Search results for 'Irreversible brain interventions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    Frederic Gilbert, Alexander R. Harris & Robert M. I. Kapsa (2012). Efficacy Testing as a Primary Purpose of Phase 1 Clinical Trials: Is It Applicable to First-in-Human Bionics and Optogenetics Trials? AJOB Neuroscience 3 (2):20-22.
    In her article, Pascale Hess raises the issue of whether her proposed model may be extrapolated and applied to clinical research fields other than stem cell-based interventions in the brain (SCBI-B) (Hess 2012). Broadly summarized, Hess’s model suggests prioritizing efficacy over safety in phase 1 trials involving irreversible interventions in the brain, when clinical criteria meet the appropriate population suffering from “degenerative brain diseases” (Hess 2012). Although there is a need to reconsider the traditional (...)
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  2.  8
    Nicole A. Vincent (2014). Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions. Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):43-50.
    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of “neurolaw”—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as well as their answers (...)
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  3.  16
    Nicole A. Vincent (2014). Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions. Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):43-50.
    This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of “neurolaw”—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as well as their answers and (...)
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  4.  25
    Nicole A. Vincent (2014). Restoring Responsibility: Promoting Justice, Therapy and Reform Through Direct Brain Interventions. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):21-42.
    Direct brain intervention based mental capacity restoration techniques—for instance, psycho-active drugs—are sometimes used in criminal cases to promote the aims of justice. For instance, they might be used to restore a person’s competence to stand trial in order to assess the degree of their responsibility for what they did, or to restore their competence for punishment so that we can hold them responsible for it. Some also suggest that such interventions might be used for therapy or reform in (...)
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  5.  31
    Elizabeth Shaw (2014). Direct Brain Interventions and Responsibility Enhancement. Criminal Law and Philosophy 8 (1):1-20.
    Advances in neuroscience might make it possible to develop techniques for directly altering offenders’ brains, in order to make offenders more responsible and law-abiding. The idea of using such techniques within the criminal justice system can seem intuitively troubling, even if they were more effective in preventing crime than traditional methods of rehabilitation. One standard argument against this use of brain interventions is that it would undermine the individual’s free will. This paper maintains that ‘free will’ (...)
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  6.  2
    S. Holm (2004). Irreversible Bodily Interventions in Children. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (3):237-237.
    Is the opposition to circumcision partly driven by cultural prejudices?In this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics you can read a minisymposium on circumcision, mainly dealing with the circumcision of male children at an age where they cannot consent, but also touching upon issues of female genital mutilation.When reading the papers I found it strange, but of course not really surprising given its symbolic importance, that we are so worried about interventions on the male penis. Why are (...)
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  7.  24
    Antoine Baumann, Frederique Claudot, Gerard Audibert, Paul-Michel Mertes & Louis Puybasset (2011). The Ethical and Legal Aspects of Palliative Sedation in Severely Brain Injured Patients: A French Perspective. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6 (1):4-.
    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state (...)
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  8.  69
    J. M. Fleming & T. Ownsworth (2006). A Review of Awareness Interventions in Brain Injury Rehabilitation. [REVIEW] Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 16 (4):474-500.
  9. H. Madder (2012). Treatment Interventions for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Limited Evidence, Choice Limitations. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (11):662-663.
  10.  12
    Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor (2009). Brain Death, States of Impaired Consciousness, and Physician-Assisted Death for End-of-Life Organ Donation and Transplantation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism, minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain death with human death. Brain (...)
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  11.  1
    Jared N. Craig (forthcoming). Incarceration, Direct Brain Intervention, and the Right to Mental Integrity – a Reply to Thomas Douglas. Neuroethics:1-12.
    In recent years, direct brain interventions have shown increased success in manipulating neurobiological processes often associated with moral reasoning and decision-making. As current DBIs are refined, and new technologies are developed, the state will have an interest in administering DBIs to criminal offenders for rehabilitative purposes. However, it is generally assumed that the state is not justified in directly intruding in an offender’s brain without valid consent. Thomas Douglas challenges this view. The state already forces criminal offenders (...)
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  12.  14
    D. Rodríguez-Arias, J. C. Tortosa, C. J. Burant, P. Aubert, M. P. Aulisio & S. J. Youngner (2013). One or Two Types of Death? Attitudes of Health Professionals Towards Brain Death and Donation After Circulatory Death in Three Countries. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):457-467.
