En este artículo tratamos de hacer plausible la hipótesis de que las conectivas de diferentes lógicas no necesariamente difieren en significado. Utilizando el tratamiento categorista de las conectivas, argumentaremos contra la tesis quineana de que la diferencia de lógicas implica diferencia de significado entre sus conectivas, y ubicamos el cambio de tema en la diferencia de objetos más bien que en una tal diferencia de significado. Finalmente, intentamos mostrar que ese tratamiento categorista es una forma de minimalismo semántico, de acuerdo (...) con el cual no todos los elementos semánticos usuales son relevantes para determinar el significado de las conectivas. (shrink)
RESUMEN: En este artículo tratamos de hacer plausible la hipótesis de que las conectivas de diferentes lógicas no necesariamente difieren en significado. Utilizando el tratamiento categorista de las conectivas, argumentaremos contra la tesis quineana de que la diferencia de lógicas implica diferencia de significado entre sus conectivas, y ubicamos el cambio de tema en la diferencia de objetos más que en una tal diferencia de significado. Finalmente, intentamos mostrar que ese tratamiento categorista es una forma de minimalismo semántico, de acuerdo (...) con el cual no todos los elementos semánticos usuales son relevantes para determinar el significado de las conectivas.ABSTRACT: We argue here that the meanings of logical connectives need not differ in different logics. treatment of the logical connectives, we argue against the well-known Quinean thesis that a difference between logics implies a difference in the meanings of connectives. We thus locate this change in the difference between certain objects rather than in the difference between the meaning of connectives. Finally, we try to show that the category-theoretic treatment of logical connectives is a form of semantic minimalism, according to which not all the usual semantic components are relevant in fixing the meaning of a connective. (shrink)
Workplace bullying has a well-established body of research internationally, but the United States has lagged behind the rest of the world in the identification and investigation of this phenomenon. This paper presents a managerial perspective on bullying in organizations. The lack of attention to the concept of workplace dignity in American organizational structures has supported and even encouraged both casual and more severe forms of harassment that our workplace laws do not currently cover. The demoralization victims suffer can create toxic (...) working environments and impair organizational productivity. Some methods of protecting your organization from this blight of bullying are proposed. Bullying has always been part of the human condition; history is rife with references to abuse of power and unnecessary or excessive force. The classic bully story is of Joseph and his brothers, a tale of envy and hostility. The refinement of bullying to include various forms of legally defined social harassment is a relatively late phenomenon, however, dating to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In the United States, bullying is not illegal, whereas it is illegal in many other countries. Bullying is not about benign teasing, nor does it include the off-color jokes, racial slurs, or unwelcome advances that are the hallmarks of legally defined harassment. Workplace bullying is the pattern of destructive and generally deliberate demeaning of co-workers or subordinates that reminds us of the activities of the schoolyard bully. Unlike the schoolyard bully, however, the workplace bully is an adult, usually (but not always) aware of the impact of his or her behavior on others. Bullying in the workplace, often tacitly accepted by the organizational leadership, can create an environment of psychological threat that diminishes corporate productivity and inhibits individual and group commitment. The two examples that follow will help to clarify the difference between harassment and bullying. (shrink)
In recent times, there have been different attempts to make an interesting use of the concept of script (as inherited from the fields of psychology and cognitive sciences) within argumentation theory. Although, in many cases, what we find under this label are computerized routines mainly used in e-learning collaborative proceses involving argumentation, either as an educational means or an educational goal, there are also other studies in which the concept of script plays a more theoretical role as the kind of (...) commonly human cognitive structure that could account for the way in which argumentation might develop in ordinary language and ordinary settings. We aim at exploring these latter possibilities, differentiating between the global ascription of the script concept to argumentation practices as procedural and regulated actions from the somewhat more suggestive association between socially shared scripts (expected narratives, plausible sequences, customary experiences, etc.) and the way some enthymemes work from an interactive, rhetorical perspective. The concept of script could help us understand some more procedural than propositional aspects of the cognitive sets shared by arguer and audience and account for the communicative success of apparently defective argumentation. (shrink)
We present an instrument developed to explain to students the concept of the personal ethical threshold (PET). The PET represents an individual’s susceptibility to situational pressure in his or her organization that makes moral behavior more personally difficult. Further, the PET varies according to the moral intensity of the issue at hand, such that individuals are less vulnerable to situational pressure for issues of high moral intensity, i.e., those with greater consequences for others. A higher PET reflects an individual’s greater (...) likelihood of adhering to the morally correct path, even in the face of high situational pressures (personal costs) and low moral intensity (collective importance). PET questionnaires were completed by 506 students representing eight business schools throughout the United States. Relationships between respondents’ PET and their gender, age, and major field of study, as well as the geographical location of their school, are explored. Results indicate that older students have higher PETs and that students attending schools in the northeastern part of the United States have lower PETs. These findings are discussed. It is argued that the PET instrument can be used to help students identify organizational pressures and intrapersonal processes that can impede their moral behavior in organizations. (shrink)
Maslow and Csikszentmihalyi interpret human experience through a broad application of stakeholder theory to provide an expanded framework for ethical business. The aggressive search for mutuality of interest can reconcile conflicting stakeholder needs. Maslow's religious peak experiences work in tandem with Csikszentmihalyi's psychological optimal experiences (flow) to support the proposition that transcendence is an achievable goal, both for individuals and for corporations.
