russian higher education history, outlines its current state, the challenges and opportunities for its modernization in the nearest future. A special emphasis is made on the role of international cooperation in the higher education development and prospects for Russia’s integration into the global educational space. Andrei Kortunov is President of the Moscow based New Eurasia Foundation. He has managed a number of education-focused programs in Russia, working closely with governmental agencies, higher (...)
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  43.  7
    Eleanor R. E. O'Higgins (2006). Corruption, Underdevelopment, and Extractive Resource Industries: Addressing the Vicious Cycle. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):235-254.
    Abstract: The systemic role of corruption and its link to low human development is explored. The extractive resource industry is presented as an arena where conditions for corruption—monopoly and discretion without accountability—are especially intense. Corruption is maintained by a self-reinforcing cycle. Multiple stakeholders are involved in the maintenance of and/or opposition to the cycle: investing corporations, host country regimes and officials, inter-governmental bodies like the OECD, industry associations, non-governmental organization (NGO) watchdogs like Transparency International, and international agencies (...)
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  44. Paul B. Thompson (2010). Food Aid and the Famine Relief Argument (Brief Return). Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (3):209-227.
    Recent publications by Pogge ( Global ethics: seminal essays. St. Paul: Paragon House 2008 ) and by Singer ( The life you can save: acting now to end world poverty. New York: Random House 2009 ) have resuscitated a debate over the justifiability of famine relief between Singer and ecologist Garrett Hardin in the 1970s. Yet that debate concluded with a general recognition that (a) general considerations of development ethics presented more compelling ethical problems than famine relief; and (b) some (...)
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  45.  17
    Thomas Pogge (2006). Montréal Statement on the Human Right to Essential Medicines. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 16 (1):97-108.
    On September 30–October 2, 2005, a group of individuals drawn from civil society organizations, governments, international agencies, and academic institutions came together in Montréal, Québec, Canada, for an international workshop entitled “Human Rights and Access to Essential Medicines: The Way Forward.” At the conclusion of the workshop, we drafted the “Montréal Statement on the Human Right to Essential Medicines.” This “Statement” is reprinted at the end of this comment, which offers some background on the problem addressed at (...)
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  46. Patricia Illingworth, Thomas Pogge & Leif Wenar (eds.) (2012). Giving Well: The Ethics of Philanthropy. Oxford University Press Usa.
    So long as large segments of humanity are suffering chronic poverty and are dying from treatable diseases, organized giving can save or enhance millions of lives. With the law providing little guidance, ethics has a crucial role to play in ensuring that the philanthropic practices of individuals, foundations, NGOs, governments, and international agencies are morally sound and effective. In Giving Well: The Ethics of Philanthropy, an accomplished trio of editors bring together an international group of distinguished philosophers, (...)
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  47.  4
    Eleanor R. E. O'Higgins (2009). Corruption, Underdevelopment, and Extractive Resource Industries. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):235-254.
    The systemic role of corruption and its link to low human development is explored. The extractive resource industry is presented as anarena where conditions for corruption—monopoly and discretion without accountability—are especially intense. Corruption is maintainedby a self-reinforcing cycle. Multiple stakeholders are involved in the maintenance of and/or opposition to the cycle: investing corporations, host country regimes and officials, inter-governmental bodies like the OECD, industry associations, non-governmental organization watchdogs like Transparency International, and international agencies facilitating global investment like (...)
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  48.  16
    Reyes Calderón, José Luis Álvarez-Arce & Silvia Mayoral (2009). Corporation as a Crucial Ally Against Corruption. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):319 - 332.
    Manuscript type Empirical. Research question/issue This paper aims to contribute to an improved theoretical and empirical understanding of the role that corporation has to play in anticorruption efforts. Research findings/insights Using cross-country data from three databases (Bribe Payers Index, Corruption Perceptions Index, and Doing Business) we found that pro-bribery Investment Climate conditions in host countries are not related to the payments of bribes by multinational companies when these corporations operate abroad. Theoretical/academic implications After describing the conceptual and policy framework that (...)
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  49.  40
    Thomas Pogge (2009). Developing Morally Plausible Indices of Poverty and Gender Equity. Philosophical Topics 37 (2):199-221.
    Various indices are used to track poverty, development, and gender equity at the population level. Some of them—the UNDP’s Human and Gender-RelatedDevelopment Indices and the World Bank’s Poverty Index associated with the first Millennium Development Goal—have become highly influential. This paper argues that these prominent indices are deeply flawed and therefore distort our moral judgments and misguide resource allocations by governments, international agencies, and NGOs. Examination of these flaws reveals useful pointers toward developing better indices—though much interdisciplinary work (...)
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  50.  18
    Paul Komesaroff & Ian Kerridge (2014). Ebola, Ethics, and the Question of Culture. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):413-414.
    The Ebola virus disease epidemic in Western Africa has, in recent months, aroused growing alarm in Western countries. Attention has been drawn to the threat posed to the inhabitants of the region by what has undoubtedly become a major health emergency. As the death toll has mounted, increasingly strident calls for action have been voiced by nongovernmental organizations and international agencies active in the area, such as Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization and, more recently, even (...)
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