Search results for 'Interpretation of Probability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Federica Russo (2006). Salmon and Van Fraassen on the Existence of Unobservable Entities: A Matter of Interpretation of Probability. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 11 (3):221-247.score: 549.0
    A careful analysis of Salmon’s Theoretical Realism and van Fraassen’s Constructive Empiricism shows that both share a common origin: the requirement of literal construal of theories inherited by the Standard View. However, despite this common starting point, Salmon and van Fraassen strongly disagree on the existence of unobservable entities. I argue that their different ontological commitment towards the existence of unobservables traces back to their different views on the interpretation of probability via different conceptions of induction. In fact, (...)
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  2. Aris Spanos (2013). A Frequentist Interpretation of Probability for Model-Based Inductive Inference. Synthese 190 (9):1555-1585.score: 540.0
    The main objective of the paper is to propose a frequentist interpretation of probability in the context of model-based induction, anchored on the Strong Law of Large Numbers (SLLN) and justifiable on empirical grounds. It is argued that the prevailing views in philosophy of science concerning induction and the frequentist interpretation of probability are unduly influenced by enumerative induction, and the von Mises rendering, both of which are at odds with frequentist model-based induction that dominates current (...)
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  3. Louis Vervoort, The Concept of Probability in Physics: An Analytic Version of von Mises’ Interpretation.score: 531.0
    In the following we will investigate whether von Mises’ frequency interpretation of probability can be modified to make it philosophically acceptable. We will reject certain elements of von Mises’ theory, but retain others. In the interpretation we propose we do not use von Mises’ often criticized ‘infinite collectives’ but we retain two essential claims of his interpretation, stating that probability can only be defined for events that can be repeated in similar conditions, and that exhibit (...)
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  4. Mark A. Rubin (2003). Relative Frequency and Probability in the Everett Interpretation of Heisenberg-Picture Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 33 (3):379-405.score: 429.0
    The existence of probability in the sense of the frequency interpretation, i.e., probability as “long term relative frequency,” is shown to follow from the dynamics and the interpretational rules of Everett quantum mechanics in the Heisenberg picture. This proof is free of the difficulties encountered in applying to the Everett interpretation previous results regarding relative frequency and probability in quantum mechanics. The ontology of the Everett interpretation in the Heisenberg picture is also discussed.
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  5. Lennart Åqvist (2007). An Interpretation of Probability in the Law of Evidence Based on Pro-Et-Contra Argumentation. Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):391-410.score: 396.0
    The purpose of this paper is to improve on the logical and measure-theoretic foundations for the notion of probability in the law of evidence, which were given in my contributions Åqvist [ (1990) Logical analysis of epistemic modality: an explication of the Bolding–Ekelöf degrees of evidential strength. In: Klami HT (ed) Rätt och Sanning (Law and Truth. A symposium on legal proof-theory in Uppsala May 1989). Iustus Förlag, Uppsala, pp 43–54; (1992) Towards a logical theory of legal evidence: semantic (...)
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  6. Niall Shanks (1993). Time and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (2):293 - 302.score: 387.0
    The prime concern of this paper is with the nature of probability. It is argued that questions concerning the nature of probability are intimately linked to questions about the nature of time. The case study here concerns the single case propensity interpretation of probability. It is argued that while this interpretation of probability has a natural place in the quantum theory, the metaphysical picture of time to be found in relativity theory is incompatible with (...)
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  7. Marshall Abrams, Toward a Mechanistic Interpretation of Probability.score: 360.0
    I sketch a new objective interpretation of probability, called "mechanistic probability", and more specifically what I call "far-flung frequency (FFF) mechanistic probability". FFF mechanistic probability is defined in terms of facts about the causal structure of devices and certain sets of collections of frequencies in the actual world. The relevant kind of causal structure is a generalization of what Strevens (2003) calls microconstancy. Though defined partly in terms of frequencies, FFF mechanistic probability avoids many (...)
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  8. Isabelle Drouet & Francesca Merlin (forthcoming). The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability. Erkenntnis.score: 360.0
    The paper provides a new critical perspective on the propensity interpretation of fitness, by investigating its relationship to the propensity interpretation of probability. Two main conclusions are drawn. First, the claim that fitness is a propensity cannot be understood properly: fitness is not a propensity in the sense prescribed by the propensity interpretation of probability. Second, this interpretation of probability is inessential for explanations proposed by the propensity interpretation of fitness in evolutionary (...)
