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James Ladyman [87]J. Ladyman [7]
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Profile: James Ladyman (Bristol University)
  1. James Ladyman (2007). Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford University Press.
    Every Thing Must Go aruges that the only kind of metaphysics that can contribute to objective knowledge is one based specifically on contemporary science as it ...
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  2. Steven French & James Ladyman (2003). Remodelling Structural Realism: Quantum Physics and the Metaphysics of Structure. [REVIEW] Synthese 136 (1):31-56.
    We outline Ladyman's 'metaphysical' or 'ontic' form of structuralrealism and defend it against various objections. Cao, in particular, has questioned theview of ontology presupposed by this approach and we argue that by reconceptualisingobjects in structural terms it offers the best hope for the realist in thecontext of modern physics.
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  3. J. Ladyman (1998). What is Structural Realism? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (3):409-424.
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  4. James Ladyman, Structural Realism.
    Structural realism is considered by many realists and antirealists alike as the most defensible form of scientific realism. There are now many forms of structural realism and an extensive literature about them. There are interesting connections with debates in metaphysics, philosophy of physics and philosophy of mathematics. This entry is intended to be a comprehensive survey of the field.
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  5. James Ladyman & Tomasz Bigaj (2010). The Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles and Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 77 (1):117-136.
    It is argued that recent discussion of the principle of the identity of indiscernibles (PII) and quantum mechanics has lost sight of the broader philosophical motivation and significance of PII and that the `received view' of the status of PII in the light of quantum mechanics survives recent criticisms of it by Muller, Saunders, and Seevinck.
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  6. Hannes Leitgeb & James Ladyman (2008). Criteria of Identity and Structuralist Ontology. Philosophia Mathematica 16 (3):388-396.
    In discussions about whether the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles is compatible with structuralist ontologies of mathematics, it is usually assumed that individual objects are subject to criteria of identity which somehow account for the identity of the individuals. Much of this debate concerns structures that admit of non-trivial automorphisms. We consider cases from graph theory that violate even weak formulations of PII. We argue that (i) the identity or difference of places in a structure is not to be (...)
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  7. James Ladyman (2011). Structural Realism Versus Standard Scientific Realism: The Case of Phlogiston and Dephlogisticated Air. Synthese 180 (2):87 - 101.
    The aim of this paper is to revisit the phlogiston theory to see what can be learned from it about the relationship between scientific realism, approximate truth and successful reference. It is argued that phlogiston theory did to some extent correctly describe the causal or nomological structure of the world, and that some of its central terms can be regarded as referring. However, it is concluded that the issue of whether or not theoretical terms successfully refer is not the (...)
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  8. Steven French & James Ladyman (1999). Reinflating the Semantic Approach. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (2):103 – 121.
    The semantic, or model-theoretic, approach to theories has recently come under criticism on two fronts: (i) it is claimed that it cannot account for the wide diversity of models employed in scientific practice—a claim which has led some to propose a “deflationary” account of models; (ii) it is further contended that the sense of “model” used by the approach differs from that given in model theory. Our aim in the present work is to articulate a possible response to these claims, (...)
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  9.  92
    Steven French & James Ladyman (2011). In Defence of Ontic Structural Realism. In Alisa Bokulich & Peter Bokulich (eds.), Scientific Structuralism. Springer Science+Business Media 25-42.
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  10. Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.) (2015). Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Original essays by leading philosophers of science explore the question of whether metaphysics can and should be naturalized--conducted as part of natural science. They engage with a range of approaches and disciplines to argue that if metaphysics is to be capable of identifying objective truths, it must be continuous with and inspired by science.
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  11. James Ladyman (2005). Mathematical Structuralism and the Identity of Indiscernibles. Analysis 65 (287):218–221.
  12. James Ladyman (2002). Understanding Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Without scientific theory, the technology developments of recent years would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the scope of natural science and its implications for human life. With the focus firmly upon realism, he discusses how fundamental philosophical questions can be answered by science and how scientific theory can confirm and inform our basic and intrinsic knowledge.
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  13. Steven French & James Ladyman (2003). The Dissolution of Objects: Between Platonism and Phenomenalism. [REVIEW] Synthese 136 (1):73 - 77.
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  14. James Ladyman, Øystein Linnebo & Richard Pettigrew (2012). Identity and Discernibility in Philosophy and Logic. Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (1):162-186.
    Questions about the relation between identity and discernibility are important both in philosophy and in model theory. We show how a philosophical question about identity and dis- cernibility can be ‘factorized’ into a philosophical question about the adequacy of a formal language to the description of the world, and a mathematical question about discernibility in this language. We provide formal definitions of various notions of discernibility and offer a complete classification of their logical relations. Some new and surprising facts are (...)