    This study examined health professionals’ (HPs) experience, beliefs and attitudes towards brain death (BD) and two types of donation after circulatory death (DCD)—controlled and uncontrolled DCD. Five hundred and eighty-seven HPs likely to be involved in the process of organ procurement were interviewed in 14 hospitals with transplant programs in France, Spain and the US. Three potential donation scenarios—BD, uncontrolled DCD and controlled DCD—were presented to study subjects during individual face-to-face interviews. Our study has two main findings: (1) (...)
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  13.  35
    Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Giuseppe Galardi (2013). Emerging From an Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome: Brain Plasticity has to Cross a Threshold Level. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 37 (10):2721-2736.
    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state) occurs after patients survive a severe brain injury. Patients suffering from UWS have lost awareness of themselves and of the external environment and do not retain any trace of their subjective experience. Current data demonstrate that neuronal functions subtending consciousness are not completely reset in UWS; however, they are reduced below the threshold required to experience consciousness. The critical factor that determines whether patients will recover consciousness is the distance of (...)
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  14.  24
    Dominik Groß (2009). Blessing or Curse? Neurocognitive Enhancement by “Brain Engineering”. Medicine Studies 1 (4):379-391.
    PurposeSince the 1980s we have witnessed a soaring “extra-therapeutic” use of psycho-pharmacology. But there is also an increasing interest in invasive methods of neuroenhancement that can be subsumed under the term “brain engineering”. The present article aims to identify key issues raised by those forms of neuro-technical enhancement (e.g., deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, memory chips, neurobionic interventions). First it distinguishes different forms of neuroenhancement, then describes features of those methods and finally (...)
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  15.  5
    S. K. Pandya (2011). Understanding Brain, Mind and Soul: Contributions From Neurology and Neurosurgery. Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):129.
    Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise (...)
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  16.  2
    Jessica Toit & Franklin Miller (2016). The Ethics of Continued Life‐Sustaining Treatment for Those Diagnosed as Brain‐Dead. Bioethics 30 (3):151-158.
    Given the long-standing controversy about whether the brain-dead should be considered alive in an irreversible coma or dead despite displaying apparent signs of life, the ethical and policy issues posed when family members insist on continued treatment are not as simple as commentators have claimed. In this article, we consider the kind of policy that should be adopted to manage a family's insistence that their brain-dead loved one continues to receive supportive care. We argue that while it (...)
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  17.  3
    Dirk Hartmann, Gerard Boer, Jörg Fegert, Thorsten Galert, Reinhard Merkel, Bart Nuttin & Steffen Rosahl (2007). Intervening in the Brain: Changing Psyche and Society. Springer.
    In recent years, neuroscience has been a particularly prolific discipline stimulating many innovative treatment approaches in medicine. However, when it comes to the brain, new techniques of intervention do not always meet with a positive public response, in spite of promising therapeutic benefits. The reason for this caution clearly is the brain’s special importance as “organ of the mind”. As such it is widely held to be the origin of mankind’s unique position among living beings. Likewise, (...)
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  18.  14
    Frederic Gilbert, Andrej Vranic & Samia Hurst (2013). Involuntary & Voluntary Invasive Brain Surgery: Ethical Issues Related to Acquired Aggressiveness. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 6 (1):115-128.
    Clinical cases of frontal lobe lesions have been significantly associated with acquired aggressive behaviour. Restoring neuronal and cognitive faculties of aggressive individuals through invasive brain intervention raises ethical questions in general. However, more questions have to be addressed in cases where individuals refuse surgical treatment. The ethical desirability and permissibility of using intrusive surgical brain interventions for involuntary or voluntary treatment of acquired aggressiveness is highly questionable. This article engages with the description of acquired aggressiveness in general, (...)
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  19.  72
    Robert M. Veatch (2005). The Death of Whole-Brain Death: The Plague of the Disaggregators, Somaticists, and Mentalists. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (4):353 – 378.
    In its October 2001 issue, this journal published a series of articles questioning the Whole-Brain-based definition of death. Much of the concern focused on whether somatic integration - a commonly understood basis for the whole-brain death view - can survive the brain's death. The present article accepts that there are insurmountable problems with whole-brain death views, but challenges the assumption that loss of somatic integration is the proper basis for pronouncing death. It (...)