The tendency of American business schools to teach a "universal" set of ethical standards and managerial perspectives can have a serious impact on the business practices of new graduates as well as on the success of companies desiring to do business globally. We need to become more sensitive to other cultural/ethical approaches and to sensitize our business students to them early in their academic process in order to encourage the use of common-norming to attain mutual economic benefit. We can understand (...) this process through the application of anthropological principles to ethical constructs. (shrink)
This paper presents an experiential exercise introducing the concept of the personal ethical threshold (PET) to help explain why moral behavior does not always follow moral intention. An individual’s PET represents the individual’s vulnerability to situational factors, i.e., how little or much it takes for members of organizations to cross their proverbial line to act in a way they deem unethical. The PET reflects the interplay among the situation, the particular ethical issue, and the individual. Exploring the PET can help (...) account for why some people are sometimes able to withstand substantial organizational pressures to behave in congruence with their ethical intentions, whereas others crumble in the face of apparently minimal situational forces. We hope that students’ exposure to and subsequent reflection upon their PET, by means of the exercise we present, will foster the development of their moral courage. (shrink)
RESUMEN: Este artículo argumenta a favor de la necesidad de mantener una distinción nítida entre ciencia y técnica en contra de ciertas tendencias interpretativas y socio-institucionales dominantes en algunos círculos de filósofos y sociólogos. Se presentan dos argumentos: el primero insiste en la conveniencia analitíca de describir direrencìadamente las actividades científicas y tecnológicas a partir de las nociones de "acto epistémico" y "acto material"; el segundo descubre en las reglas constitutivas de la aceptabilidad de resultados científicos y técnicos respectivamente un (...) modo de distinguir socio-institucionalmente ambas esferas de producción de conocimiento.ABSTRACT: This paper argues for the need to maintain a clear distinction between science and technology against some well-known interpretative tendencies within some dominant circles of philosophers and sociologists. Two arguments are presented: the first one insists on the analytical convenience to describe differently the scientific and the technological activities by introducing the notions of "epistemic act" and "material act"; the second one discovers in the constitutiverules for the acceptability of scientific and technological results a way to distinguish socioinstitutionally both spheres of knowledge production. (shrink)
Our aim in this paper is to throw some light on the kind of normativity characteristic of human knowledge. We describe the epistemic normative domain as that field of human agency defined by knowledge understood as an achievement. The normativity of knowledge rests on the contribution of the epistemic agent to the fulfillment of certain tasks. Such contribution is epistemically significant when the agent becomes engaged in the obtaining of success. Finally, we identify some features associated with full epistemic agency (...) (conditions of cognitive integration and epistemic autonomy) and elucidate what we mean by engagement by appealing to the idea of adopting an epistemic perspective. En este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre la normatividad propia del conocimiento humano. Describimos el dominio normativo epistémico como un campo de agencia humana que está definido por el conocimiento entendido como logro. La normatividad del conocimiento se apoya en la contribución del agente epistémico a la consecución de ciertas tareas. Tal contribución es epistémicamente significativa cuando el agente llega a participar en la consecución del éxito. Por último identificamos algunos rasgos asociados con la agencia epistémica completa (condiciones de integración cognitiva y autonomía epistémica), y aclaramos lo que queremos decir con implicación apelando a la idea de adoptar una perspectiva epistémica. (shrink)
Nanostructured materials should present a good resistance to irradiation because the large volume fraction of grain boundaries can be an important sink for radiation-induced defects. The objective of the present study is to experimentally investigate the irradiation impact on the microstructure and mechanical properties in nanostructured materials. Nickel and Cu-0.5Al2O3 specimens were synthesized by electro deposition (ED) and severe plastic deformation (SPD). Mean grain size of the unirradiated specimen is about 30?nm for the ED Ni and about 115?nm for the (...) SPD Ni. 590?MeV proton irradiation and 840?keV nickel ion irradiation were conducted at room temperature. Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscope observation were performed to examine the impact of irradiation on nanocrystalline materials. It appears that the irradiation induced microstructure in Ni and in Cu-0.5Al2O3, which leads to hardening, consists exclusively of stacking fault tetrahedra. Their density appears much lower than in the case of coarser grained material. These results, experimentally showing the resistance of nanostructured material to radiation damage, are presented here. (shrink)