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  9. Jan Plato (1982). The Significance of the Ergodic Decomposition of Stationary Measures for the Interpretation of Probability. Synthese 53 (3):419-432.score: 358.0
    De Finetti's representation theorem is a special case of the ergodic decomposition of stationary probability measures. The problems of the interpretation of probabilities centred around de Finetti's theorem are extended to this more general situation. The ergodic decomposition theorem has a physical background in the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. Thereby the interpretations of probabilities in the cases of de Finetti's theorem and its generalization and in ergodic theory are systematically connected to each other.
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  10. Jan von Plato (1982). The Significance of the Ergodic Decomposition of Stationary Measures for the Interpretation of Probability. Synthese 53 (3):419 - 432.score: 358.0
    De Finetti's representation theorem is a special case of the ergodic decomposition of stationary probability measures. The problems of the interpretation of probabilities centred around de Finetti's theorem are extended to this more general situation. The ergodic decomposition theorem has a physical background in the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. Thereby the interpretations of probabilities in the cases of de Finetti's theorem and its generalization and in ergodic theory are systematically connected to each other.
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  11. Vincent Corbin & Neil J. Cornish (2009). Semi-Classical Limit and Minimum Decoherence in the Conditional Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 39 (5):474-485.score: 357.0
    The Conditional Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics replaces the abstract notion of time used in standard Quantum Mechanics by the time that can be read off from a physical clock. The use of physical clocks leads to apparent non-unitary and decoherence. Here we show that a close approximation to standard Quantum Mechanics can be recovered from conditional Quantum Mechanics for semi-classical clocks, and we use these clocks to compute the minimum decoherence predicted by the Conditional Probability (...). (shrink)
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  12. Niki Pfeifer (2008). A Probability Logical Interpretation of Fallacies. In G. Kreuzbauer, N. Gratzl & E. Hiebl (eds.), Rhetorische Wissenschaft: Rede Und Argumentation in Theorie Und Praxis. Lit. 225--244.score: 348.0
    This chapter presents a probability logical approach to fallacies. A special interpretation of (subjective) probability is used, which is based on coherence. Coherence provides not only a foundation of probability theory, but also a normative standard of reference for distinguishing fallacious from non-fallacious arguments. The violation of coherence is sufficient for an argument to be fallacious. The inherent uncertainty of everyday life argumentation is captured by attaching degrees of belief to the premises. Probability logic analyzes (...)
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  13. Carl G. Wagner (2007). The Smith-Walley Interpretation of Subjective Probability: An Appreciation. Studia Logica 86 (2):343 - 350.score: 348.0
    The right interpretation of subjective probability is implicit in the theories of upper and lower odds, and upper and lower previsions, developed, respectively, by Cedric Smith (1961) and Peter Walley (1991). On this interpretation you are free to assign contingent events the probability 1 (and thus to employ conditionalization as a method of probability revision) without becoming vulnerable to a weak Dutch book.
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  14. Craig Callender (2007). The Emergence and Interpretation of Probability in Bohmian Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (2):351-370.score: 336.0
    A persistent question about the deBroglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics concerns the understanding of Born’s rule in the theory. Where do the quantum mechanical probabilities come from? How are they to be interpreted? These are the problems of emergence and interpretation. In more than 50 years no consensus regarding the answers has been achieved. Indeed, mirroring the foundational disputes in statistical mechanics, the answers to each question are surprisingly diverse. This paper is an opinionated survey of this literature. (...)
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  15. Karl Popper (2010). A Propensity Interpretation of Probability. In Antony Eagle (ed.), Philosophy of Probability: Contemporary Readings. Routledge.score: 312.0
     
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  16. Amit Hagar & Giuseppe Sergioli (forthcoming). Counting Steps: A Finitist Interpretation of Objective Probability in Physics. Epistemologia.score: 303.0
    We propose a new interpretation of objective deterministic chances in statistical physics based on physical computational complexity. This notion applies to a single physical system (be it an experimental set--up in the lab, or a subsystem of the universe), and quantifies (1) the difficulty to realize a physical state given another, (2) the 'distance' (in terms of physical resources) from a physical state to another, and (3) the size of the set of time--complexity functions that are compatible with the (...)
