The explanatory role of natural selection is one of the long-term debates in evolutionary biology. Nevertheless, the consensus has been slippery because conceptual confusions and the absence of a unified, formal causal model that integrates different explanatory scopes of natural selection. In this study we attempt to examine two questions: (i) What can the theory of natural selection explain? and (ii) Is there a causal or explanatory model that integrates all natural selection explananda? For the first question, we argue that (...) five explananda have been assigned to the theory of natural selection and that four of them may be actually considered explananda of natural selection. For the second question, we claim that a probabilistic conception of causality and the statistical relevance concept of explanation are both good models for understanding the explanatory role of natural selection. We review the biological and philosophical disputes about the explanatory role of natural selection and formalize some explananda in probabilistic terms using classical results from population genetics. Most of these explananda have been discussed in philosophical terms but some of them have been mixed up and confused. We analyze and set the limits of these problems. (shrink)
I disagree with several of Chow's traditional descriptions and justifications of null hypothesis testing: (1) accepting the null hypothesis whenever p > .05; (2) random sampling from a population; (3) the frequentist interpretation of probability; (4) having the null hypothesis generate both a probability distribution and a complement of the desired conclusion; (5) assuming that researchers must fix their sample size before performing their study.
In order to properly distinguish between pastoral and psychotherapeutic counseling, one must clarify both the interpretive presuppositions underlying each of these professional practices and their respective societal contexts. As a common ground for both kinds of practice, at least insofar as they maintain a distance from the usual medical-scientific model of therapeutic intervention, an ontology of playing is recommended. More precisely, in order for counseling to truly come “into play,” any latent neo-pastoral power discourses must be critically exposed. Psychoanalytic counseling (...) is characterized by rules of abstinence and neutrality as well as by attention to unconscious dynamics, especially those of transference and countertransference. Pastoral counseling, even when it takes place outside of the Ignatian exercises, can still orient itself toward the Ignatian model of spiritual accompaniment, thus requiring a discernment of spirits and a reference to transcendence. Both pastoral and psychotherapeutic counseling can profit from each other. Both must be evaluated in terms of whether, in the course of an authentic communication, they succeed in proposing what truly profits the person seeking advice. All of this applies with special urgency to bioethical decision making and conflict resolution: Persons seeking pastoral advice desire an authentic exposition of the values of the Gospel and their church community in order to reach a well-founded conclusion in conscience. Other persons (or even the same ones) seeking psychotherapeutic help in a bioethical conflict situation desire an empathetic mirroring back of the biographic background framing their decision and of possible psychic consequences that may ensue from their acting accordingly. (shrink)
The aim of this study is an analysis of the possible adaptive consequences of delivery of low birth weight infants. We attempt to reveal the cost and benefit components of bearing small children, estimate the chance of the infants’ survival, and calculate the mothers’ reproductive success. According to life-history theory, under certain circumstances mothers can enhance their lifetime fitness by lowering the rate of investment in an infant and/or enhancing the rate of subsequent births. We assume that living in a (...) risky environment and giving birth to a small infant may involve a shift from qualitative to quantitative production of offspring. Given high infant mortality rates, parents will have a reproductive interest in producing a relatively large number of children with a smaller amount of prenatal investment. This hypothesis was tested among 650 Gypsy and 717 non-Gypsy Hungarian mothers. Our study has revealed that 23.8% of the Gypsy mothers had low birth weight (<2,500 g) children, whose mortality rate is very high. These mothers also had more spontaneous abortions and stillbirths than those with normal weight children. As a possible response to these reproductive failures, they shortened birth spacing, gaining 2–4 years across their reproductive lifespan for having additional children. Because of the relatively short interbirth intervals, by the end of their fertility period, Gypsy mothers with one or two low birth weight infants have significantly more children than their ethnic Hungarian counterparts. They appear to compensate for handicaps associated with low birth weights by having a larger number of closely spaced children following the birth of one or more infants with a reduced probability of survival. The possible alternative explanations are discussed, and the long-term reproductive benefits are estimated for both ethnic groups. (shrink)
