The thermal expansion for two compositions of cast and hot-pressed LAST (Pb?Sb?Ag?Te) n-type thermoelectric materials has been measured between room temperature and 673 K via thermomechanical analysis (TMA). In addition, using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), the thermal expansion for both cast and hot-pressed LAST materials was determined from the temperature-dependent lattice parameters measured between room temperature and 623 K. The TMA and HT-XRD determined values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) for the LAST compositions ranged between 20 ? 10?6 (...) K?1 and 24 ? 10?6 K?1, which is comparable to the CTE values for other thermoelectric materials including PbTe and Bi2Te3. The CTE of the LAST specimens with a higher Ag content (Ag0.86Pb19Sb1.0Te20) exhibited a higher CTE value than that of the LAST material with a lower Ag content (Ag0.43Pb18Sb1.2Te20). In addition, a peak in the temperature-dependent CTE was observed between room temperature and approximately 450 K for both the cast and hot-pressed LAST with the Ag0.86Pb19Sb1.0Te20 composition, whereas the CTE of the Ag0.43Pb18Sb1.2Te20 specimen increased monotonically with temperature. (shrink)
The crystal structure of the ruthenium DNA ‘light-switch’ complex Λ-[Ru(TAP)2(11-Cl-dppz)]2+ (TAP=tetraazaphenanthrene, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a′:2′,3′-c]phenazine) bound to the oligonucleotide duplex d(TCGGCGCCGA)2 is reported. The synthesis of the racemic ruthenium complex is described for the first time, and the racemate was used in this study. The crystal structure, at atomic resolution (1.0 Å), shows one ligand as a wedge in the minor groove, resulting in the 51° kinking of the double helix, as with the parent Λ-[Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+. Each complex binds to one duplex by intercalation (...) of the dppz ligand and also by semi-intercalation of one of the orthogonal TAP ligands into a second symmetrically equivalent duplex. The 11-chloro substituent binds with the major component (66%) oriented with the 11-chloro substituent on the purine side of the terminal step of the duplex. (shrink)
Ecology is being introduced to Evolutionary Developmental Biology to enhance organism-, population-, species-, and higher-taxon-level studies. This exciting, bourgeoning troika will revolutionise how investigators consider relationships among environment, ontogeny, and phylogeny. Features are studied (and even defined) differently in ecology, development, and evolution. Form is central to development and evolution but peripheral to ecology. Congruence (i.e., homology) is applied at different hierarchical levels in the three disciplines. Function is central to ecology but peripheral to development. Herein, the supercategories form (‘isomorphic’ (...) or ‘allomorphic’), congruence (‘homologous’ or ‘homoplastic’), and function (‘adaptive’ or ‘nonadaptive’) are combined with two developmental mode (i.e., growth) categories (‘conformational’ or ‘nonconformational’) to provide a 16-class system for analysing features in studies in which ecology, development, and evolution are integrated. (shrink)
There remains a need to properly analyze the metaphysical assumptions underlying two organ procurement policies: presumed consent and organ sales. Our contention is that if one correctly understands the metaphysics of both the human body and material property, then it will turn out that while organ sales are illiberal, presumed consent is not. What we mean by illiberal includes violating rights of bodily integrity, property, or autonomy, as well as arguing for or against a policy in a manner that runs (...) afoul of Rawlsian public reason. (shrink)
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the historian and internationalist Arnold J. Toynbee (1889?1975) conducted a highly public campaign against Western imperialism, arguing that the West needed to acknowledge and atone for its aggression if the world was to find peace. His efforts met with considerable resistance, damaging his reputation as a scholar and a political thinker. This article examines the origins of Toynbee's anti-imperialism in his philosophy of history, his public arguments of the postwar period, and the reaction (...) they provoked. (shrink)
We show that if N and M are transitive models of ZFA such that N M, N and M have the same kernel and same set of atoms, and M AC, then N is a Fraenkel-Mostowski-Specker (FMS) submodel of M if and only if M is a generic extension of N by some almost homogeneous notion of forcing. We also develop a slightly modified notion of FMS submodels to characterize the case where M is a generic extension of N not (...) necessarily by an almost homogeneous notion of forcing. (shrink)
Many bodily sensations are connected quite closely with specific actions: itches with scratching, for example, and hunger with eating. Indeed, these connections have the feel of conceptual connections. With the exception of D. M. Armstrong, philosophers have largely neglected this aspect of bodily sensations. In this paper, I propose a theory of bodily sensations that explains these connections. The theory ascribes intentional content to bodily sensations but not, strictly speaking, representational content. Rather, the content of these sensations is an imperative: (...) in the case of itches, 'Scratch!' The view avoids non-intentional qualia and hence accords with what could be called, generalizing Lycan slightly, the 'hegemony of intentionality'. (shrink)
The standard adaptationist explanation of the presence of a sensory mechanism in an organism--that it detects properties useful to the organism--cannot be given for color vision. This is because colors do not exist. After arguing for this latter claim, I consider, but reject, nonadaptationist explanations. I conclude by proposing an explanation of how color vision could have adaptive value even though it does not detect properties in the environment.