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  17. Marshall Abrams (2012). Mechanistic Probability. Synthese 187 (2):343-375.score: 297.0
    I describe a realist, ontologically objective interpretation of probability, "far-flung frequency (FFF) mechanistic probability". FFF mechanistic probability is defined in terms of facts about the causal structure of devices and certain sets of frequencies in the actual world. Though defined partly in terms of frequencies, FFF mechanistic probability avoids many drawbacks of well-known frequency theories and helps causally explain stable frequencies, which will usually be close to the values of mechanistic probabilities. I also argue that (...)
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  18. U. Mohrhoff (2009). Objective Probability and Quantum Fuzziness. Foundations of Physics 39 (2):137-155.score: 297.0
    This paper offers a critique of the Bayesian interpretation of quantum mechanics with particular focus on a paper by Caves, Fuchs, and Schack containing a critique of the “objective preparations view” or OPV. It also aims to carry the discussion beyond the hardened positions of Bayesians and proponents of the OPV. Several claims made by Caves et al. are rebutted, including the claim that different pure states may legitimately be assigned to the same system at the same time, and (...)
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  19. Karl R. Popper (1959). The Propensity Interpretation of Probability. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 10 (37):25-42.score: 279.0
  20. Daniel Kahneman & Amos Tversky (1979). On the Interpretation of Intuitive Probability: A Reply to Jonathan Cohen. Cognition 7 (December):409-11.score: 279.0
  21. Alexei Grinbaum (2012). Which Fine-Tuning Arguments Are Fine? Foundations of Physics 42 (5):615-631.score: 279.0
    Fine-tuning arguments are a frequent find in the literature on quantum field theory. They are based on naturalness—an aesthetic criterion that was given a precise definition in the debates on the Higgs mechanism. We follow the history of such definitions and of their application at the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking. They give rise to a special interpretation of probability, which we call Gedankenfrequency. Finally, we show that the argument from naturalness has been extended to comparing different models (...)
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  22. Karl Popper (1974). Suppes's Criticism of the Propensity Interpretation of Probability and Quantum Mechanics. In P. A. Schlipp (ed.), The Philosophy of Karl Popper (Book Ii). Open Court. 1125-1139.score: 279.0
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  23. D. Sfendoni-Mentzou (1989). Popper's Propensities: An Ontological Interpretation of Probability in Imre Lakatos and Theories of Scientific Change. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 111:441-455.score: 279.0
     
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  24. Neal Grossman (1972). Quantum Mechanics and Interpretations of Probability Theory. Philosophy of Science 39 (4):451-460.score: 273.0
    Several philosophers of science have claimed that the conceptual difficulties of quantum mechanics can be resolved by appealing to a particular interpretation of probability theory. For example, Popper bases his treatment of quantum mechanics on the propensity interpretation of probability, and Margenau bases his treatment of quantum mechanics on the frequency interpretation of probability. The purpose of this paper is (i) to consider and reject such claims, and (ii) to discuss the question of whether (...)
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  25. Roberta L. Millstein (2003). Interpretations of Probability in Evolutionary Theory. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1317-1328.score: 273.0
    Evolutionary theory (ET) is teeming with probabilities. Probabilities exist at all levels: the level of mutation, the level of microevolution, and the level of macroevolution. This uncontroversial claim raises a number of contentious issues. For example, is the evolutionary process (as opposed to the theory) indeterministic, or is it deterministic? Philosophers of biology have taken different sides on this issue. Millstein (1997) has argued that we are not currently able answer this question, and that even scientific realists ought to remain (...)
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  26. Arthur Fine (1973). Probability and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):1-37.score: 270.0
  27. Glenn Shafer (1983). A Subjective Interpretation of Conditional Probability. Journal of Philosophical Logic 12 (4):453 - 466.score: 270.0
  28. Peter Milne (1986). Can There Be a Realist Single-Case Interpretation of Probability? Erkenntnis 25 (2):129 - 132.score: 270.0
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  29. Manfred Kraus (2010). Perelman's Interpretation of Reverse Probability Arguments as a Dialectical Mise En Abyme. Philosophy and Rhetoric 43 (4):362-382.score: 270.0
    Imagine the following situation: an act of violent assault has been committed. And there are only two possible suspects, of which one is a small and weak man and the other a big and strong man. The weak man will plead that he is not strong enough and therefore not likely to have committed the crime, which seems reasonable straight away. But there will also be a loophole for the strong man, as Aristotle tells us, who reports exactly that story (...)