Jung trata do problema do mal enquanto médico-analista que utilize métodos empíricos. O seu ponto de partida consiste básicamente na tomada de consciência da sombra, ou seja, dessa parte essencialmente inconsciente da psique e recalcada pelo eu consciente. Ampliando o conceito de sombra até ao arquetípico e transpessoal, Jung propõe conceitos de índole transcendental. Ele atreve-se igualmente a criticar a imagem de Deus na tradição judaico-cristá. A sua linguagem metafísica reduz-se por vezes a certas formas de explicar o conceito do (...) arquétipo do Si-mesmo, o que por vezes não sepode distinguirde uma tomada de posição filosófico-teológica. O exemplo do seu diólogo com o dominicano Victor White mostra a importância de distinguir categorias ejogos de linguagem na reconstrução filosófica do pensamento junguiano. /// Jung deals with the problem of evil as an analyst-physician who makes use of empirical methods. His starting point is basically the awareness of the shadow, that is, from the essentially unconscious part of the psyche and rejected by the conscious I. Extending the concept of shadow to the archetype, transpersonal, Jung proposes concepts of transcendental nature. He also dares to criticize the image of God in the Judaic-Christian tradition. His metaphysical language sometimes comes to some ways ofexplainig the concept of the Oneself archetype, and sometimes cannot be distinguished from the taking of a philosophical-theological position. The example of his dialogue with the Dominican Victor White points out the importance of distinguishing categories and language games in the philosophical reconstruction of the Jungian thought. (shrink)
Arguing that the times of scientistic criticism of psychoanalysis are past and that psychoanalysis is now open to new intellectual and scientific horizons, the article aims at showing how the recent developments of neurobiology, cognitive psychology, as well as new theories of therapeutic change in psychoanalysis support a reformulation of the psychoanalytic unconscious. The author defends that the obvious terminological confusion between the neurobiological and cognitive non-conscious on the one hand and the dynamic unconscious, on the other, require clear definitions (...) of differences and of commonalities. Furthermore, the author also develops the idea that the dimensions of awareness and of selfascription (avowal/disavowal) help to determine what is the core of the dynamic unconscious, even though the cognitive non-conscious and the psychoanalytic unconscious overlap to a great extent. The article shows, finally, how a new interdisciplinary consensus offers now a chance for us to recognize the shortcomings of a rationalistic philosophy of mind. /// Argumentando que os tempos de uma crítica da psicanálise a partir do cientismo já passaram e que a psicanálise está agora aberta a novos horizontes intelectuais e científicos, o artigo pretende mostrar até que ponto os desenvolvimentos mais recentes da neurobiologia, da psicologia cognitiva bem como das novas teorias da mudança terapêutica em psicanálise suportam uma reformulação do inconsciente psicanalítico. O autor defende que a óbvia confusão terminológica entre o não-consciente neurobiológico e cognitivo por um lado e o inconsciente dinâmico por outro requerem definições claras das diferenças e dos aspectos comuns. Além disso, o autor desenvolve também a ideia de que as dimensões de conhecimento e de auto-atribuição (reconhecimento/nãoreconhecimento) ajudam a determinar aquilo que constitui o cerne do inconsciente dinâmico, mesmo que o não-consciente cognitivo e o inconsciente psicanalítico se sobreponham em grande medida. O artigo mostra ainda, finalmente, até que ponto um novo consenso interdisciplinar nos oferece agora uma oportunidade para reconhecer as limitações do racionalismo emfilosofia da mente. (shrink)
Plastic deformation of micron and sub-micron scale specimens is characterized by intermittent sequences of large strain bursts (dislocation avalanches) which are separated by regions of near-elastic loading. In the present investigation we perform a statistical characterization of strain bursts observed in stress-controlled compressive deformation of monocrystalline molybdenum micropillars. We characterize the bursts in terms of the associated elongation increments and peak deformation rates, and demonstrate that these quantities follow power-law distributions that do not depend on specimen orientation or stress rate. (...) We also investigate the statistics of stress increments in between the bursts, which are found to be Weibull distributed and exhibit a characteristic size effect. We discuss our findings in view of observations of deformation bursts in other materials, such as face-centred cubic and hexagonal metals. (shrink)
Modern professional behavior all too often fails to meet high standards of moral conduct. An important reason for this unfortunate state of affairs is the expansive self interest of the individual professional. The individual''s natural desire for his/her own success and pleasure goes unchecked by internal moral constraints. In this essay, I investigate this phenomenon using the psychoanalytic concepts of the ego ideal and superego. These concepts are used to explore the internal psychological dynamics that contribute to moral decision-making. The (...) contrasts between self interest and concern for others, selfishness and moral values, and moral conscience and social conformity are examined in Tolstoy''s study of the modern professional in The Death of Ivan Ilych. By reviewing Freud''s work on the moral conscience, particularly its complex inner structure and liabilities to dysfunction, and applying it to Tolstoy''s penetrating portrayal of Ivan Ilych''s personal and professional life, an understanding of the inner (emotional) foundation of moral character, its dependence on the past through the links between generations, and the need to integrate idealism with moral values is generated. Examples from Enron Corporation will be used throughout the paper to relate the analysis and discussion to contemporary business ethics problems. (shrink)
