Search results for 'Irreversible brain interventions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Frederic Gilbert, Alexander R. Harris & Robert M. I. Kapsa (2012). Efficacy Testing as a Primary Purpose of Phase 1 Clinical Trials: Is It Applicable to First-in-Human Bionics and Optogenetics Trials? AJOB Neuroscience 3 (2):20-22.score: 261.0
    In her article, Pascale Hess raises the issue of whether her proposed model may be extrapolated and applied to clinical research fields other than stem cell-based interventions in the brain (SCBI-B) (Hess 2012). Broadly summarized, Hess’s model suggests prioritizing efficacy over safety in phase 1 trials involving irreversible interventions in the brain, when clinical criteria meet the appropriate population suffering from “degenerative brain diseases” (Hess 2012). Although there is a need to reconsider the traditional (...)
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  2. Nicole A. Vincent (2014). Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions. Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):43-50.score: 209.3
    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of “neurolaw”—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as well as their answers and (...)
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  3. Nicole A. Vincent (2014). Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions. Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):43-50.score: 209.3
    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of “neurolaw”—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as well as their answers and (...)
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  4. Nicole A. Vincent (2014). Restoring Responsibility: Promoting Justice, Therapy and Reform Through Direct Brain Interventions. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):21-42.score: 192.0
    Direct brain intervention based mental capacity restoration techniques—for instance, psycho-active drugs—are sometimes used in criminal cases to promote the aims of justice. For instance, they might be used to restore a person’s competence to stand trial in order to assess the degree of their responsibility for what they did, or to restore their competence for punishment so that we can hold them responsible for it. Some also suggest that such interventions might be used for therapy or reform in (...)
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  5. Elizabeth Shaw (2014). Direct Brain Interventions and Responsibility Enhancement. Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):1-20.score: 168.0
    Advances in neuroscience might make it possible to develop techniques for directly altering offenders’ brains, in order to make offenders more responsible and law-abiding. The idea of using such techniques within the criminal justice system can seem intuitively troubling, even if they were more effective in preventing crime than traditional methods of rehabilitation. One standard argument against this use of brain interventions is that it would undermine the individual’s free will. This paper maintains that ‘free will’ (at least, (...)
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  6. S. Holm (2004). Irreversible Bodily Interventions in Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (3):237-237.score: 140.0
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  7. J. M. Fleming & T. Ownsworth (2006). A Review of Awareness Interventions in Brain Injury Rehabilitation. [REVIEW] Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 16 (4):474-500.score: 132.0
  8. Antoine Baumann, Frederique Claudot, Gerard Audibert, Paul-Michel Mertes & Louis Puybasset (2011). The Ethical and Legal Aspects of Palliative Sedation in Severely Brain Injured Patients: A French Perspective. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6 (1):4-.score: 132.0
    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment (...)
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  9. H. Madder (2012). Treatment Interventions for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Limited Evidence, Choice Limitations. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):662-663.score: 120.0
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  10. Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor (2009). Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.score: 70.0
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea (i.e., brain death) with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism (locked-in syndrome), minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain death (...)
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  11. Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Giuseppe Galardi (2013). Emerging From an Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: Brain Plasticity has to Cross a Threshold Level. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37 (10):2721-2736.score: 66.0
    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state) occurs after patients survive a severe brain injury. Patients suffering from UWS have lost awareness of themselves and of the external environment and do not retain any trace of their subjective experience. Current data demonstrate that neuronal functions subtending consciousness are not completely reset in UWS; however, they are reduced below the threshold required to experience consciousness. The critical factor that determines whether patients will recover consciousness is the distance of (...)
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  12. Dominik Groß (2009). Blessing or Curse? Neurocognitive Enhancement by “Brain Engineering”. Medicine Studies 1 (4):379-391.score: 66.0
    PurposeSince the 1980s we have witnessed a soaring “extra-therapeutic” use of psycho-pharmacology. But there is also an increasing interest in invasive methods of neuroenhancement that can be subsumed under the term “brain engineering”. The present article aims to identify key issues raised by those forms of neuro-technical enhancement (e.g., deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, memory chips, neurobionic interventions). First it distinguishes different forms of neuroenhancement, then describes features of those methods and finally discusses their ethical implications.MethodsThe (...)