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  20.  51
    James L. Bernat (2006). The Whole-Brain Concept of Death Remains Optimum Public Policy. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 34 (1):35-43.
    Brain death,” the determination of human death by showing the irreversible loss of all clinical functions of the brain, has become a worldwide practice. A biophilosophical account of brain death requires four sequential tasks: agreeing on the paradigm of death, a set of preconditions that frame the discussion; determining the definition of death by making explicit the consensual concept of death; determining the criterion of death that proves the definition has been fulfilled (...)
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  21.  4
    Walter Glannon (2011). Brain, Body, and Mind: Neuroethics with a Human Face. Oxford University Press.
    This book is a discussion of the most timely and contentious issues in the two branches of neuroethics: the neuroscience of ethics; and the ethics of neuroscience. Drawing upon recent work in psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery, it develops a phenomenologically inspired theory of neuroscience to explain the brain-mind relation. The idea that the mind is shaped not just by the brain but also by the body and how the human subject interacts with the environment has significant implications (...)
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  22.  1
    R. M. Veatch (2015). Killing by Organ Procurement: Brain-Based Death and Legal Fictions. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (3):289-311.
    The dead donor rule governs procuring life-prolonging organs. They should be taken only from deceased donors. Miller and Truog have proposed abandoning the rule when patients have decided to forgo life-sustaining treatment and have consented to procurement. Organs could then be procured from living patients, thus killing them by organ procurement. This proposal warrants careful examination. They convincingly argue that current brain or circulatory death pronouncement misidentifies the biologically dead. After arguing convincingly that physicians already cause death by (...)
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  23.  10
    Michael I. Posner & Mary K. Rothbart (2005). Influencing Brain Networks: Implications for Education. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (3):99-103.
    In our view, a central issue in relating brain development to education is whether classroom interventions can alter neural networks related to cognition in ways that generalize beyond the specific domain of instruction. This issue depends upon understanding how neural networks develop under the influence of genes and experience. Imaging studies have revealed common networks underlying many important tasks undertaken at school, such as reading and number skills, and we are beginning to learn how genes and (...)
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  24.  32
    Mariale Hardiman, Luke Rinne, Emma Gregory & Julia Yarmolinskaya (2012). Neuroethics, Neuroeducation, and Classroom Teaching: Where the Brain Sciences Meet Pedagogy. [REVIEW] Neuroethics 5 (2):135-143.
    The popularization of neuroscientific ideas about learning—sometimes legitimate, sometimes merely commercial—poses a real challenge for classroom teachers who want to understand how children learn. Until teacher preparation programs are reconceived to incorporate relevant research from the neuro- and cognitive sciences, teachers need translation and guidance to effectively use information about the brain and cognition. Absent such guidance, teachers, schools, and school districts may waste time and money pursuing so called brain-based interventions that lack a firm basis in (...)
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  25. Lee-Fan Tan, Zoltan Dienes, Ashok Jansari & Sing-Yau Goh (2014). Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Brain–Computer Interface Performance. Consciousness and Cognition 23 (4):12-21.
    Electroencephalogram based Brain–Computer Interfaces enable stroke and motor neuron disease patients to communicate and control devices. Mindfulness meditation has been claimed to enhance metacognitive regulation. The current study explores whether mindfulness meditation training can thus improve the performance of BCI users. To eliminate the possibility of expectation of improvement influencing the results, we introduced a music training condition. A norming study found that both meditation and music interventions elicited clear expectations for improvement on the BCI task, (...)
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  26.  18
    Tom Tomlinson (1984). The Conservative Use of the Brain-Death Criterion – a Critique. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (4):377-394.
    The whole brain-death criterion of death now enjoys a wide acceptance both within the medical profession and among the general public. That acceptance is in large part the product of the contention that brain death is the proper criterion for even a conservative definition of death – the irreversible loss of the integrated functioning of the organism as a whole. This claim – most recently made in the report of the Presidential Commission and in (...)
