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  1. J. D. Trout, A Restriction Maybe, but is It Paternalism? Cognitive Bias and Choosing Governmental Decision Aids.
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  2. J. D. Trout (forthcoming). Forced to Be Right. Journal of Medical Ethics:2011-100426.
    In “Forced to be Free”, Neil Levy surveys the raft of documented decision-making biases that humans are heir to, and advances several bold proposals designed to enhance the patient's judgment. Gratefully, Levy is moved by the psychological research on judgment and decision-making that documents people's inaccuracy when identifying courses of action will best promote their subjective well-being. But Levy is quick to favour the patient's present preferences, to ensure they get “final say” about their treatment. I urge the opposite inclination, (...)
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  3. J. D. Trout (2013). Democracy and Scientific Expertise: Illusions of Political and Epistemic Inclusion. Synthese 190 (7):1267-1291.
    Realizing the ideal of democracy requires political inclusion for citizens. A legitimate democracy must give citizens the opportunity to express their attitudes about the relative attractions of different policies, and access to political mechanisms through which they can be counted and heard. Actual governance often aims not at accurate belief, but at nonepistemic factors like achieving and maintaining institutional stability, creating the feeling of government legitimacy among citizens, or managing access to influence on policy decision-making. I examine the traditional relationship (...)
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  4. Robert E. Remez & J. D. Trout (2009). Philosophical Messages in the Medium of Spoken Language. In Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. Oup Oxford.
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  5. Michael A. Bishop & J. D. Trout (2008). Strategic Reliabilism: A Naturalistic Approach to Epistemology. Philosophy Compass 3 (5):1049-1065.
    Strategic Reliabilism is a framework that yields relative epistemic evaluations of belief-producing cognitive processes. It is a theory of cognitive excellence, or more colloquially, a theory of reasoning excellence (where 'reasoning' is understood very broadly as any sort of cognitive process for coming to judgments or beliefs). First introduced in our book, Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment (henceforth EPHJ), the basic idea behind SR is that epistemically excellent reasoning is efficient reasoning that leads in a robustly reliable fashion (...)
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  6. J. D. Trout (2008). Seduction Without Cause: Uncovering Explanatory Neurophilia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):281-282.
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  7. J. D. Trout (2007). The Psychology of Scientific Explanation. Philosophy Compass 2 (3):564–591.
    Philosophers agree that scientific explanations aim to produce understanding, and that good ones succeed in this aim. But few seriously consider what understanding is, or what the cues are when we have it. If it is a psychological state or process, describing its specific nature is the job of psychological theorizing. This article examines the role of understanding in scientific explanation. It warns that the seductive, phenomenological sense of understanding is often, but mistakenly, viewed as a cue of genuine understanding. (...)
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  8. J. D. Trout (2007). The Psychology of Discounting: A Policy of Balancing Biases. Public Affairs Quarterly 21 (2):201-220.
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  9. Michael A. Bishop & J. D. Trout (2006). First Page Preview. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 20 (2).
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  10. Michael A. Bishop, J. D. Trout, L. Johannes Brandl, Marian David, Leopold Stubenberg, Herman Cappelen & Ernie Lepore (2005). Appearance in This List Neither Guarantees nor Precludes a Future Review of the Book. Agamben, Giorgio, Trans. Kevin Attell, State of Exception, London and Chicago: Univer-Sity of Chicago Press, 2005, Pp. Vii+ 95,£ 8.50, $12.00. Aiken, William and John Haldane (Eds), Philosophy and Its Public Role, Exeter, UK and Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic, 2004, Pp. Vi+ 272,£ 14.95, $29.90. [REVIEW] Mind 114:454.
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  11. Michael A. Bishop & J. D. Trout (2005). Epistemology and the Psychology of Human Judgment. OUP USA.
    Bishop and Trout here present a unique and provocative new approach to epistemology (the theory of human knowledge and reasoning). Their approach aims to liberate epistemology from the scholastic debates of standard analytic epistemology, and treat it as a branch of the philosophy of science. The approach is novel in its use of cost-benefit analysis to guide people facing real reasoning problems and in its framework for resolving normative disputes in psychology. Based on empirical data, Bishop and Trout show how (...)
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  12. Michael Bishop & J. D. Trout (2005). The Pathologies of Standard Analytic Epistemology. Noûs 39 (4):696 - 714.