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  13. D. Rodríguez-Arias, J. C. Tortosa, C. J. Burant, P. Aubert, M. P. Aulisio & S. J. Youngner (2013). One or Two Types of Death? Attitudes of Health Professionals Towards Brain Death and Donation After Circulatory Death in Three Countries. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):457-467.score: 66.0
    This study examined health professionals’ (HPs) experience, beliefs and attitudes towards brain death (BD) and two types of donation after circulatory death (DCD)—controlled and uncontrolled DCD. Five hundred and eighty-seven HPs likely to be involved in the process of organ procurement were interviewed in 14 hospitals with transplant programs in France, Spain and the US. Three potential donation scenarios—BD, uncontrolled DCD and controlled DCD—were presented to study subjects during individual face-to-face interviews. Our study has two main findings: (1) In (...)
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  14. [deleted]Brian Levine, Tom A. Schweizer, Charlene O'Connor, Gary Turner, Susan Gillingham, Donald T. Stuss, Tom Manly & Ian H. Robertson (2011). Rehabilitation of Executive Functioning in Patients with Frontal Lobe Brain Damage with Goal Management Training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 66.0
    Executive functioning deficits due to brain disease affecting frontal lobe functions cause significant real-life disability, yet solid evidence in support of executive functioning interventions is lacking. Goal Management Training (GMT), an executive functioning intervention that draws upon theories concerning goal processing and sustained attention, has received empirical support in studies of patients with traumatic brain injury, normal aging, and case studies. GMT promotes a mindful approach to complex real-life tasks that pose problems for patients with executive functioning (...)
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  15. S. K. Pandya (2011). Understanding Brain, Mind and Soul: Contributions From Neurology and Neurosurgery. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):129.score: 66.0
    Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise (...)
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  16. Frederic Gilbert, Andrej Vranic & Samia Hurst (2013). Involuntary & Voluntary Invasive Brain Surgery: Ethical Issues Related to Acquired Aggressiveness. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 6 (1):115-128.score: 58.0
    Clinical cases of frontal lobe lesions have been significantly associated with acquired aggressive behaviour. Restoring neuronal and cognitive faculties of aggressive individuals through invasive brain intervention raises ethical questions in general. However, more questions have to be addressed in cases where individuals refuse surgical treatment. The ethical desirability and permissibility of using intrusive surgical brain interventions for involuntary or voluntary treatment of acquired aggressiveness is highly questionable. This article engages with the description of acquired aggressiveness in general, (...)
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  17. [deleted]Mark M. Kishiyama Rajeev D. S. Raizada (2010). Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Brain Development, and How Cognitive Neuroscience May Contribute to Levelling the Playing Field. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 58.0
    The study of socioeconomic status (SES) and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. (...)
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  18. Robert M. Veatch (2005). The Death of Whole-Brain Death: The Plague of the Disaggregators, Somaticists, and Mentalists. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (4):353 – 378.score: 54.0
    In its October 2001 issue, this journal published a series of articles questioning the Whole-Brain-based definition of death. Much of the concern focused on whether somatic integration - a commonly understood basis for the whole-brain death view - can survive the brain's death. The present article accepts that there are insurmountable problems with whole-brain death views, but challenges the assumption that loss of somatic integration is the proper basis for pronouncing death. It examines three major themes. (...)
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  19. Mariale Hardiman, Luke Rinne, Emma Gregory & Julia Yarmolinskaya (2012). Neuroethics, Neuroeducation, and Classroom Teaching: Where the Brain Sciences Meet Pedagogy. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 5 (2):135-143.score: 54.0
    The popularization of neuroscientific ideas about learning—sometimes legitimate, sometimes merely commercial—poses a real challenge for classroom teachers who want to understand how children learn. Until teacher preparation programs are reconceived to incorporate relevant research from the neuro- and cognitive sciences, teachers need translation and guidance to effectively use information about the brain and cognition. Absent such guidance, teachers, schools, and school districts may waste time and money pursuing so called brain-based interventions that lack a firm basis in (...)
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  20. Tom Tomlinson (1984). The Conservative Use of the Brain-Death Criterion – a Critique. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (4):377-394.score: 54.0
    The whole brain-death criterion of death now enjoys a wide acceptance both within the medical profession and among the general public. That acceptance is in large part the product of the contention that brain death is the proper criterion for even a conservative definition of death – the irreversible loss of the integrated functioning of the organism as a whole. This claim – most recently made in the report of the Presidential Commission and in a comprehensive article (...)