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  30. L. Jonathan Cohen (1982). Are People Programmed to Commit Fallacies? Further Thoughts About the Interpretation of Experimental Data on Probability Judgment. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 12 (3):251–274.score: 270.0
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  31. E. Beth (1946). On the Interpretation of Probability Calculi Ernest Nagel. Synthese 5 (1-2):92-95.score: 270.0
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  32. Ernest Nagel (1946). On the Interpretation of Probability Calculi Ernest Nagel. Synthese 5 (1/2):92 - 93.score: 270.0
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  33. Karl R. Popper (1957). The Propensity Interpretation of the Calculus of Probability, and the Quantum Theory. In Stephan Körner (ed.), Observation and Interpretation. Butterworths. 65--70.score: 270.0
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  34. Lev Vaidman (2012). Probability in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. In. In Yemima Ben-Menahem & Meir Hemmo (eds.), Probability in Physics. Springer. 299--311.score: 270.0
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  35. Peter Clark (2001). Statistical Mechanics and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability. In Jean Bricmont & Others (eds.), Chance in Physics: Foundations and Perspectives. Springer. 271--81.score: 270.0
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  36. Ryota Morimoto (2009). Interpretation of Probability in Evolutionary Theory. Kagaku Tetsugaku 42 (1):83-96.score: 270.0
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  37. László E. Szabó (2007). Objective Probability-Like Things with and Without Objective Indeterminism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (3):626-634.score: 267.0
    I shall argue that there is no such property of an event as its “probability.” This is why standard interpretations cannot give a sound definition in empirical terms of what “probability” is, and this is why empirical sciences like physics can manage without such a definition. “Probability” is a collective term, the meaning of which varies from context to context: it means different — dimensionless [0, 1]-valued — physical quantities characterising the different particular situations. In other words, (...)
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  38. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2008). On the Proximity of the Logical and 'Objective Bayesian' Interpretations of Probability. Erkenntnis 69 (3):335-349.score: 264.0
    In his Bayesian Nets and Causality, Jon Williamson presents an ‘Objective Bayesian’ interpretation of probability, which he endeavours to distance from the logical interpretation yet associate with the subjective interpretation. In doing so, he suggests that the logical interpretation suffers from severe epistemological problems that do not affect his alternative. In this paper, I present a challenge to his analysis. First, I closely examine the relationship between the logical and ‘Objective Bayesian’ views, and show how, (...)
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  39. Meir Hemmo & Itamar Pitowsky (2003). Probability and Nonlocality in Many Minds Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):225-243.score: 255.0
    We argue that certain types of many minds (and many worlds) interpretations of quantum mechanics, e.g. Lockwood ([1996a]), Deutsch ([1985]) do not provide a coherent interpretation of the quantum mechanical probabilistic algorithm. By contrast, in Albert and Loewer's ([1988]) version of the many minds interpretation, there is a coherent interpretation of the quantum mechanical probabilities. We consider Albert and Loewer's probability interpretation in the context of Bell-type and GHZ-type states and argue that it implies a (...)
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  40. Itamar Pitowsky (2003). Probability and Nonlocality in Many Minds Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):225 - 243.score: 255.0
    We argue that certain types of many minds (and many worlds) interpretations of quantum mechanics, e.g. Lockwood ([1996a]), Deutsch ([1985]) do not provide a coherent interpretation of the quantum mechanical probabilistic algorithm. By contrast, in Albert and Loewer's ([1988]) version of the many minds interpretation, there is a coherent interpretation of the quantum mechanical probabilities. We consider Albert and Loewer's probability interpretation in the context of Bell-type and GHZ-type states and argue that it implies a (...)
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  41. Dennis Dieks (2007). Probability in Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (2):292-310.score: 255.0
    Modal interpretations have the ambition to construe quantum mechanics as an objective, man-independent description of physical reality. Their second leading idea is probabilism: quantum mechanics does not completely fix physical reality but yields probabilities. In working out these ideas an important motif is to stay close to the standard formalism of quantum mechanics and to refrain from introducing new structure by hand. In this paper we explain how this programme can be made concrete. In particular, we show that the Born (...)