    Standard Analytic Epistemology (SAE) names a contingently clustered class of methods and theses that have dominated English-speaking epistemology for about the past half-century. The major contemporary theories of SAE include versions of foundationalism (Chisholm 1981, Pollock 1974), coherentism (Bonjour 1985, Lehrer 1974), reliabilism (Dretske 1981, Goldman 1986) and contextualism (DeRose 1995, Lewis 1996). While proponents of SAE don’t agree about how to define naturalized epistemology, most agree that a thoroughgoing naturalism in epistemology can’t work. For the purposes of this paper, (...)
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  13. MichaelBishop & J. D. Trout (2005). The Pathologies of Standard Analytic Epistemology. Noûs 39 (4):696–714.
  14. J. D. Trout (2005). Paying the Price for a Theory of Explanation: De Regt's Discussion of Trout. Philosophy of Science 72 (1):198-208.
    (2002). Philosophy of Science 72 (January), 198-208.
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  15. J. D. Trout & Michael Bishop (2005). The Pathologies of Standard Analytic Epistemology. Noûs 39 (4):696-714.
    Standard Analytic Epistemology (SAE) names a contingently clustered class of methods and theses that have dominated English-speaking epistemology for about the past half-century. The major contemporary theories of SAE include versions of foundationalism (Chisholm 1981, Pollock 1974), coherentism (Bonjour 1985, Lehrer 1974), reliabilism (Dretske 1981, Goldman 1986) and contextualism (DeRose 1995, Lewis 1996). While proponents of SAE don’t agree about how to define naturalized epistemology, most agree that a thoroughgoing naturalism in epistemology can’t work. For the purposes of this paper, (...)
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  16. Michael Friedman, Robert DiSalle, J. D. Trout, Shaun Nichols, Maralee Harrell, Clark Glymour, Carl G. Wagner, Kent W. Staley, Jesús P. Zamora Bonilla & Frederick M. Kronz (2002). 10. Interpreting Quantum Field Theory Interpreting Quantum Field Theory (Pp. 348-378). Philosophy of Science 69 (2).
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  17. J. D. Trout (2002). Scientific Explanation and the Sense of Understanding. Philosophy of Science 69 (2):212-233.
    Scientists and laypeople alike use the sense of understanding that an explanation conveys as a cue to good or correct explanation. Although the occurrence of this sense or feeling of understanding is neither necessary nor sufficient for good explanation, it does drive judgments of the plausibility and, ultimately, the acceptability, of an explanation. This paper presents evidence that the sense of understanding is in part the routine consequence of two well-documented biases in cognitive psychology: overconfidence and hindsight. In light of (...)
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  18. J. D. Trout (2001). Metaphysics, Method, and the Mouth: Philosophical Lessons of Speech Perception. Philosophical Psychology 14 (3):261-291.
    This paper advances a novel argument that speech perception is a complex system best understood nonindividualistically and therefore that individualism fails as a general philosophical program for understanding cognition. The argument proceeds in four steps. First, I describe a "replaceability strategy", commonly deployed by individualists, in which one imagines replacing an object with an appropriate surrogate. This strategy conveys the appearance that relata can be substituted without changing the laws that hold within the domain. Second, I advance a "counterfactual test" (...)
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  19. P. K. Moser, D. H. Mulder, J. D. Trout & N. Vassallo (2000). Recensioni-The Theory of Knowledge. A Thematic Introduction. Epistemologia 23 (1):171-173.
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  20. P. Moser, D. H. Mulder & J. D. Trout (1999). The Theory of Knowledge (M. Welbourne). Philosophical Books 40:116-117.
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  21. J. D. Trout (1999). Measured Realism and Statistical Inference: An Explanation for the Fast Progress of "Hard" Psychology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):272.
    The use of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) in psychology has been under sustained attack, despite its reliable use in the notably successful, so-called "hard" areas of psychology, such as perception and cognition. I argue that, in contrast to merely methodological analyses of hypothesis testing (in terms of "test severity," or other confirmation-theoretic notions), only a patently metaphysical position can adequately capture the uneven but undeniable successes of theories in "hard psychology." I contend that Measured Realism satisfies this description, and (...)
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  22. J. D. Trout (1998). Beauty and Revolution in Science. Philosophical Review 107 (2):320-324.
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  23. J. D. Trout (1998). Measuring the Intentional World: Realism, Naturalism, and Quantitative Methods in the Behavioral Sciences. OUP USA.