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  21. L. R. Talbot & H. A. Whitaker (1994). Brain-Injured Persons in an Altered State of Consciousness: Measures and Intervention Strategies. Brain Injury 8:689-99.score: 54.0
  22. A. Browne (1983). Whole-Brain Death Reconsidered. Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (1):28-44.score: 54.0
    The author, a philosopher, suggests that the concept of death should be left as it is 'in its present indeterminate state', and that we ought to reject attempts to define death in terms of whole-brain death or any other type of brain death, including cerebral death and 'irreversible coma'. Instead of 'fiddling with the definition of death' clear rules should be established specifying 'what can be appropriately done to whom when'.
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  23. R. D. Strous, T. Bergman-Levy & B. Greenberg (2012). Postmortem Brain Donation and Organ Transplantation in Schizophrenia: What About Patient Consent? Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):442-444.score: 54.0
    In patients with schizophrenia, consent postmortem for organ donation for transplantation and research is usually obtained from relatives. By means of a questionnaire, the authors investigate whether patients with schizophrenia would agree to family members making such decisions for them as well as compare decisions regarding postmortem organ transplantation and brain donation between patients and significant family members. Study results indicate while most patients would not agree to transplantation or brain donation for research, a proportion would agree. Among (...)
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  24. V. S. Ramachandran, Brain.score: 54.0
    This article reviews the potential use of visual feedback, focusing on mirror visual feedback, introduced over 15 years ago, for the treatment of many chronic neurological disorders that have long been regarded as intractable such as phantom pain, hemiparesis from stroke and complex regional pain syndrome. Apart from its clinical importance, mirror visual feedback paves the way for a paradigm shift in the way we approach neurological disorders. Instead of resulting entirely from irreversible damage to specialized brain modules, (...)
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  25. Walter M. High, Angelle M. Sander, Margaret A. Struchen & Karen A. Hart (eds.) (2005). Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    Rehabilitation For Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a state-of-the-science review of the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions.
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  26. Ronald A. Carson, Jaime L. Frias & Richard J. Melker (1981). Case Study: Research with Brain-Dead Children. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):50-53.score: 54.0
    The esophageal obturator airway (EOA) is a device used throughout the United States to facilitate artificial respiration of critically ill patients who are not hospitalized. Its use is restricted to persons who are over 15 years old because obturators for children are not available. A protocol submitted to an institutional review board (IRB) intended to develop EOAs suitable for use in children. The investigators proposed to perform preliminary testing of these devices on children who had sustained irreversible loss of (...)
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  27. [deleted]Maria G. Knyazeva Elham Barzegaran, Amir Joudaki, Mahdi Jalili, Andrea O. Rossetti, Richard S. Frackowiak (2012). Properties of Functional Brain Networks Correlate with Frequency of Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 54.0
    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and small-world structure, estimated with clustering coefficient, modularity, global efficiency, and (...)
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  28. [deleted]Dirk Wildgruber Benjamin Kreifelts, Heike Jacob, Carolin Brück, Michael Erb, Thomas Ethofer (2013). Non-Verbal Emotion Communication Training Induces Specific Changes in Brain Function and Structure. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 54.0
    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a nonverbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry (...)
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  29. [deleted]Lucas C. Parra Davide Reato, Asif Rahman, Marom Bikson (2013). Effects of Weak Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Brain Activity—a Review of Known Mechanisms From Animal Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 54.0
    Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by (...)
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  30. Michael I. Posner & Mary K. Rothbart (2005). Influencing Brain Networks: Implications for Education. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (3):99-103.score: 54.0
    In our view, a central issue in relating brain development to education is whether classroom interventions can alter neural networks related to cognition in ways that generalize beyond the specific domain of instruction. This issue depends upon understanding how neural networks develop under the influence of genes and experience. Imaging studies have revealed common networks underlying many important tasks undertaken at school, such as reading and number skills, and we are beginning to learn how genes and experience work (...)
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  31. Kristi Giselsson (2014). Book Review: Robert H. Blank. 2013. Intervention in the Brain: Politics, Policy, and Ethics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 7 (2):247-249.score: 49.3
    This book begins well. Blank first gives, for the benefit of lay readers and those unfamiliar with the area of neuroscience, a brief but informative description of the structure and workings of the brain itself. He then goes on to offer an overview of the current state of brain intervention ranging from direct brain intervention (electroconvulsive therapy, electronic and magnetic stimulation, psychosurgery and neural implants), psychotropic drugs, the use of virtual reality, nootropics and neurogenetics. Blank offers a (...)
