Search results for 'Irma Alm' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  14
    Irma Alm (1994). Simulating Human Cognition: A Ghost Story. [REVIEW] AI and Society 8 (1):78-84.
    The intentions to simulate human cognition are permanently increasing. Nonetheless, our knowledge about human cognition is based on fragments of different points of view. Hence, it is necessary to examine which demands these points of view make on technologies aiming at simulating human cognition. In this paper it is argued that no technology can function beyond the cognitive abilities of its constructor. It seems that the cognitive limits and constrains of the constructor will also be implanted in the technologies. It (...)
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  2.  5
    Margit Alm (2014). Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? [Book Review]. Australian Humanist, The 114:23.
    Alm, Margit Review of: Countdown: Our last, best hope for a future on earth?, by Alan Weisman, First Published in the US by Little, Brown and Company, Hachette Book Group ISBN 978-1-4087-0267-3.
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  3. D. Alm (2000). Sorting Out Ethics. Philosophical Review 109 (1):122-124.
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  4.  69
    James Alm & Benno Torgler (2011). Do Ethics Matter? Tax Compliance and Morality. Journal of Business Ethics 101 (4):635-651.
    In this article we argue that puzzle of tax compliance can be explained, at least in part, by recognizing the typically neglected role of ethics in individual behavior; that is, individuals do not always behave as the selfish, rational, self-interested individuals portrayed in the standard neoclassical paradigm, but rather are often motivated by many other factors that have as their main foundation some aspects of “ethics.” We argue that it is not possible to understand fully an individual’s compliance decisions without (...)
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  5.  17
    Kristian Alm (2007). Challenges to Investment Ethics in the Norwegian Petroleum Fund: A Newspaper Debate. Philosophica 80 (2):21-43.
    In this article I will describe the main elements of the Norwegian press’s moral confrontation with the Government Pension Fund’s ethical investment management when it was in an introductory phase in early 2005, with special emphasis on one newspaper, Stavanger Aftenblad. The press criticized the fund’s fresh investment profile and intended exclusionary practice before it had really started in earnest. Then I will focus on how the press’s unilateral criticism of the fund’s investment practice at the time overshadowed a discussion (...)
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  6.  22
    David Alm (2013). Self-Defense, Punishment and Forfeiture. Criminal Justice Ethics 32 (2):91-107.
    According to the self-defense view, the moral justification of punishment is derived from the moral justification of an earlier threat of punishment for an offense. According to the forfeiture view, criminals can justly be punished because they have forfeited certain rights in virtue of their crimes. The paper defends three theses about these two views. (1) The self-defense view is false because the right to threaten retaliation is not independent of the right to carry out that threat. (2) A more (...)
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  7.  34
    David Alm (2000). Moral Conditionals, Noncognitivism, and Meaning. Southern Journal of Philosophy 38 (3):355-377.
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  8.  42
    David Alm (2008). Consequentialism and the Autonomy of the Deontic. Utilitas 20 (2):199-216.
    I distinguish between two forms of consequentialism: reductionist and anti-reductionist. Reductionist consequentialism holds that the deontic properties of rightness and wrongness are identical with the axiological properties of optimality and suboptimality, respectively. Anti-reductionist consequentialism denies this identification, hence accepting what I call the autonomy of the deontic. In this article I ignore reductionist consequentialism. Instead I argue that anti-reductionist consequentialism is deeply problematic or even incoherent. Simply put, the main point is that the criterion of rightness of any ethical theory (...)
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  9.  40
    David Alm (2011). Equality and Comparative Justice. Inquiry 53 (4):309-325.
    In this paper I criticize the standard argument for deontological egalitarianism, understood as the thesis that there is a moral claim to have an equal share of well-being or whatever other good counts. That argument is based on the idea that equals should be treated equally. I connect the debate over egalitarianism with that over comparative justice. A common theme is a general skepticism against comparative claims. I argue (i) that there can be no claim to equality based simply on (...)
