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  1.  134 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1980). Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair. Environmental Ethics 2 (4):311-338.
    The ethical foundations of the “animal liberation” movement are compared with those of Aldo Leopold’s “land ethic,” which is taken as the paradigm for environmental ethics in general. Notwithstanding certain superficial similarities, more profound practical and theoretical differences are exposed. While only sentient animals are moraIly considerable according to the humane ethic, the land ethic includes within its purview plants as weIl as animals and even soils and waters. Nor does the land ethic prohibit the hunting, killing, and eating ofcertain (...)
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  2.  86 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1993). The Land Ethic Today. Topoi 12 (1):41-51.
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  3.  75 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott & William Grove-Fanning (2009). Should Endangered Species Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Listed Species. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2):317-352.
    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is America's strongest environmental law. Its citizen-suit provisionany personawards implicit intrinsic value, de facto standing, and operational legal rights (sensu Christopher D. Stone) to listed species. Accordingly, some cases had gone forward in the federal courts in the name of various listed species between 1979 (Palila v. Hawaii Dept. of Land & Natural Resources) and 2004 (Cetacean Community v. Bush), when the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that animals could not sue in (...)
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  4.  65 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2007). The Future of Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):119-120.
  5.  60 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1984). Non-Anthropocentric Value Theory and Environmental Ethics. American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (4):299 - 309.
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  6.  59 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1982). Traditional American Indian and Western European Attitudes Toward Nature: An Overview. Environmental Ethics 4 (4):293-318.
    A generalized traditional Western world view is compared with a generalized traditional American Indian world view in respect to the practical relations implied by either to nature. The Western tradition pictures nature as material, mechanical, and devoid of spirit (reserving that exclusively for humans), while the American Indian tradition pictures nature throughout as an extended family or society of living, ensouled beings. The former picture invites unrestrained exploitation of nonhuman nature, while the latter provides the foundations for ethical restraint in (...)
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  7.  59 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1986). The Metaphysical Implications of Ecology. Environmental Ethics 8 (4):301-316.
    Although ecology is neither a universal nor foundational science, it has metaphysical implications because it profoundly alters traditional Western concepts of terrestrial nature and human being. I briefly sketch the received metaphysical foundations of the modem world view, set out a historical outline of an emerging ecological world view, and identify its principal metaphysical implications. Among these the most salient are a field ontology, the ontological subordination of matter to energy, internal relations, and systemic (as opposed to oceanic) holism. I (...)
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  8.  38 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1990). The Case Against Moral Pluralism. Environmental Ethics 12 (2):99-124.
    Despite Christopher Stone’s recent argument on behalf of moral pluralism, the principal architects of environmental ethics remain committed to moral monism. Moral pluralism fails to specify what to do when two or more of its theories indicate inconsistent practical imperatives. More deeply, ethical theories are embedded in moral philosophies and moral pluralism requires us to shift between mutually inconsistent metaphysics of morals, most of which are no Ionger tenable in light of postmodern science. A univocal moral philosophy-traceable to David Hume’s (...)
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  9.  34 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1982). Hume's is/Ought Dichtomy and the Relation of Ecology to Leopold's Land Ethic. Environmental Ethics 4 (2):163-174.
    Environmental ethics in its modem classical expression by Aldo Leopold appears to fall afoul of Hume’s prohibition against deriving ought-statements from is-statements since it is presented as a logical consequence of the science of ecology. Hume’s is/ought dichotomy is reviewed in its historical theoretical context. A general formulation bridging is and ought, in Hume’s terms, meeting his own criteria for sound practical argument, is found. It is then shown that Aldo Leopold’s land ethic is expressible as a special case of (...)
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  10.  34 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2010). The Conceptual Foundations of the Land Ethic. In Craig Hanks (ed.), Technology and Values: Essential Readings. Wiley-Blackwell
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  11.  33 DLs
    Robert Frodeman, Dale Jamieson, J. Baird Callicott, Stephen M. Gardiner, Lori Gruen, Irene J. Klaver, Eugene Hargrove, Ben A. Minteer, Bryan Norton, Clare Palmer, Holmes Rolston, Ricardo Rozzi, James P. Sterba, William M. Throop & Victoria Davion (2007). Commentary on the Future of Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):117 - 150.
