Abstract: Many astrologers attribute a successful birth-chart reading to what they call intuition or psychic ability,where the birth chart acts like a crystal ball. As in shamanism,they relate consciousness to a transcendent reality that,if true, might require are-assessment of present biological theories of consciousness.In Western countries roughly 1 person in 10,000 is practising or seriously studying astrology, so their total number is substantial. Many tests of astrologers have been made since the 1950s but only recently has a coherent review been (...) possible. A large-scale test of persons born less than five minutes apart found no hint of the similarities predicted by astrology. Meta-analysis of more than forty controlled studies suggests that astrologers are unable to perform significantly better than chance even on the more basic tasks such as predicting extraversion. More specifically,astrologers who claim to use psychic ability perform no better than those who do not. The possibility that astrology might be relevant to consciousness and psi is not denied, but such influences, if they exist in astrology,would seem to be very weak or very rare. -/- . (shrink)
W. V. Quine assumed that in _Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology Rudolf Carnap was attempting to dodge commitment to abstract entities--without either renouncing quantification over them or demonstrating their dispensability--by wielding the analytic/synthetic distinction against ontological issues. Quine's interpretation of Carnap's intent--and his criticism of it--is widely endorsed. But Carnap objected, I argue, not to abstract entities, but to his critics' suggestion that empiricism implies nominalism. Quine's and Carnap's views are therefore more akin than Quine ever suspected. Unfortunately, Quine's misinterpretation of (...) Carnap's position has led to a misunderstanding of the implications of Quine's own naturalistic turn for contemporary ontology. (shrink)
This is a review of a book that tries to re-establish mind-body dualism by using (a) empirical research on near-death experiences, placebo effects, creativity, claiming even that parapsychology should become a respected part of science, and (b) Frederic W. H. Myers' (1843-1901) metaphor of the brain as a kind of receiving device that records what the irreducible mind sends as messages. Among other things, we criticize the lack of philosophical clarity about mind-body relation, and question the book's tendency to refer (...) to past and current parapsychological literature as reliable. (shrink)
The E-Z Reader model assumes that the parafoveal selection for fixation and the subsequent selection for attention allocation encompass the same spatially distinct letter cluster. Recent data suggest, however, that an individual letter sequence is selected for fixation and that more than one letter sequence can be selected for attention allocation (processing).
Machine generated contents note: 1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the (...) omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index. (shrink)
Cerebral language lateralization can be assessed in several ways. In healthy subjects, functional MRI (fMRI) during performance of a language task has evolved to be the most frequently applied method. Functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) may provide a valid alternative, but has been used rarely. Both techniques have their own strengths and weaknesses and as a result may be applied in different fields of research. Until now, only one relatively small study (n=13) investigated the correlation between lateralization indices measured by fTCD (...) and fMRI and showed a remarkably high correlation. To further evaluate the correlation between lateralization indices measured with fTCD and fMRI, we compared lateralization indices of twenty-two healthy subjects (twelve left- and ten right-handed) using the same word generation paradigm for the fTCD as for the fMRI experiment. Lateralization indices measured with fTCD were highly but imperfectly correlated with lateralization indices measured with fMRI (Spearman’s rho=0.75, p<0.001). The imperfectness of the correlation can partially be explained by methodological restrictions of fMRI as well as fTCD. Our results suggest that fTCD can be a valid alternative for fMRI to measure lateralization, particularly when costs or mobility are important factors in the study design. (shrink)
The contemporary relevance of Hegel, by J. N. Findlay.--The Hegel myth and its method. The young Hegel and religion. By W. Kaufmann.--Hegel: a non-metaphysical view, by K. Hartmann.--Hegel's concept of "geist," by R. C. Solomon.--The opening arguments of the Phenomenology, by C. Taylor.--Notes on Hegel's "Lordship and bondage," by G. A. Kelly.--Hegel on faces and skulls, by A. MacIntyre.--The formalization of Hegel's dialectical logic, by M. Kosok.--Hegel on freedom, by R. L. Schacht.--Hegel revisited, by S. Avineri.--Select bibliography (p. -350).