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  10.  87
    David Alm (2008). Contractualism, Reciprocity, Compensation. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (3):1-23.
    Two generally recognized moral duties are to reciprocate benefits one has received from others and to compensate harms one has done to others. In this paper I want to show that it is not possible to give an adequate account of either duty – or at least one that corresponds to our actual practices – within a contractualist moral theory of the type developed by T. M. Scanlon (1982, 1998). This fact is interesting in its own right, as contractualism is (...)
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  11.  5
    Kristian Alm (2015). Chains of Trust or Control? A Stakeholder Dilemma. Journal of Business Ethics Education 12:53-76.
    This paper discusses trust between stakeholders, with special emphasis on a new theory from the social sciences and ends up by focusing on a multidimensional dilemma between trust and control. Harald Grimen, an influential philosopher, social scientist and ethicist in Norway, defined trust as a communicative action between a trust-giver and a trust-receiver, characterized by the giver taking few precautions. This first part of his theory provides the basis for a specified interpretation of trust as a collective undertaking among stakeholders (...)
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  12.  43
    David Alm (2007). Non-Cognitivism and Validity. Theoria 73 (2):121-147.
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  13.  19
    David Alm (2009). Deontological Restrictions and the Good/Bad Asymmetry. Journal of Moral Philosophy 6 (4):464-481.
    I argue that a defense of deontological restrictions need not resort to what I call the 'Good/Bad asymmetry', according to which it is morally more important to avoid harming others than to prevent just such harm. I replace this paradoxical asymmetry with two non-paradoxical ones. These are the following: We ought to treat an act of preventing harm to persons precisely as such , rather than as the causing of a benefit; but we ought to treat an act that causes (...)
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  14.  42
    David Alm (2011). Defending Fundamental Requirements of Practical Reason. Journal of Philosophical Research 36:77-102.
    In this paper I offer a partial defense of a constitutivist view according to which it is possible to defend fundamental requirements of practical reason by appeal to facts about what is constitutive of rational agency. I show how it is possible for that approach to circumvent the ‘is’/’ought’ problem as well as the requirement that it be possible to act contrary to practical reason. But I do not attempt to establish any particular fundamental requirement. The key ideas are that (...)
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  15.  31
    David Alm (2010). Desert and Aggregation. Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (2):156-177.
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  16.  24
    David Alm (2004). Atomism About Value. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (2):312 – 331.
    Atomism is defined as the view that the moral value of any object is ultimately determined by simple features whose contribution to the value of an object is always the same, independently of context. A morally fundamental feature, in a given context, is defined as one whose contribution in that context is determined by no other value fact. Three theses are defended, which together entail atomism: (1) All objects have their moral value ultimately in virtue of morally fundamental features; (2) (...)
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  17.  44
    David Alm (2011). Promises, Rights and Claims. Law and Philosophy 30 (1):51-76.
    The paper argues that promise rights presuppose independently existing (if not pre-existing) claims. The argument relies on the Bifurcation Thesis, according to which all claims, and all rights, can be exhaustively divided into two categories: capacity based and exercise based.
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  18.  47
    David Alm (2010). Desert and the Control Asymmetry. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):361 - 375.
    According to what we could call the "liberal" theory of distributive justice, people do not deserve the money they are able to make in the market for contributing to the economy. Yet the standard arguments for that view, which center on the fact that persons have very limited control over the size of their contributions, would also seem to imply that persons cannot deserve admiration, appreciation, esteem, praise and so on for these and other contributions. The control asymmetry is this: (...)
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  19.  29
    David Alm (2008). Deontological Restrictions and the Self/Other Asymmetry. Noûs 42 (4):642-672.
    This paper offers a partial justification of so-called "deontological restrictions." Specifically it defends the "self/other asymmetry," that we are morally obligated to treat our own agency, and thus its results, as specially important. The argument rests on a picture of moral obligation of a broadly Kantian sort. In particular, it rests on the basic normative assumption that our fundamental obligations are determined by the principles which a rational being as such would follow. These include principles which it is not essential (...)