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  32. Bryce Huebner (2014). Intervention in the Brain: Politics, Policy, and Ethics by Robert H. Blank (Review). Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (3):6-11.score: 48.0
    Robert H. Blank has set his sights high in Intervention in the Brain. He presents a carefully researched and readable account of the ethical and political issues that arise as a result of our increased ability to intervene on the brain; and with this, he hopes to provide a foundation for future debates about a wide variety of important issues. I applaud his project, and agree wholeheartedly that we should be thinking more carefully about the political implications of (...)
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  33. Max Velmans (2002). How Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (11):3-29.score: 46.0
    In everyday life we take it for granted that we have conscious control of some of our actions and that the part of us that exercises control is the conscious mind. Psychosomatic medicine also assumes that the conscious mind can affect body states, and this is supported by evidence that the use of imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback and other ‘mental interventions’ can be therapeutic in a variety of medical conditions. However, there is no accepted theory of mind/body interaction and this (...)
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  34. Robert M. Veatch (2011). The Not-So-Tell-Tale HeartTo the EditorTo the EditorTo the EditorTo the EditorTo the EditorDon Marquis Replies. Hastings Center Report 41 (2).score: 43.0
    To the Editor: Before using brain criteria, pronouncing death in humans was based on irreversible loss of something vaguely thought of as respiration or circulation or cardiac function. We have always known the loss had to be irreversible. We have also long known that "irreversible" was ambiguous. In his article ("Are DCD Donors Dead?" May-June 2010), Don Marquis captures this ambiguity when he contrasts irreversibility and permanence. Defenders of cardiocirculatory criteria have known that, in some cases, (...)
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  35. Sam D. Shemie (2007). Clarifying the Paradigm for the Ethics of Donation and Transplantation: Was 'Dead' Really so Clear Before Organ Donation? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):18-.score: 43.0
    Recent commentaries by Verheijde et al, Evans and Potts suggesting that donation after cardiac death practices routinely violate the dead donor rule are based on flawed presumptions. Cell biology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, critical care life support technologies, donation and transplantation continue to inform concepts of life and death. The impact of oxygen deprivation to cells, organs and the brain is discussed in relation to death as a biological transition. In the face of advancing organ support and replacement technologies, the reversibility (...)
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  36. Don Ross (2008). Timing Models of Reward Learning and Core Addictive Processes in the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):457-458.score: 42.0
    People become addicted in different ways, and they respond differently to different interventions. There may nevertheless be a core neural pathology responsible for all distinctively addictive suboptimal behavioral habits. In particular, timing models of reward learning suggest a hypothesis according to which all addiction involves neuroadaptation that attenuates serotonergic inhibition of a mesolimbic dopamine system that has learned that cues for consumption of the addictive target are signals of a high-reward-rate environment.
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  37. Annabelle Lever (2012). Neuroscience V. Privacy? : A Democratic Perspective. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. 205.score: 42.0
    Recent developments in neuroscience create new opportunities for understanding the human brain. The power to do good, however, is also the power to harm, so scientific advances inevitably foster as many dystopian fears as utopian hopes. For instance, neuroscience lends itself to the fear that people will be forced to reveal thoughts and feelings which they would not have chosen to reveal, and of which they may be unaware. It also lends itself to the worry that people will be (...)
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  38. James L. Bernat (2004). On Irreversibility as a Prerequisite for Brain Death Determination. In C. Machado & D. E. Shewmon (eds.), Brain Death and Disorders of Consciousness. Plenum. 161--167.score: 42.0
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  39. S. Honeybul, G. Gillett, K. Ho & C. Lind (2012). Ethical Considerations for Performing Decompressive Craniectomy as a Life-Saving Intervention for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):657-661.score: 42.0
    In all fields of clinical medicine, there is an increasing awareness that outcome must be assessed in terms of quality of life and cost effectiveness, rather than merely length of survival. This is especially the case when considering decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury. The procedure itself is technically straightforward and involves temporarily removing a large section of the skull vault in order to provide extra space into which the injured brain can expand. A number of studies (...)
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  40. Ifat Maoz (2012). The Dangers of Prejudice Reduction Interventions: Empirical Evidence From Encounters Between Jews and Arabs in Israel. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):31-32.score: 42.0
    This commentary focuses on Dixon et al.'s discussion on the dangers of employing prejudice-reduction interventions that seek to promote intergroup harmony in historically unequal societies. Specifically, it illustrates these dangers by discussing my work in Israel (now mentioned in Dixon et al.'s note 6) on the processes and practices through which reconciliation-aimed encounters between Jews and Arabs mitigate sociopolitical change.