Findlay, J. N. The contemporary relevance of Hegel.--Kaufmann, W. The Hegel myth and its method.--Kaufmann, W. The young Hegel and religion.--Hartmann, K. Hegel: a non-metaphysical view.--Solomon, R. C. Hegel's concept of "geist."--Taylor, C. The opening arguments of the Phenomenology.--Kelly, G. A. Notes on Hegel's "Lordship and bondage."--MacIntyre, A. Hegel on faces and skulls.--Kosok, M. The formalization of Hegel's dialectical logic.--Schacht, R. L. Hegel on freedom.--Avineri, S. Hegel revisted.
Machine generated contents note: Notes on Contributors.1. Introduction: Educational Neuroscience (Kathryn E. Patten and Stephen R. Campbell).2. Educational Neuroscience: Motivations, methodology, and implications (Stephen R. Campbell).3. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning? (Anthony E. Kelly).4. A Multiperspective Approach to Neuroeducational Research (Paul A. Howard-Jones).5. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education? (Michel Ferrari).6. Connecting Education and Cognitive Neuroscience: Where will the journey take us? (Daniel Ansar1, Donna Coch and Bert De Smedt).7. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical (...) Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI studies of the neural correlates of creative intelligence (John Geake).8. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies (Hideaki Koizumi).9. Directions for Mind, Brain, and Education: Methods, Models, and Morality (Zachary Stein and Kurt W. Fischer).10. The Birth of a Field and the Rebirth of the Laboratory School (Marc Schwartz and Jeanne Gerlach).11. Mathematics Education and Neurosciences: Towards interdisciplinary insights into the development of young children's mathematical abilities (Fenna Van Nes).12. Neuroscience and the Teaching of Mathematics (Kerry Lee and Swee Fong Ng).13. The Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect: Paradigm for educational neuroscience and neuropedagogy (Kathryn E. Patten).14. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory (Mary Helen Immordino-Yang).Index. (shrink)
Purpose: The problem of entering a “mainstream” is analyzed by looking at the problem of recursive splitting in the use of constructivism, illustrating this problem with the special case of personal construct psychology. Problem: In this opinion article I outline a number of issues intrinsic to radical constructivism, and also to other less radical forms of constructivism, which tend to lead its users in the opposite direction to any detectable “mainstream,” indeed leading them steadily away from any unifying flow that (...) might eventually leak into a mainstream. Method: By analyzing the “constructivist field” with regard to a series of “miss-takes” easily made by those approaching the radical constructivist outlook, and also with regard to an intrinsic tendency towards idiosyncratic individualism, I want to show the deepening degree of fragmentizing and splitting that I regard as endemic to the constructivist epistemology. I also describe how the metaphoric power of the term “constructivism” has been lost and has now become a dead metaphor, and I use the “gyres” metaphor of W. B. Yeats to describe the impending chaos and dissolution of the constructivisms. Implications: I make six main suggestions as to how this state of events might possibly be slowed down or even recovered from, thus avoiding ongoing deterioration and its self-disintegrating conclusion. (shrink)
Josiah Royce (1855-1916) was the leading American proponent of absolute idealism, the metaphysical view (also maintained by G. W. F. Hegel and F. H. Bradley) that all aspects of reality, including those we experience as disconnected or contradictory, are ultimately unified in the thought of a single all-encompassing consciousness. Royce also made original contributions in ethics, philosophy of community, philosophy of religion and logic. His major works include The Religious Aspect of Philosophy (1885), The World and the Individual (1899-1901), The (...) Philosophy of Loyalty (1908), and The Problem of Christianity (1913). Royce's friendly but longstanding dispute with William James, known as "The Battle of the Absolute," deeply influenced both philosophers' thought. In his later works, Royce reconceived his metaphysics as an "absolute pragmatism" grounded in semiotics. This view dispenses with the Absolute Mind of previous idealism and instead characterizes reality as a universe of ideas or signs which occur in a process of being interpreted by an infinite community of minds. These minds, and the community they constitute, may themselves be understood as signs. Royce's ethics, philosophy of community, philosophy of religion, and logic reflect this metaphysical position. (shrink)