The microstructural modifications due to irradiation in hcp pure metals and their consequences on the mechanical properties have been investigated. Experimental results for proton-irradiated pure polycrystalline titanium are presented and discussed. Samples have been irradiated with 590?MeV protons to a low dose range at two different temperatures, room temperature and 523?K. Defect sizes and densities as a function of dose have been determined by means of transmission electron microscopy observations, and hardening has been measured from uniaxial tensile stress?strain curves. The (...) dose dependence of the irradiation hardening has been found to depend strongly on the investigated temperatures. These results are discussed in terms of the main deformation mechanism operating at each temperature. (shrink)
We present a comprehensive dislocation dynamics (DD) study of the strength of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) to screw dislocation glide in fcc Cu. Our methodology explicitly accounts for partial dislocation reactions in fcc crystals, which allows us to provide more detailed insights into the dislocation?SFT processes than previous DD studies. The resistance due to stacking fault surfaces to dislocation cutting has been computed using atomistic simulations and added in the form of a point stress to our DD methodology. We obtain (...) a value of 1658.9 MPa, which translates into an extra force resolved on the glide plane that dislocations must overcome before they can penetrate SFTs. In fact, we see they do not, leading to two well differentiated regimes: (i) partial dislocation reactions, resulting in partial SFT damage, and (ii) impenetrable SFT resulting in the creation of Orowan loops. We obtain SFT strength maps as a function of dislocation glide plane-SFT intersection height, interaction orientation, and dislocation line length. In general SFTs are weaker obstacles the smaller the encountered triangular area is, which has allowed us to derive simple scaling laws with the slipped area as the only variable. These laws suffice to explain all strength curves and are used to derive a simple model of dislocation?SFT strength. The stresses required to break through obstacles in the 2.5?4.8-nm size range have been computed to be 100?300 MPa, in good agreement with some experimental estimations and molecular dynamics calculations. (shrink)
A lo largo de más de tres décadas, la obra de Lluís Duch (Barcelona, 1936) se ha ido consolidando en el ámbito de los estudios de historia de la cultura europea con una voz verdaderamente singular. Sus estudios sobre el mito son ya un referente ineludible en nuestro país y en Latinoamérica. Empalabrar el mundo, título de este volumen, es una de las expresiones más conseguidas de Lluís Duch, ya que en ella se da cita el alcance de su compromiso (...) intelectual y espiritual con el ser humano que habita un aquí y un ahora ineludibles. Empalabrar el mundo dota de sentido a todo cuanto contiene este volumen: además de una introducción general al pensamiento de Lluís Duch, un conjunto de aportaciones centradas en momentos principales de su obra o que entran en diálogo con la misma, así como dos textos del propio Duch relativos a la cuestión del mito, una breve biografía del autor y una bibliografía completa de sus publicaciones. Este libro quiere ser una invitación a la lectura de la peculiar antropología desarrollada por Lluís Duch a lo largo de más de cuarenta libros y de centenares de artículos científi cos, y quiere constituir, con ocasión de su setenta y cinco cumpleaños, un homenaje al pensador, al antropólogo y al monje. (shrink)
Large-scale molecular dynamics of cascade production of the primary damage state are performed in nanocrystalline nickel with an average grain diameter of 12?nm and primary knock-on atom kinetic energies ranging from 5 to 30?keV. The role of the grain boundary during the cascade production of irradiated NC Ni is discussed in terms of grain-boundary structure. It is shown that regions of misfit in the grain boundaries can absorb self-interstitials and that stacking-fault tetrahedra are formed in the neighbourhood of the grain (...) boundary. (shrink)
Irradiation induces the formation of stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs) in a number of fcc metals, such as stainless steel and pure copper. In order to understand the role of the material's parameters on this formation, pure Cu, Ni, Pd and Al, having a respective stacking fault energy of 45, 125, 180 and 166?mJ?m?2, have been irradiated with high energy protons to a dose of about 10?2?dpa at room temperature. The irradiation-induced microstructure has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy. All irradiated (...) metals but Al present SFTs. The proportion of perfect, truncated and grouped SFTs has been determined. The SFT energy as a function of size has been calculated using elasticity of the continuum, with respect to the energy of a number of other possible defect configurations. It appears that the key parameters are the stacking fault energy and the shear modulus. Their implication on the formation and stability of the SFTs is discussed. (shrink)
Single-crystal nickel was irradiated with 590?MeV protons to 10?1?dpa at room temperature. Irradiated and unirradiated tensile samples were deformed and relaxation tests were performed at temperatures between 77 and 423?K. The tests show a strong temperature dependence of the flow stress for samples irradiated to 0.1?dpa as compared to the unirradiated case. Unirradiated and irradiated deformed microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The initial plastic deformation of the samples irradiated at 0.1?dpa shows strain localization in the form of defect (...) free channels, over the temperature range from 77 to 293?K. Deformation processes are analysed through the determination of the activation energies of the deformation mechanisms as deduced from relaxation tests. The activation energy has an approximate value of 0.5?eV in unirradiated samples. In the irradiated samples it is suggested that multiple deformation processes are operative in the temperature range from 77 to 423?K. (shrink)