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  12.  29 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold's Land Ethic? Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is still (...)
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  13.  29 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2003). Wetland Gloom and Wetland Glory. Philosophy and Geography 6 (1):33 – 45.
    Mountains were once no less feared and loathed than wetlands. Mountains, however, were aesthetically rehabilitated (in part by modern landscape painting), but wetlands remain aesthetically reviled. The three giants of American environmental philosophy--Thoreau, Muir, and Leopold--all expressed aesthetic appreciation of wetlands. For Thoreau and Muir--both of whom were a bit misanthropic and contrarian--the beauty of wetlands was largely a matter of their floral interest and wildness (freedom from human inhabitation and economic exploitation). Leopold's aesthetic appreciation of wetlands was better informed (...)
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  14.  27 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1987). Conceptual Resources for Environmental Ethics in Asian Traditions of Thought: A Propaedeutic. Philosophy East and West 37 (2):115-130.
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  15.  25 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1979). Elements of an Environmental Ethic: Moral Considerability and the Biotic Community. Environmental Ethics 1 (1):71-81.
  16.  23 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1985). The Case for Animal Rights. Environmental Ethics 7 (4):365-372.
  17.  20 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1990). The Metaphysical Transition in Farming: From the Newtonian-Mechanical to the Eltonian Ecological. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 3 (1):36-49.
    Modern agriculture is subject to a metaphysical as well as an ethical critique. As a casual review of the beliefs associated with food production in the past suggests, modern agriculture is embedded in and informed by the prevailing modern world view, Newtonian Mechanics, which is bankrupt as a scientific paradigm and unsustainable as an agricultural motif. A new holistic, organic world view is emerging from ecology and the new physics marked by four general conceptual features: Each level of organization from (...)
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  18.  20 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1989). Eugene C. Hargrove: Foundations of Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 11 (2):169-177.
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  19.  19 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1995). Intrinsic Value in Nature: A Metaethical Analysis. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 3 (5).
  20.  19 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1992). Can a Theory of Moral Sentiments Support a Genuinely Normative Environmental Ethic? Inquiry 35 (2):183 – 198.
    The conceptual foundations of Aldo Leopold's seminal land ethic are traceable through Darwin to the sentiment?based ethics of Hume. According to Hume, the moral sentiments are universal; and, according to Darwin, they were naturally selected in the intensely social matrix of human evolution. Hence they may provide a ?consensus of feeling?, functionally equivalent to the normative force of reason overriding inclination. But then ethics, allege K. S. Shrader?Frechette and W. Fox, is reduced to a description of human nature, and the (...)
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  21.  18 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2011). The Temporal and Spatial Scales of Global Climate Change and the Limits of Individualistic and Rationalistic Ethics. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 69:101-116.
    Here I argue that the hyper-individualistic and rationalistic ethical paradigms – originating in the late eighteenth century and dominating moral philosophy, in various permutations, ever since – cannot capture the moral concerns evoked by the prospect of global climate change. Those paradigms are undone by the temporal and spatial scales of climate change. To press my argument, I deploy two famous philosophical tropes – John Rawls's notion of the original position and Derek Parfit's paradox – and another that promises to (...)
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  22.  18 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). How Environmental Ethical Theory May Be Put Into Practice. Ethics and the Environment 1 (1):3 - 14.
    Environmentalists do not appear to walk their walk as consistently as animal liberationists and anti-abortionists. Are we therefore more hypocritical? Maybe; but there's another explanation. Unlike concern for individual animals or individual fetuses, environmental concerns are holistic (systemic)—air and waterpollution, species <span class='Hi'>extinction</span>, diminished ecological health and integrity. One pro-life pregnant woman may preserve the life of one unborn baby, the one in her uterus; and one animal liberationist can save the life of one animal, the one he didn't eat. (...)
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  23.  17 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1988). Agroecology in Context. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 1 (1):3-9.
    Agriculture and medicine palpably manifest a culture's world view. Correspondingly, changes in agriculture and medicine may be barometers of change in a culture's overall outlook. Conventional industrial agriculture and modern surgical/chemical medicine clearly express the Newtonian mechanical model of nature. The modern classical world view represents nature to be an externally related, atomic, reductive, material, and mechanical aggregate. Modern medicine, correspondingly, treats the body as an elaborate mechanism and industrial agriculture regards soil as a substratum for monocultures assembled from fossil (...)
