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  1. Ishmael P. Akaah (1996). The Influence of Organizational Rank and Role on Marketing Professionals' Ethical Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (6):605 - 613.
    The author examines empirically the extent to which marketing professionals of different organizational ranks (lower versus upper) and roles (executive versus research) differ in ethical judgments. For organizational rank, the results indicate that marketing professionals of lower organizational rank do not differ from those of upper organizational rank in ethical judgments. For organizational role, the results suggest that marketing professionals of executive role differ in an overall sense from marketing professionals of research role in ethical judgments. In general, marketing professionals (...)
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  2. Ishmael P. Akaah & Daulatram Lund (1994). The Influence of Personal and Organizational Values on Marketing Professionals' Ethical Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 13 (6):417 - 430.
    The authors examine empirically the influence of personal and organizational values on marketing professionals'' ethical behavior. The results indicate that personal and organizational values underlie differences in marketing professionals'' ethical behavior, albeit small terms of the proportion of explained variance. The results also suggest the relationship between organizational values and ethical behavior to be significant. However, the same is not the case for the relationship between personal values and ethical behavior.
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  3. Ishmael P. Akaah (1992). Social Inclusion as a Marketing Ethics Correlate. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):599 - 608.
    The author examines, in the context of Litwin and Stringer''s (1968) operationalization, the influence of social inclusion (organizational warmth and organizational identity) as a marketing ethics correlate. The results indicate that both organizational warmth and organizational identity underlie marketing professionals'' ethical behavior. Furthermore, the influence pattern for each variable is consistent witha priori hypothesis.
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  4. Ishmael P. Akaah (1990). Attitudes of Marketing Professionals Toward Ethics in Marketing Research: A Cross-National Comparison. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 9 (1):45 - 53.
    The study reported here examines, in the context of Crawford's (1970) items, differences in research ethics attitudes among marketing professionals in Australia, Canada, Great Britian, and the United States. The study results indicate the lack of significant differences in research ethics attitudes among marketing professionals in the four countries. This finding is interpretable as implying the generalizability of the results of previous research ethics studies involving domestic (United States) marketing professionals as respondents.
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  5. Ishmael P. Akaah (1990). The Influence of Non-Anonymity Deriving From Feedback of Research Results on Marketing Professionals' Research Ethics Judgements. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (12):949 - 959.
    The study examines, in the context of Crawford's (1970) study items, the influence of non-anonymity deriving from feedback of research results on marketing professionals' research ethics judgements, particularly that of response patterns (social desirability of responses) and item omissions. The results indicate that such non-anonymity does not significantly influence the social desirability of responses or item omissions — thus suggesting the appropriateness of its use to stimulate research ethics responses.
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  6. Ishmael P. Akaah (1989). Differences in Research Ethics Judgments Between Male and Female Marketing Professionals. Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):375 - 381.
    s With the unprecedented increase in the number of females holding executive positions in business, there has arisen interest in issues pertaining to the role of women in business organizations, including that of malefemale differences in ethical attitudes/behavior. To add to the research evidence on the issue, this paper examines differences in research ethics judgments between male and female marketing professionals. The results indicate that female marketing professionals evince higher research ethics judgments than their male counterparts.
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