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  27.  18
    V. S. Ramachandran, Brain.
    This article reviews the potential use of visual feedback, focusing on mirror visual feedback, introduced over 15 years ago, for the treatment of many chronic neurological disorders that have long been regarded as intractable such as phantom pain, hemiparesis from stroke and complex regional pain syndrome. Apart from its clinical importance, mirror visual feedback paves the way for a paradigm shift in the way we approach neurological disorders. Instead of resulting entirely from irreversible damage to specialized (...) modules, some of them may arise from short-term functional shifts that are potentially reversible. If so, relatively simple therapies can be devised—of which mirror visual feedback is an example—to restore function. (shrink)
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  28.  12
    A. Browne (1983). Whole-Brain Death Reconsidered. Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (1):28-44.
    The author, a philosopher, suggests that the concept of death should be left as it is 'in its present indeterminate state', and that we ought to reject attempts to define death in terms of whole-brain death or any other type of brain death, including cerebral death and 'irreversible coma'. Instead of 'fiddling with the definition of death' clear rules should be established specifying 'what can be appropriately done to whom when'.
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  29.  7
    R. D. Strous, T. Bergman-Levy & B. Greenberg (2012). Postmortem Brain Donation and Organ Transplantation in Schizophrenia: What About Patient Consent? Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (7):442-444.
    In patients with schizophrenia, consent postmortem for organ donation for transplantation and research is usually obtained from relatives. By means of a questionnaire, the authors investigate whether patients with schizophrenia would agree to family members making such decisions for them as well as compare decisions regarding postmortem organ transplantation and brain donation between patients and significant family members. Study results indicate while most patients would not agree to transplantation or brain donation for research, a proportion would (...)
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  30.  3
    Rolando Meloni, Jacques Mallet & Nicole Faucon Biguet (2010). Brain Gene Transfer and Brain Implants. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 4 (3).
    Information and communication technologies , with their increasing and widespread utilization in daily life, may exert an important impact on brain performances. The development of their use for improving several cerebral processes, by abolishing the brain/machine interface, is envisaged and is subject to debate. The scientific research on brain implants and brain gene transfer aiming to restore central nervous system functions, altered by disease or trauma, may contribute to this debate. Indeed, the (...)
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  31.  4
    Ronald A. Carson, Jaime L. Frias & Richard J. Melker (1981). Case Study: Research with Brain-Dead Children. [REVIEW] Bioethics Quarterly 3 (1):50-53.
    The esophageal obturator airway (EOA) is a device used throughout the United States to facilitate artificial respiration of critically ill patients who are not hospitalized. Its use is restricted to persons who are over 15 years old because obturators for children are not available. A protocol submitted to an institutional review board (IRB) intended to develop EOAs suitable for use in children. The investigators proposed to perform preliminary testing of these devices on children who had sustained irreversible loss (...)
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  32.  7
    Walter M. High, Angelle M. Sander, Margaret A. Struchen & Karen A. Hart (eds.) (2005). Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury. Oxford University Press.
    Rehabilitation For Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a state-of-the-science review of the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions.
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  33.  41
    Annabelle Lever (2012). Neuroscience V. Privacy? : A Democratic Perspective. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press 205.
    Recent developments in neuroscience create new opportunities for understanding the human brain. The power to do good, however, is also the power to harm, so scientific advances inevitably foster as many dystopian fears as utopian hopes. For instance, neuroscience lends itself to the fear that people will be forced to reveal thoughts and feelings which they would not have chosen to reveal, and of which they may be unaware. It also lends itself to the worry that people will (...)
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  34.  2
    Ifat Maoz (2012). The Dangers of Prejudice Reduction Interventions: Empirical Evidence From Encounters Between Jews and Arabs in Israel. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (6):441-442.
    This commentary focuses on Dixon et al.'s discussion on the dangers of employing prejudice-reduction interventions that seek to promote intergroup harmony in historically unequal societies. Specifically, it illustrates these dangers by discussing my work in Israel on the processes and practices through which reconciliation-aimed encounters between Jews and Arabs mitigate sociopolitical change.
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  35.  6
    Don Ross (2008). Timing Models of Reward Learning and Core Addictive Processes in the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):457-458.
    People become addicted in different ways, and they respond differently to different interventions. There may nevertheless be a core neural pathology responsible for all distinctively addictive suboptimal behavioral habits. In particular, timing models of reward learning suggest a hypothesis according to which all addiction involves neuroadaptation that attenuates serotonergic inhibition of a mesolimbic dopamine system that has learned that cues for consumption of the addictive target are signals of a high-reward-rate environment.