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  20.  17
    David Alm (2013). Manipulation, Responsibility and Rights. Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (1-2):1-15.
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  21.  17
    David Alm (2007). An Argument for Agent-Neutral Value. Ratio 20 (3):249–263.
    This paper argues that to any agent‐relative value maker there will correspond an agent‐neutral value maker, and the latter explains the former; and that to each agent‐relative constitutive ground there corresponds a neutral one, and the latter explains the former. It follows from , if not from , that agent‐neutral value exists if agent‐relative value does.
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  22.  7
    David Alm (2014). Is There a Claim to Deserved Punishment? Southern Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):403-425.
    In this paper I defend the view that persons have a claim to deserved treatment, including many forms of punishment, against an objection resting on the principle that it is not possible to have a claim to harmful treatment. I do not challenge this principle, but argue, rather, that the harms wrongdoers typically deserve either (a) are not genuine harms at all (for reasons relevant to their being deserved) or (b) are not relevant to the content of these wrongdoers' claims.
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  23.  4
    David Alm (2008). Add This Link. Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (2).
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  24.  3
    Jos Leys, Bert Scholtens, Henry Schäfer, Wim Vandekerckhove, Kristian Alm & Silvana Signori (2011). Post Scripta–An Owl's View. In Wim Vandekerckhove, Jos Leys, Kristian Alm, Bert Scholtens, Silvana Signori & Henry Schäfer (eds.), Responsible Investment in Times of Turmoil. Springer 221.
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  25. Magnus Alm & Dawn Behne (2015). Do Gender Differences in Audio-Visual Benefit and Visual Influence in Audio-Visual Speech Perception Emerge with Age? Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  26. Kylie H. Alm, Tyler Rolheiser, Feroze B. Mohamed & Ingrid R. Olson (2015). Fronto-Temporal White Matter Connectivity Predicts Reversal Learning Errors. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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  27. David Alm, On an Apparent Asymmetry in Attitude Desert.
    It is possible for persons to deserve evaluative attitudes such as admiration and disdain. There is an apparent asymmetry between positive and negative attitudes, however. While the latter appear to be subject to what I will call a "control requirement," the former do not appear to be so subject. I attempt to explain away this asymmetry by appeal to pragmatic factors.
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  28. David Alm (2015). Responsibility, Manipulation, and Resentment. Social Theory and Practice 41 (2):253-274.
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  29. David Alm, Subjectivism, Ethical.
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  30. Ilza Mara Lima (2013). O cemitério como espaço devocional: um estudo sobre a devoção a Irmã Benigna (The cemetery as devotional space: a study about the devotion to sister Benigna). Horizonte 11 (29):381-402.
    Este artigo pretende analisar os cemitérios como espaço de múltiplas devoções, dentre elas as devoções marginais: as diversas formas com as quais as pessoas cultuam seus mortos, através de seus túmulos. As devoções que são manifestadas perante esses túmulos dentro dos cemitérios demonstram esta prática de fé, que se denomina de devoção marginal. Pessoas comuns que após a morte, ganham a veneração de fieis que lhe pedem a interseção junto ao sagrado, são cultuadas como milagreiras. Após o pedido realizado, o (...)
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  31.  13
    J. D. Beazley (1945). Kouroi Kouroi. A Study of the Development of the Greek Kouros From the Late Seventh to the Early Fifth Century B.C. By Gisela M. A. Richter, with the Co-Operation of Irma A. Richter; with 208 Photographs by Gerard M. Young. Pp. Xxi+428; 135 Plates (483 Figures). New York: Oxford University Press (London: Milford), 1942. Cloth, 84s. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 59 (02):71-73.
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  32.  5
    Wienerm Norbert (2005). Carta de Norbert Wiener a sua irmã Bertha sobre o encontro com Einstein. Scientiae Studia 3 (4):635-639.