Este trabajo revisa y aplica algunos conceptos y relaciones entre conocimiento, investigación y desarrollo, y posteriormente, entre ciencia, tecnología, innovación y sociedad. Constituye una aproximación general, donde el conocimiento es visto como un proceso integrado que se inicia en el asombro y la curiosidad, se construye a través de la investigación y crece en múltiples disciplinas científicas básicas y aplicadas, que innovan y avanzan hacia el desarrollo y bienestar social, cultural y económico. A la luz de ciertos inventos y descubrimientos, (...) nombres y figuras notables del saber, se discuten aspectos, avances y perspectivas de una cultura basada en el conocimiento, la información y la globalización. (shrink)
In the late seventies and early eighties, two subjects became recurrent in the interventions made by Foucault on interviews, conferences and his lessons at Collège de France: a particular approach to the text Was ist Aufklärung?, written by Kant, and the conscious study of the forms adopted by the Greek Parrhesia. Even though both subjects are anchored to different historical foundations, there is a noticeable the effort made by Foucault with aims at determining —into the theoretical and practical place of (...) his crossing-over thinking— a specific sense for the philosophical enterprise he was personally involved. Unfortunately, his death in 1984 left the new working program incomplete. The objectives of this writing are: 1) to shallowly characterize both of this notions and 2) to articulate some of the crossing points between Aufklärung and Parrhesía, in order to reactivate the problem of the specificity of the philosophical work, according to the line being followed by this French philosopher. (shrink)
Let’s agree in calling “classical demonstration” a deduction that enables us to know the rational necessity that something is the case and cannot be otherwise. I propose to take seriously actual instances of this notion, e.g. some mathematical proofs, and explore certain discoursive and epistemic implications of their existence. Then I will look at questions about characterizing, rigorizing and acknowledging this kind of conclusive proof. Finally, some remarks on the meaning of Provability Logic in this context will be made.
The habitual knowledge offers the postmodernity philosophy the neccesary cognitive support for its thematic opening. That is way the notion of habitual knowledge allow the continuation of the philosophy and, specificly, about metaphysics.
The main aims of this paper are two: first, to show that the current situation of History of Logic is far from being satisfactory, and second, to put forward a programme for its improvement. To this end it is as well, I think, to take into account a new conceptual and historiographical approach to growth of Iogic as a discipline, some basic notions in this regard -e.g., the notion of being a contribution to develop ment of Iogic-, and some others (...) compIementary aspects, commonly neglected by the History of Logic scholars. (shrink)
The text attempts to look upon globalization in the education as a problem, referring to the governmental strategy that guaranties the control and the social development beginning from a modernization project that is not determined. Therefore, when taking into account as a frame of reference the centuries XIX and XX, it is shown the ‘education role’ as a control mechanism in permanent relation with the public politics and it is questioned its apparent liberal character.
In an effort to build interest in the two-year old service learning center and to fulfill its mission to integrate academic life with service in thoughtful and relevant ways, a competition was held to award developmental grants to faculty to create innovative courses incorporating service learning. The winning proposal from the business school used a business ethics course as the vehicle for formally introducing service into the business curriculum. This paper will tell the story of the intended and unintended consequences (...) of building collaboration on several levels: between generations, between college and community, between faculty and college resources, between student teams, and between theory and practice. (shrink)
Este trabajo esboza una forma de justificar el principio estructurador central de una teoría veritista de la evaluación epistémica, en respuesta a críticas planteadas por Eleonora Cresto a mi defensa del veritismo frente a una serie de objeciones en el sentido de que no es capaz de explicar la naturaleza y el valor del entendimiento. La primera sección presenta el esbozo de justificación del núcleo de una teoría veritista; la segunda responde a críticas más específicas de Cresto. This paper sketches (...) a way to justify the central tenet of a veritistic theory of epistemic evaluation, in response to problems raised by Eleonora Cresto concerning my defense of veritism, against a series of objetions to the effect that veritistic epistemology is uncapable of explaining the nature and value of understanding. The first section presents the sketch of justification of the nucleus of a veritistic theory, the second responds to some of Cresto's more specific criticisms. (shrink)