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  36. Mike Collins (2010). Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and (...)
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  37.  59
    Rosangela Barcaro (2015). Alla fine della vita: bioetica e medicina alla ricerca di un confine [At the end of life: bioethics and medicine looking for a boundary]. Laboratorio Dell’ISPF [Online First] 1824-9817.
    Bioethics, neuroscience, medicine are contributing to a debate on the definition and criteria of death. This topic is very controversial, and it demonstrates clashing views on the meaning of human life and death. Official medical and legal positions agree upon a biological definition of death as irreversible cessation of integrated functioning of the organism as a whole, and whole-brain criterion to ascertain death. These positions have to face many criticisms: some scholars speak of logical and practical inconsistency, some (...)
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  38.  41
    Andrew Fenton & Sheri Alpert (2008). Extending Our View on Using BCIs for Locked-in Syndrome. Neuroethics 1 (2):119-132.
    Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a severe neurological condition that typically leaves a patient unable to move, talk and, in many cases, initiate communication. Brain Computer Interfaces (or BCIs) promise to enable individuals with conditions like LIS to re-engage with their physical and social worlds. In this paper we will use extended mind theory to offer a way of seeing the potential of BCIs when attached to, or implanted in, individuals with LIS. In particular, we will contend that functionally (...)
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  39.  46
    Daniel Ansari, Bert de Smedt & Roland Grabner (2012). Neuroeducation–a Critical Overview of an Emerging Field. Neuroethics 5 (2):105-117.
    Abstract In the present article, we provide a critical overview of the emerging field of ‘neuroeducation’ also frequently referred to as ‘mind, brain and education’ or ‘educational neuroscience’. We describe the growing energy behind linking education and neuroscience in an effort to improve learning and instruction. We explore reasons behind such drives for interdisciplinary research. Reviewing some of the key advances in neuroscientific studies that have come to bear on neuroeducation, we discuss recent evidence on the (...) circuits underlying reading, mathematical abilities as well as the potential to use neuroscience to design training programs of neurocognitive functions, such as working memory, that are expected to have effects on overall brain function. Throughout this review we describe how such research can enrich our understanding of the acquisition of academic skills. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for modern brain imaging methods to serve as diagnostic tools as well as measures of the effects of educational interventions. Throughout this discussion, we draw attention to limitations of the available evidence and propose future avenues for research. We also discuss the challenges that face this growing discipline. Specifically, we draw attention to unrealistic expectations for the immediate impact of neuroscience on education, methodological difficulties, and lack of interdisciplinary training, which results in poor communication between educators and neuroscientists. We point out that there should be bi-directional and reciprocal interactions between both disciplines of neuroscience and education, in which research originating from each of these traditions is considered to be compelling in its own right. While there are many obstacles that lie in the way of a productive field of neuroeducation, we contend that there is much reason to be optimistic and that the groundwork has been laid to advance this field in earnest. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 1-13 DOI 10.1007/s12152-011-9119-3 Authors Daniel Ansari, Numerical Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, The University of Western Ontario, Westminster Hall, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada Bert De Smedt, Parenting and Special Education Research Group, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Roland H. Grabner, Institute for Behavioral Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Journal Neuroethics Online ISSN 1874-5504 Print ISSN 1874-5490. (shrink)
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  40.  51
    Albert Garth Thomas (2012). Continuing the Definition of Death Debate: The Report of the President's Council on Bioethics on Controversies in the Determination of Death. Bioethics 26 (2):101-107.
    The President's Council on Bioethics has recently released a report supportive of the continued use of brain death as a criterion for human death. The Council's conclusions were based on a conception of life that stressed external work as the fundamental marker of organismic life. With respect to human life, it is spontaneous respiration in particular that indicates an ability to interact with the external environment, and so indicates the presence of life. Conversely, irreversible apnoea marks an (...)
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  41.  74
    Max Velmans (2002). How Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains? Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (11):3-29.
    In everyday life we take it for granted that we have conscious control of some of our actions and that the part of us that exercises control is the conscious mind. Psychosomatic medicine also assumes that the conscious mind can affect body states, and this is supported by evidence that the use of imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback and other ‘mental interventions’ can be therapeutic in a variety of medical conditions. However, there is no accepted theory of mind/body interaction and (...)