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  24.  17 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1992). Rolston on Intrinsic Value. Environmental Ethics 14 (2):129-143.
    Central to Holmes Rolston’s Environmental Ethics is the theoretical quest of most enviromnental philosophers for a defensible concept of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and nature as a whole. Rolston’s theory is similar to Paul Taylor’s in rooting intrinsic value in conation, but dissimilar in assigning value bonuses to consciousness and self-consciousness and value dividends to organic wholes andelemental nature. I argue that such a theory of intrinsic value flies in the face of the subject/object and fact/value dichotomies of (...)
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  25.  17 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1985). Intrinsic Value, Quantum Theory, and Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 7 (3):257-275.
    The central and most recalcitrant problem for environmental ethics is the problem of constructing an adequate theory of intrinsic value for nonhuman natural entities and for nature as a whole. In part one, I retrospectively survey the problem, review certain classical approaches to it, and recommend one as an adequate, albeit only partial, solution. In part two, I show that the classical theory of inherent value for nonhuman entities and nature as a whole outlined in part one is inconsistent with (...)
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  26.  17 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2008). What “Wilderness” in Frontier Ecosystems? Environmental Ethics 30 (3):235-249.
    Wilderness, for seventeenth-century Puritan colonists in America, was hideous and howling. In the eighteenth century, Puritan preacher and theologian, Jonathan Edwards, began the process of transforming the American wilderness into an aesthetic and spiritual resource, a process completed in the nineteenth century by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David. Thoreau was the first American to recommend wilderness preservation for purposes of transcendental recreation (solitude, and aesthetic and spiritual experience). In the twentieth century, Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold advocated wilderness preservation for (...)
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  27.  16 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2010). Toward an Earth Ethic. Dialogue and Universalism 20 (11-12):21-32.
    Aldo Leopold's 1949 Land Ethic is seminal in academic environmental ethics and the environmental-ethic-of-choice among professional conservationists and environmentalists. After sixty years, the sciences (evolutionary biology and ecology) that inform the land ethic have undergone much change. The land ethic can be revised to accommodate changes in its scientific foundations, but it cannot be scaled up to meet the challenge of global climate change. Fortunately, given the prominent place of Leopold in all circles environmental, he also faintly sketched an Earth (...)
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  28.  15 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). On Norton and the Failure of Monistic Inherentism. Environmental Ethics 18 (2):219-221.
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  29.  15 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1994). Moral Monism in Environmental Ethics Defended. Journal of Philosophical Research 19:51-60.
    In dealing with concern for fellow human beings, sentient animals, and the enviroment, Christopher D. Stone suggests that a single agent adopt a different ethical theory---e.g., Kant’s, Bentham’s, Leopold’s---for each domain. Ethical theories, however, and their attendant rules and principles are embedded in moral philosophies. Employing Kant’s categorical imperative in this case, Bentham’s hedonic caIculus in that, and Leopold’s land ethic in another, a single agent would therefore have either simultaneously or cyclically to endorse contradictory moral philosophies. Instead, I suggest (...)
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  30.  13 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2000). The Indigenous World or Many Indigenous Worlds? Environmental Ethics 22 (3):291-310.
    Earth’s Insights is about more than indigenous North American environmental attitudes and values. The conclusions of Hester, McPherson, Booth, and Cheney about universal indigenous environmental attitudes and values, although pronounced with papal infallibility, are based on no evidence. The unstated authority of their pronouncements seems to be the indigenous identity of two of the authors. Two other self-identified indigenous authors, V. F. Cordova and Sandy Marie Anglás Grande, argue explicitly that indigenous identity is sufficient authority for declaring what pre-Columbian indigenous (...)
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  31.  13 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1989). Book Review:Environmental Justice. Peter S. Wenz. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (1):197-.
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  32.  12 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott, Jonathan Parker, Jordan Batson, Nathan Bell, Keith Brown, Samantha Moss, Alexandri Poole & John Wooding (2011). The Other in A Sand County Almanac. Aldo Leopold’s Animals and His Wild-Animal Ethic. Environmental Ethics 33 (2):115-146.