In virtue of what does a representational state have the content it does? Several philosophers have recently proposed that a representational state gets its content from its biological function. After explaining the sense of biological function used in these views, I criticise the proposal. I argue that biological function only determines representational content up to extensional equivalence. I maintain that this holds even if biological function is defined in terms of an intensional notion like Sober's "selection for".
The emergence of private authority has become a feature of the post-Cold War world. The contributors to this volume examine the implications of this erosion of the power of the state for global governance. They analyse actors as diverse as financial institutions, multinational corporations, religious terrorists and organised criminals. The themes of the book relate directly to debates concerning globalization and the role of international law, and will be of interest to scholars and students of international relations, politics, sociology and (...) law. (shrink)
Improvements in computational hardware enabled by nanotechnology promise a dual revolution in coming decades: machines which are both more intelligent and more numerous than human beings. This possibility raises substantial concern over the moral nature of such intelligent machines. An analysis of the prospects involves at least two key philosophical issues. The first, intentionality in formal systems, turns on whether a “mere machine” can be a mind whose thoughts have true meaning and understanding. Second, what is the moral nature of (...) a machine vis-a-vis a human: can a machine be a true moral agent, capable of real responsibility, possessed of rights and duties? If so, might a machine be a better moral agent than a human? (shrink)
Let M be a model of ZFAC (ZFC modified to allow a set of atoms), and let N be an inner model with the same set of atoms and the same pure sets (sets with no atoms in their transitive closure) as M. We show that N is a permutation submodel of M if and only if N satisfies the principle SVC (Small Violations of Choice), a weak form of the axiom of choice which says that in some sense, all (...) violations of choice are localized in a set. A special case is considered in which there exists an SVC witness which satisfies a certain homogeneity condition. (shrink)
The concepts of joint probability as implied by the Copenhagen and realist interpretations of quantum mechanics are examined in relation to (a) the rules for manipulation of probabilistic quantities, and (b) the role of the Bell inequalities in assessing the completeness of standard quantum theory. Proponents of completeness of the Copenhagen interpretation are required to accept a modification of the classical laws of probability to provide a mechanism for complementarity. A new formulation of the locality postulate is given, not involving (...) factorizability or conditional probabilities, which clarifies the role of locality in the derivation of the Bell inequalities. (shrink)
For centuries medical schools in Britain and elsewhere had a fairly static curriculum based on what might be called the 'three Rs' of medicine, and consequently had to make room for new subjects as the need arose in a fashion which was sometimes makeshift. However, Southampton University has only had a medical school for six years, and therefore their course on medical ethics and legal medicine was carefully integrated into the curriculum after some preliminary experiments carried out by a subcommittee (...) which is continually reviewing the situation. Medical ethics has now a definite place in the fourth year, preceded by an introduction to ethical problems encountered in medicine in the first year. Not only do members of the medical faculty participate in this teaching but also members of the faculties of law and the arts. (shrink)
Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1) general use of prosodic features, (2) prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, (...) specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus) as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic), and (3) the relation between prosodic use and level of language function. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities. (shrink)