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  42.  75
    Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts, Sergio Bagnato, Cristina Boccagni & Giuseppe Galardi (2013). Prognostic Value of Resting-State EEG Structure in Disentangling Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States: A Preliminary Study. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 27 (4):345-354.
    Background: Patients in a vegetative state pose problems in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Currently, no prognostic markers predict the chance of recovery, which has serious consequences, especially in end-of-life decision-making. -/- Objective: We aimed to assess an objective measurement of prognosis using advanced electroencephalography (EEG). -/- Methods: EEG data (19 channels) were collected in 14 patients who were diagnosed to be persistently vegetative based on repeated clinical evaluations at 3 months following brain damage. EEG structure parameters (amplitude, duration (...)
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  43.  44
    C. Pallis (1990). Danish Ethics Council Rejects Brain Death as the Criterion of Death -- Commentary 2: Return to Elsinore. Journal of Medical Ethics 16 (1):10-13.
    No discussion of when an individual is dead is meaningful in the absence of a definition of death. If human death is defined as the irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness combined with the irreversible loss of the capacity to breathe spontaneously (and hence to maintain a spontaneous heart beat) the death of the brainstem will be seen to be the necessary and sufficient condition for the death of the individual. Such a definition of death (...)
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  44.  1
    T. Antony Davis (1978). Reversible and Irreversible Lateralities in Some Animals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (2):291.
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  45.  5
    Jürgen in der Schmitten (2002). Organtransplantation Ohne „Hirntod”-Konzept? Ethik in der Medizin 14 (2):60-70.
    Definition of the problem:Truog’s critique of the ”brain death” concept outlines inconsistencies well understood in the U.S. ethical debate, while he is one of the first to suggest returning to the traditional, coherent concept of death, thus breaking with the ”dead-donorrule.” The German transplantation law of 1996 endorses equating ”brain death” with death. A defeated draft, however, had acknowledged that irreversible total brain failure is a death-near state with a zero prognosis; organ (...)
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  46.  11
    Anthony H. Dickenson (1997). Plasticity: Implications for Opioid and Other Pharmacological Interventions in Specific Pain States. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):392-403.
    The spinal mechanisms of action of opioids under normal conditions are reasonably well understood. The spinal effects of opioids can be enhanced or reduced depending on pathology and activity in other segmental and nonsegmental pathways. This plasticity will be considered in relation to the control of different pain states using opioids. The complex and contradictory findings on the supraspinal actions of opioids are explicable in terms of heterogeneous descending pathways to different spinal targets using multiple transmitters and receptors – therefore (...)
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  47.  8
    Carson Strong (2006). Gamete Retrieval After Death or Irreversible Unconsciousness: What Counts as Informed Consent? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (2):161-171.
    The first reported case of postmortem sperm retrieval occurred in 1978, involving a man who became brain dead after a motor vehicle accident and whose wife requested removal of his sperm so that she could be artificially inseminated. Physicians performed the retrieval by surgically excising the ducts that transport sperm from the testes and removing sperm from them. Since that time, several other methods for retrieving sperm from such patients have been reported, and at least 141 cases have (...)
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  48.  3
    David Rodríguez-Arias & Carissa Véliz (2013). The Death Debates: A Call for Public Deliberation. Hastings Center Report 43 (5):34-35.
    In this issue of the Report, James L. Bernat proposes an innovative and sophisticated distinction to justify the introduction of permanent cessation as a valid substitute standard for irreversible cessation in death determination. He differentiates two approaches to conceptualizing and determining death: the biological concept and the prevailing medical practice standard. While irreversibility is required by the biological concept, the weaker criterion of permanence, he claims, has always sufficed in the accepted standard medical practice to declare death. Bernat (...)
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  49.  1
    Margaret A. Struchen (2005). Social Communication Interventions. In Walter M. High Jr, Angelle M. Sander, Margaret A. Struchen & Karen A. Hart (eds.), Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury. Oxford University Press 88--117.
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  50. Eddie Brummelman & Gregory M. Walton (2015). “If You Want to Understand Something, Try to Change It”: Social-Psychological Interventions to Cultivate Resilience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 38.
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