    Much philosophical attention has been devoted to “The Land Ethic,” especially by Anglo-American philosophers, but little has been paid to A Sand County Almanac as a whole. Read through the lens of continental philosophy, A Sand County Almanac promulgates an evolutionary-ecological world view and effects a personal self- and a species-specific Self-transformation in its audience. It’s author, Aldo Leopold, realizes these aims through descriptive reflection that has something in common with phenomenology-although Leopold was by no stretch of the imagination a (...)
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  33.  11 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott, Miguel Acevedo, Pete Gunter, Paul Harcombe, Christopher Lindquist & Michael Monticino (2006). Biocomplexity in the Big Thicket. Ethics, Place and Environment 9 (1):21 – 45.
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  34.  10 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1993). On Warren and Cheney's Critique of Callicott's Ecological Metaphysics. Environmental Ethics 15 (4):373-374.
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  35.  10 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1995). The Value of Ecosystem Health. Environmental Values 4 (4):345 - 361.
    The concept of ecosystem health is problematic. Do ecosystems as such exist? Is health an objective condition of organisms or is it socially constructed? Can 'health' be unequivocally predicated of ecosystems? Is ecosystem health both objective and valuative? Are ecosystem health and biological integrity identical? How do these concepts interface with the concept of biodiversity? Ecosystems exist, although they are turning out to be nested sets of linked process-functions with temporal boundaries, not tangible superorganisms with spatial boundaries. Ecosystem health – (...)
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  36.  10 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott, William Grove-Fanning, Jennifer Rowland, Daniel Baskind, Robert Heath French & Kerry Walker (2009). Was Aldo Leopold a Pragmatist? Rescuing Leopold From the Imagination of Bryan Norton. Environmental Values 18 (4):453 - 486.
    Aldo Leopold was a pragmatist in the vernacular sense of the word. Bryan G. Norton claims that Leopold was also heavily influenced by American Pragmatism, a formal school of philosophy. As evidence, Norton offers Leopold's misquotation of a definition of right (as truth) by political economist, A.T. Hadley, who was an admirer of the philosophy of William James. A search of Leopold's digitised literary remains reveals no other evidence that Leopold was directly influenced by any actual American Pragmatist or by (...)
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  37.  8 DLs
    Robert Frodeman, Dale Jamieson, J. Baird Callicott, Stephen M. Gardiner & Lori Gruen (2007). Commentary on the Future of Environmental Philosophy. Ethics and the Environment 12 (2):117-150.
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  38.  7 DLs
    Eugene C. Hargrove & J. Baird Callicott (1990). Leopold's Means and Ends in Wild Life Management. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):333-337.
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  39.  7 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). American Indian Land Ethics. Environmental Ethics 18 (4):438-438.
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  40.  6 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). A Place in Space. Environmental Ethics 18 (3):321-326.
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  41.  6 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1996). A Place in Space: Ethics, Aesthetics, and Watersheds. Environmental Ethics 18 (3):321-326.
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  42.  5 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2002). The Pragmatic Power and Promise of Theoretical Environmental Ethics: Forging a New Discourse. Environmental Values 11 (1):3 - 25.
    Pragmatist environmental philosophers have (erroneously) assumed that environmental ethics has made little impact on environmental policy because environmental ethics has been absorbed with arcane theoretical controversies, mostly centred on the question of intrinsic value in nature. Positions on this question generate the allegedly divisive categories of anthropocentrism/nonanthropocentrism, shallow/deep ecology, and individualism/holism. The locus classicus for the objectivist concept of intrinsic value is traceable to Kant, and modifications of the Kantian form of ethical theory terminate in biocentrism. A subjectivist approach to (...)
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  43.  5 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (1982). Traditional American Indian and Western European Attitudes Toward Nature. Environmental Ethics 4 (4):293-318.
    A generalized traditional Western world view is compared with a generalized traditional American Indian world view in respect to the practical relations implied by either to nature. The Western tradition pictures nature as material, mechanical, and devoid of spirit (reserving that exclusively for humans), while the American Indian tradition pictures nature throughout as an extended family or society of living, ensouled beings. The former picture invites unrestrained exploitation of nonhuman nature, while the latter provides the foundations for ethical restraint in (...)
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  44.  5 DLs
    J. Baird Callicott (2008). A Place in Space. Environmental Ethics 18 (3):321-326.
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