    Scientific realism has been advanced as an interpretation of the natural sciences but never the behavioural sciences. This exciting book introduces a novel version of scientific realism--Measured Realism--that characterizes the kind of theoretical progress in the social and psychological sciences that is uneven but indisputable. Trout proposes a theory of measurement--Population-Guided Estimation--that connects natural, psychological, and social scientific inquiry. Presenting quantitative methods in the behavioural sciences as at once successful and regulated by the world, Measuring the Intentional World will engage (...)
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  24. Richard M. Burian & J. D. Trout (1995). Ontological Progress in Science. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):177 - 201.
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  25. Paul K. Moser & J. D. Trout (eds.) (1995). Contemporary Materialism: A Reader. Routledge.
    Contemporary Materialism presents an important collection of recent work on materialism in connection with metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and theories of value. This anthology charts the contemporary problems, positions and themes on the topic of materialism. It illuminates materialism's complex intersection with related subjects such as cognition and psychology. By gathering a wide-range of philosophical interventions around the subject of materialism, this anthology provides a valuable discussion of how materialism can effectively serve the purposes of philosophical assessment. (...)
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  26. Paul K. Moser & J. D. Trout (1995). Physicalism, Supervenience, and Dependence. In Elias E. Savellos (ed.), Supervenience: New Essays. Needham Heights: Cambridge. 187--217.
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  27. Paul K. Moser & J. D. Trout (1995). (Review) What is Feminist Epistemology? Informal Logic 17 (1).
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  28. J. D. Trout (1995). Diverse Tests on an Independent World. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (3):407-429.
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  29. J. D. Trout (1994). Austere Realism and the Worldly Assumptions of Inferential Statistics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:190 - 199.
    Inferential statistical tests-such as analysis of variance, t-tests, chi-square and Wilcoxin signed ranks-now constitute a principal class of methods for the testing of scientific hypotheses. In this paper I will consider the role of one statistical concept (statistical power) and two statistical principles or assumptions (homogeneity of variance and the independence of random error), in the reliable application of selected statistical methods. I defend a tacit but widely-deployed naturalistic principle of explanation (E): Philosophers should not treat as inexplicable or basic (...)
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  30. J. D. Trout (1994). A Realistic Look Backward. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (1):37-64.
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  31. J. D. Trout (1993). Robustness and Integrative Survival in Significance Testing: The World's Contribution to Rationality. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1):1-15.
    Significance testing is the primary method for establishing causal relationships in psychology. Meehl [1978, 1990a, 1990b] and Faust [1984] argue that significance tests and their interpretation are subject to actuarial and psychological biases, making continued adherence to these practices irrational, and even partially responsible for the slow progress of the ‘soft’ areas of psychology. I contend that familiar standards of testing and literature review, along with recently developed meta-analytic techniques, are able to correct the proposed actuarial and psychological biases. In (...)
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  32. J. D. Trout (1992). Theory-Conjunction and Mercenary Reliance. Philosophy of Science 59 (2):231-245.
    Scientific realists contend that theory-conjunction presents a problem for empiricist conceptions of scientific knowledge and practice. Van Fraassen (1980) has offered a competing account of theory-conjunction which I argue fails to capture the mercenary character of epistemic dependence in science. Representative cases of theory-conjunction developed in the present paper show that mercenary reliance implies a "principle of epistemic symmetry" which only a realist can consistently accommodate. Finally, because the practice in question involves the conjunction of theories, a version of realism (...)
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  33. Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.) (1991). The Philosophy of Science. Mit Press.
    The more than 40 readings in this anthology cover the most important developments of the past six decades, charting the rise and decline of logical positivism ...
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  34. J. D. Trout (1991). Belief Attribution in Science: Folk Psychology Under Theoretical Stress. Synthese 87 (June):379-400.
    Some eliminativists have predicted that a developed neuroscience will eradicate the principles and theoretical kinds (belief, desire, etc.) implicit in our ordinary practices of mental state attribution. Prevailing defenses of common-sense psychology infer its basic integrity from its familiarity and instrumental success in everyday social commerce. Such common-sense defenses charge that eliminativist arguments are self-defeating in their folk psychological appeal to the belief that eliminativism is true. I argue that eliminativism is untouched by this simple charge of inconsistency, and introduce (...)
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  35. J. D. Trout (1991). Section III: Reductionism and the Unity of Science. In Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science. Mit Press. 387.
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  36. J. D. Trout (1991). Section 1 The Philosophy of Physics JD Trout. In Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science. Mit Press. 463.
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