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  33.  6
    D. C. Kurtz (1985). Attic White Vases Irma Wehgartner: Attische Weissgrundige Keramik. Pp. Xii + 239; 4 Colour Plates, 54 in Black and White. Mainz: Von Zabern, 1983. DM. 180. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 35 (02):341-343.
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  34.  1
    George Sarton (1944). The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci by Leonardo da Vinci; Jean Paul Richter; Irma A. Richter; The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci by Edward MacCurdy. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 35:184-187.
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  35.  2
    Roger Dahood (1996). Saara Nevanlinna and Irma Taavitsainen, Eds., St Katherine of Alexandria: The Late Middle English Prose Legend in Southwell Minster MS 7. Woodbridge, Suffolk; and Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer; Helsinki: Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, 1993. Pp. Xiii, 160; Black-and-White Frontispiece. $53. [REVIEW] Speculum 71 (3):743-745.
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  36. Christopher Brighton (1970). "Joseph Stella": Irma B. Jaffe. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 10 (4):398.
     
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  37. Amy C. Crumpton (2002). Leslie R. Alm.Crossing Borders, Crossing Boundaries: The Role of Scientists in the U.S. Acid Rain Debate. X + 147 Pp., Tables, Bibl., Index. Westport, Conn./London: Praeger Publishers, 2000. $50. [REVIEW] Isis 93 (2):349-350.
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  38. Roger Dahood (1996). St. Katherine of Alexandria: The Late Middle English Prose Legend in Southwell Minster MS 7.Saara Nevanlinna Irma Taavitsainen. Speculum 71 (3):743-745.
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  39. David Herlihy (1978). Le comunità di valle in epoca signorile: L'evoluzione della comunità di Valcamonica durante la dominazione viscontea Irma Valetti Bonini. Speculum 53 (2):343-344.
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  40. José Ferrater Mora (1959). Morris Charles W.. Fundamentos de la Teoria de Los Signos. Translated by Alvarez Obdulia, Santi Marta and Zangara Irma, Revised by Bunge Mario. Suplementos Del Seminario de Problemas Científicos y Filosóficos, Ser. 2 No. 12. Universidad Nacional de México, Mexico City 1958, Pp. 31–83. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (1):92-93.
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  41. Alvaro Pelayo (2007). DasMoralium Dogma Philosophorum des Guillaumede Conches, Ed. By John Holmberg (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells, 1929) Prefatio de Alm Aria, Ed. By Juan Gil (CCCM, 71, Pp. 249-67) Primera Crdnica General: Estoria de España Que Mandd Componer Alfonso El Sabio y Se Continuaba Bajo Sancho IVen 1289, Ed. By Ramón Menindez Pidal (Madrid: Bailly-Bailliére, 1906). [REVIEW] In István Pieter Bejczy & Cary J. Nederman (eds.), Princely Virtues in the Middle Ages, 1200-1500. Marston, Distributor] 9--281.
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  42. Jacqueline Sudaka (1982). Un songe (me devrais-je inquiéter d'un songe?) ou l'injection d'Irma. Studia Semiotyczne 12:35-46.
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  43. Scott D. Westrem (1993). Imagining the New World: Columbian Iconography.Irma B. Jaffe Gianni Eugenio Viola Franca RovigattiThe Age of the Marvelous.Joy Kenseth. [REVIEW] Speculum 68 (3):812-816.
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  44.  9
    Donna D. Bobek, Amy M. Hageman & Charles F. Kelliher (2013). Analyzing the Role of Social Norms in Tax Compliance Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):451-468.
    The purpose of this study is to explore with more rigor and detail the role of social norms in tax compliance. This study draws on Cialdini and Trost’s (The Handbook of Social Psychology: Oxford University Press, Boston, MA, 1998) taxonomy of social norms to investigate with more specificity this potentially decisive (Alm and McKee, Managerial and Decision Economics, 19:259–275, 1998) influence on tax compliance. We test our research hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect influences of social norms using a hypothetical (...)