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  41. Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.score: 40.0
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified (...)
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  42. [deleted]Sandra Hasko, Katarina Groth, Jennifer Bruder, Jã¼Rgen Bartling & Gerd Schulte-Körne (2014). What Does the Brain of Children with Developmental Dyslexia Tell Us About Reading Improvement? ERP Evidence From an Intervention Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.score: 40.0
  43. Farah Focquaert & Dirk De Ridder (2009). Direct Intervention in the Brain: Ethical Issues Concerning Personal Identity. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 4 (2):1-7.score: 40.0
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  44. Barbara Fajardo (2000). Breaks in Consciousness in the Psychoanalytic Process: A Dynamic Systems Approach to Change and a Bridge to Edelman's Mind/Brain Model. Annual of Psychoanalysis 28:21-45.score: 40.0
     
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  45. Nozomi Naoi & Jun-Ichi Yamamoto (2006). Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism and its Effects on Brain Plasticity. In D. Andler, M. Okada & I. Watanabe (eds.), Reasoning and Cognition. 2--187.score: 40.0
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  46. Adrian Carter, Emily Bell, Eric Racine & Wayne Hall (2011). Ethical Issues Raised by Proposals to Treat Addiction Using Deep Brain Stimulation. Neuroethics 4 (2):129-142.score: 38.0
    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a potential treatment of drug addiction on the basis of its effects on drug self-administration in animals and on addictive behaviours in some humans treated with DBS for other psychiatric or neurological conditions. DBS is seen as a more reversible intervention than ablative neurosurgery but it is nonetheless a treatment that carries significant risks. A review of preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of DBS to treat addiction suggests that more (...)
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  47. Veronica Johansson, Martin Garwicz, Martin Kanje, Helena Röcklinsberg, Jens Schouenborg, Anders Tingström & Ulf Görman (2013). Beyond Blind Optimism and Unfounded Fears: Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment Resistant Depression. Neuroethics 6 (3):457-471.score: 38.0
    The introduction of new medical treatments based on invasive technologies has often been surrounded by both hopes and fears. Hope, since a new intervention can create new opportunities either in terms of providing a cure for the disease or impairment at hand; or as alleviation of symptoms. Fear, since an invasive treatment involving implanting a medical device can result in unknown complications such as hardware failure and undesirable medical consequences. However, hopes and fears may also arise due to the cultural (...)
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  48. Frederic Gilbert (2012). The Burden of Normality: From 'Chronically Ill' to 'Symptom Free'. New Ethical Challenges for Deep Brain Stimulation Postoperative Treatment. Journal of Medical Ethics 8 (7):408-412.score: 38.0
    Although an invasive medical intervention, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been regarded as an efficient and safe treatment of Parkinson’s disease for the last 20 years. In terms of clinical ethics, it is worth asking whether the use of DBS may have unanticipated negative effects similar to those associated with other types of psychosurgery. Clinical studies of epileptic patients who have undergone an anterior temporal lobectomy have identified a range of side effects and complications in a number of domains: (...)
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  49. Walter Glannon (2014). Intervening in the Psychopath's Brain. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):43-57.score: 38.0
    Psychopathy is a disorder involving personality and behavioral features associated with a high rate of violent aggression and recidivism. This paper explores potential psychopharmacological therapies to modulate dysfunctional neural pathways in psychopaths and reduce the incidence of their harmful behavior, as well as the ethical and legal implications of offering these therapies as an alternative to incarceration. It also considers whether forced psychopharmacological intervention in adults and children with psychopathic traits manifesting in violent behavior can be justified. More generally, the (...)
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  50. S. Honeybul, K. M. Ho & G. R. Gillett (2014). Traumatic Brain Injury: An Objective Model of Consent. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 7 (1):11-18.score: 38.0
    The aim of this paper was to explore the issue of consent when considering the use of a life saving but not necessarily restorative surgical intervention for severe traumatic brain injury. A previous study has investigated the issue amongst 500 healthcare workers by using a two-part structured interview to assess opinion regarding decompressive craniectomy for three patients with varying injury severity. A visual analogue scale was used to assess the strengths of their opinions both before and after being shown (...)
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