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  42. Lina Eriksson & Wlodek Rabinowicz (2013). The Interference Problem for the Betting Interpretation of Degrees of Belief. Synthese 190 (5):809-830.score: 255.0
    The paper’s target is the historically influential betting interpretation of subjective probabilities due to Ramsey and de Finetti. While there are several classical and well-known objections to this interpretation, the paper focuses on just one fundamental problem: There is a sense in which degrees of belief cannot be interpreted as betting rates. The reasons differ in different cases, but there’s one crucial feature that all these cases have in common: The agent’s degree of belief in a proposition A (...)
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  43. Philip Pearle (2013). Chronogenesis, Cosmogenesis and Collapse. Foundations of Physics 43 (6):747-768.score: 252.0
    A simple quantum model describing the onset of time is presented. This is combined with a simple quantum model of the onset of space. A major purpose is to explore the interpretational issues which arise. The state vector is a superposition of states representing different “instants.” The sample space and probability measure are discussed. Critical to the dynamics is state vector collapse: it is argued that a tenable interpretation is not possible without it. Collapse provides a mechanism whereby (...)
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  44. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2013). Group Level Interpretations of Probability: New Directions. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 94 (2):188-203.score: 250.7
    In this article, I present some new group level interpretations of probability, and champion one in particular: a consensus-based variant where group degrees of belief are construed as agreed upon betting quotients rather than shared personal degrees of belief. One notable feature of the account is that it allows us to treat consensus between experts on some matter as being on the union of their relevant background information. In the course of the discussion, I also introduce a novel distinction (...)
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  45. William Michael Dickson (1998). Quantum Chance and Non-Locality: Probability and Non-Locality in the Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. Cambridge University Press.score: 246.0
    This book examines in detail two of the fundamental questions raised by quantum mechanics. First, is the world indeterministic? Second, are there connections between spatially separated objects? In the first part, the author examines several interpretations, focusing on how each proposes to solve the measurement problem and on how each treats probability. In the second part, the relationship between probability (specifically determinism and indeterminism) and non-locality is examined, and it is argued that there is a non-trivial relationship between (...)
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  46. Lepša Vušković, Dušan Arsenović & Mirjana Božić (2002). Non-Classical Behavior of Atoms in an Interferometer. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1329-1346.score: 234.0
    Using the time-dependent wave function we have studied the properties of the atomic transverse motion in an interferometer, and the cause of the non-classical behavior of atoms reported by Kurtsiefer, Pfau, and Mlynek [Nature 386, 150 (1997)]. The transverse wave function is derived from the solution of the two-dimensional Schrödinger's equation, written in the form of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral. It is assumed that the longitudinal motion is classical. Comparing data of the space distribution and of the transverse momentum distribution (...)
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  47. Rolando Chuaqui (1991). Truth, Possibility and Probability: New Logical Foundations of Probability and Statistical Inference Vol. 166. Access Online Via Elsevier.score: 234.0
    This unique book presents a new interpretation of probability, rooted in the traditional interpretation that was current in the 17th and 18th centuries.
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  48. Max Charlesworth (2012). Translating Religious Texts. Sophia 51 (4):423-448.score: 231.0
    Certain philosophical problems occur in biblical interpretations where concepts that belong to the scriptural world – full of references to demonic forces and miraculous events including raisings from the dead – have to be translated into meaningful concepts in our twenty-first-century western world. A crucial issue that arises is that any interpretation of a text can, at best, be probable and can never be absolutely final and certain. This in turn has implications for the act of faith that any (...)
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  49. A. J. B. Fugard, Niki Pfeifer, B. Mayerhofer & G. D. Kleiter (2011). How People Interpret Conditionals: Shifts Towards the Conditional Event. Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (3):635-648.score: 228.0
    We investigated how people interpret conditionals and how stable their interpretation is over a long series of trials. Participants were shown the colored patterns on each side of a six-sided die, and were asked how sure they were that a conditional holds of the side landing upwards when the die is randomly thrown. Participants were presented with 71 trials consisting of all combinations of binary dimensions of shape (e.g., circles and squares) and color (e.g., blue and red) painted onto (...)
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