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  45.  3
    Irma M. Hein, Pieter W. Troost, Robert Lindeboom, Marc A. Benninga, C. M. Zwaan, Johannes B. Van Goudoever & Ramón J. L. Lindauer (2015). Key Factors in Children’s Competence to Consent to Clinical Research. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):74.
    Although law is established on a strong presumption that persons younger than a certain age are not competent to consent, statutory age limits for asking children’s consent to clinical research differ widely internationally. From a clinical perspective, competence is assumed to involve many factors including the developmental stage, the influence of parents and peers, and life experience. We examined potential determining factors for children’s competence to consent to clinical research and to what extent they explain the variation in competence judgments.
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  46.  31
    Donna D. Bobek, Robin W. Roberts & John T. Sweeney (2007). The Social Norms of Tax Compliance: Evidence From Australia, Singapore, and the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):49 - 64.
    Tax compliance is a concern to governments around the world. Prior research (Alm, J. and I. Sanchez: 1995, KYKLOS 48, 3–19) has attributed unexplained inter-country differences in compliance rates to differences in social norms. Economics researchers studying tax compliance in the United States (U.S.) (see for example J. Andreoni et al.: 1998, Journal of Economic Literature 36, 818–860) have called for more attention to social (as opposed to economic) influences on tax compliance. In this study, we extend this prior research (...)
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  47.  6
    Irma M. Hein, Pieter W. Troost, Alice Broersma, Martine C. De Vries, Joost G. Daams & Ramón J. L. Lindauer (2015). Why is It Hard to Make Progress in Assessing Children’s Decision-Making Competence? BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1.
    For decades, the discussion on children’s competence to consent to medical issues has concentrated around normative concerns, with little progress in clinical practices. Decision-making competence is an important condition in the informed consent model. In pediatrics, clinicians need to strike a proper balance in order to both protect children’s interests when they are not fully able to do so themselves and to respect their autonomy when they are. Children’s competence to consent, however, is currently not assessed in a standardized way. (...)
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  48.  2
    Irma Niurka Falcón Fariñas, Aylín Nordelo Valdivia, Odalys Escalante Padrón & Ana C. Campal Espinosa (2016). Social aspects of the application of the Heberprot-P in the Angiology service at Manuel Ascunce Domenech Hospital. Humanidades Médicas 16 (1):98-114.
    En la actualidad Cuba desarrolla un Programa de Atención Integral al Paciente con Úlcera de Pie Diabético mediante el uso del Heberprot-P, esencial para disminuir la amputación y la discapacidad. El trabajo tiene el objetivo de realizar un diagnóstico sobre la aplicación del Heberprot-P en el Servicio de Angiología del Hospital Provincial Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech de Camagüey. Se realizaron encuestas a pacientes para identificar necesidades sentidas relacionadas con el tratamiento y para las actitudes manifiestas, y se hicieron entrevistas al (...)
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  49.  39
    Irma van der Ploeg (1999). The Illegal Body: `Eurodac' and the Politics of Biometric Identification. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 1 (4):295-302.
    Biometrics is often described as `the next big thingin information technology'. Rather than IT renderingthe body irrelevant to identity – a mistaken idea tobegin with – the coupling of biometrics with ITunequivocally puts the body center stage. The questions to be raised about biometrics is howbodies will become related to identity, and what thenormative and political ramifications of this couplingwill be. Unlike the body rendered knowable in thebiomedical sciences, biometrics generates a readable body: it transforms the body's surfaces andcharacteristics into (...)
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  50.  18
    James Hopkins (1982). Introduction: Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. In Richard Wollheim & James Hopkins (eds.), Philosophical Essays on Freud. Cambridge University Press
    This (1982) essay sets out the claim that psychoanalysis is a cogent extension of the intuitive common sense psychology by which we naturally understand human action. In this psychology explanation proceeds by relating actions to the logically and causally cohering desires and beliefs of agents. As Freud showed, this kind of explanation is systematically deepened and extended by the explanation of dreams, the symptoms of mental disorder, and other related phenomena via the Freudian concept of wish fulfilment, which was later (...)
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