Ve své knížce Fenomenologie a kultura slepé skvrny předkládá Ivan Blecha tři eseje, jejichž společným jmenovatelem je konfrontace různých aspektů postmodernistické filosofie s filosofií fenomenologickou. Proti obratu k jazyku a z něj často vyvozovaného pluralismu nebo dokonce relativismu staví Blecha tezi, že svět, ve kterém člověk žije, je determinován způsobem, kterým v kadlubu své intencionální mysli konstituuje věci ze svého bezprostředního prožívání, a že tudíž tento svět není v žádném podstatném slova smyslu ani tvarován jazykem, ani otevřen žádným velkým (...) pluralistickým variacím. V prvním textu, ‘Znak, stopa, fenomén’ se Blecha zamýšlí především nad tím, co nazývá lingvistickou klauzurou (a co je podle něj přesvědčením společným francouzským poststrukturalistům kolem Derridy i americkým postanalytickým filosofům kolem Rortyho), totiž že člověk nemá bezprostřední přístup ke světu, ale jedině k jazyku, takže veškeré poznávání je jenom interpretace. Ve druhém, ‘Kant, pragmatický anti-realismus a Husserlova fenomenologie’ se zabývá tím, do jaké míry je opodstatněné relativistické domýšlení Kanta. V posledním, který je nazván tak jako celá knížka, pak polemizuje především s názory Wolfganga Welsche, které ústí do cílevědomého epistemického pluralismu. Myslím, že ty nejzákladnější otázky, které Blecha ve své knize klade, totiž otázka po nutnosti a mezích plurality a po tom, do jaké míry je nám chápání světa zprostředkováváno jazykem, jsou velice důležité a také velice zajímavé. Blecha se s nimi navíc snaží vypořádat, aniž by se obrnil hantýrkou, která by jeho obranu fenomenologie učinila srozumitelnou zase jenom pro fenomenology; a jeho kniha tím představuje výzvu k zajímavé diskusi. Do filosofů na druhé straně barikády se pouští s odkrytým hledím, a i když je, jak se budu snažit ukázat, sem tam v něčem dezinterpretuje, je jeho kniha ukázku toho, jak by se podle mne s konkurenčními filosofickými směry polemizovat mělo. Co se mi jeví jako dezinterpretace, se objevuje hned na počátku prvního eseje.. (shrink)
Ivan Illich, philosopher, historian, priest and social commentator died in Bremen, Germany on December 2, 2002. Illich was noted for his critique of the Church, education and medicine but his concepts dealt with more fundamental issues. This article reveals aspects of Illich, the man, and explores his ideas as they apply to the meaning of medicine and, in particular, the role of health care in contemporary society.
In 1925, Russian philosopher Ivan Il'in published a book entitled On Resistance to Evil by Force . The book generated a bitter polemic among @migré Russian thinkers, which constitutes probably the most thorough debate on the justification of the use of force ever conducted among Russian scholars. This paper analyses Il'in's work and places it into the context of Russian history and philosophy. Il'in argued that war was sometimes necessary, but never 'just'. On occasions, the only way of fulfilling (...) one's obligation to resist evil is to fight. At such times one must do so. But one must understand that what one is doing, though necessary, is unjust, because one is always at least partially responsible for the situation which made violence necessary. While not shirking one's responsibilities, it is only by facing up to the guilt of one's deeds that one can prevent war from undermining one's moral equilibrium. This paper shows that most of those who took part in the debate provoked by Il'in's book agreed with the fundamentals of his argument. This fact illustrates that there is a distinctive Russian philosophy regarding the use of force which in important aspects differs from Western just war theory. (shrink)
En este artículo presentamos una descripción de la crítica de Iván Illich a la sociedad industrial, específicamente en relación al problema de la energía y de la equidad. Especial atención es dada al concepto de convivencialidad y a sus posibles repercusiones para enfrentar los problemas energéticos. Una discusión en torno a la manera de Illich de criticar a la sociedad es presentada, en relación a lo que ha sido llamado un “humanismo crítico” y al problema de las necesidades individuales.
Tolstoy's The Death of Ivan Ilyich describes how a man's exposure to imminent death allows him to secure redemption from a flawed life. Through close textual attention to Tolstoy's novella and extensive engagement with Frances Kamm's treatment of it, this article quarrels with this of Ivan's case, offering a sourer, more pessimistic view. It is argued that Ivan's reconciliation to death is facilitated by a series of mistakes he makes en route to his dying moments. Two more (...) general lessons are drawn: first, that we are all vulnerable to the mistakes Ivan makes, and second, that reflection on the quality of our lives does not present us with any obvious resources for coming to terms with our own deaths. (shrink)
Este artículo presenta una interpretación hermenéutica/psicológica del cuento de hadas Zarevich Iván, el pájaro de fuego y el lobo a partir de la psicología analítica de Carl Gustav Jung y la metodología de interpretación diseñada por Marie Von Franz.
In this paper, Tyson E. Lewis challenges the dominant theoretical and practical educational responses to globalization. On the level of public policy, Lewis demonstrates the limitations of both neoliberal privatization and liberal calls for rehabilitating public schooling. On the level of pedagogy, Lewis breaks with the dominant liberal democratic tradition which focuses on the cultivation of democratic dispositions for cosmopolitan citizenship. Shifting focus, Lewis posits a new location for education out of bounds of the common sense of public versus private, (...) nationalism versus cosmopolitanism, inclusion versus exclusion, human versus civil rights. This is the space of the commonwealth whose actors cannot be identified as ‘citizens’ but are rather the anonymous multitude. In conclusion, Lewis finds a model for organizing this commonwealth in the work of Ivan Illich, whose learning networks speak to the urgent political and pedagogical need for exodus from the conceptual vocabulary that defines much of the contemporary field of educational theory. (shrink)