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  15.  37
    Otávio Bueno, Steven French & James Ladyman (2002). On Representing the Relationship Between the Mathematical and the Empirical. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):497-518.
    We examine, from the partial structures perspective, two forms of applicability of mathematics: at the “bottom” level, the applicability of theoretical structures to the “appearances”, and at the “top” level, the applicability of mathematical to physical theories. We argue that, to accommodate these two forms of applicability, the partial structures approach needs to be extended to include a notion of “partial homomorphism”. As a case study, we present London's analysis of the superfluid behavior of liquid helium in terms of Bose‐Einstein (...)
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  16. James Ladyman (2000). What's Really Wrong with Constructive Empiricism? Van Fraassen and the Metaphysics of Modality. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (4):837-856.
    Constructive empiricism is supposed to offer a positive alternative to scientific realism that dispenses with the need for metaphysics. I first review the terms of the debate before arguing that the standard objections to constructive empiricism are not decisive. I then explain van Fraassen's views on modality and counterfactuals, and argue that, because constructive empiricism recommends on epistemological grounds belief in the empirical adequacy rather than the truth of theories, it requires that there be an objective modal distinction between the (...)
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  17. Don Ross & James Ladyman (2010). The Alleged Coupling-Constitution Fallacy and the Mature Sciences. In Richard Menary (ed.), The Extended Mind. MIT Press
     
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  18. Robin Brown & James Ladyman (2009). Physicalism, Supervenience and the Fundamental Level. Philosophical Quarterly 59 (234):20-38.
    We provide a formulation of physicalism, and show that this is to be favoured over alternative formulations. Much of the literature on physicalism assumes without argument that there is a fundamental level to reality, and we show that a consideration of the levels problem and its implications for physicalism tells in favour of the form of physicalism proposed here. Its hey elements are, fast, that the empirical and substantive part of physicalism amounts to a prediction that physics will not posit (...)
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  19. James Ladyman & Don Ross (2009). Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Every Thing Must Go argues that the only kind of metaphysics that can contribute to objective knowledge is one based specifically on contemporary science as it really is, and not on philosophers' a priori intuitions, common sense, or simplifications of science. Taking science metaphysically seriously means that metaphysicians must abandon the picture of the world as composed of self-subsistent and individual objects, and the paradigm of causation as the collision of such objects. Informed by the latest developments in physics and (...)
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  20. James Ladyman (2007). Scientific Structuralism: On the Identity and Diversity of Objects in a Structure. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 81 (1):23–43.
  21.  50
    Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.) (2013). Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    Original essays by leading philosophers of science explore the question of whether metaphysics can and should be naturalized--conducted as part of natural science.
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  22.  69
    James Ladyman, Øystein Linnebo & Tomasz Bigaj (2013). Entanglement and Non-Factorizability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):215-221.
    Quantum mechanics tells us that states involving indistinguishable fermions must be antisymmetrized. This is often taken to mean that indistinguishable fermions are always entangled. We consider several notions of entanglement and argue that on the best of them, indistinguishable fermions are not always entangled. We also present a simple but unconventional way of representing fermionic states that allows us to maintain a link between entanglement and non-factorizability.
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  23.  72
    James Ladyman, James Lambert & Karoline Wiesner (2013). What is a Complex System? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (1):33-67.
    Complex systems research is becoming ever more important in both the natural and social sciences. It is commonly implied that there is such a thing as a complex system, different examples of which are studied across many disciplines. However, there is no concise definition of a complex system, let alone a definition on which all scientists agree. We review various attempts to characterize a complex system, and consider a core set of features that are widely associated with complex systems in (...)
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  24.  28
    James Ladyman (2007). On the Identity and Diversity of Objects in a Structure. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 81:23--43.
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  25. James Ladyman, Otávio Bueno, Mauricio Suárez & Bas van Fraassen (2011). Scientific Representation: A Long Journey From Pragmatics to Pragmatics. [REVIEW] Metascience 20 (3):417-442.
    Scientific representation: A long journey from pragmatics to pragmatics Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9465-5 Authors James Ladyman, Department of Philosophy, University of Bristol, 9 Woodland Rd, Bristol, BS8 1TB UK Otávio Bueno, Department of Philosophy, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA Mauricio Suárez, Department of Logic and Philosophy of Science, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain Bas C. van Fraassen, Philosophy Department, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA Journal Metascience Online (...)
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  26. James Ladyman, Igor Douven, Leon Horsten & Bas van Fraassen (1997). A Defence of Van Fraassen's Critique of Abductive Inference: Reply to Psillos. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (188):305-321.
    Psillos has recently argued that van Fraassen’s arguments against abduction fail. Moreover, he claimed that, if successful, these arguments would equally undermine van Fraassen’s own constructive empiricism, for, Psillos thinks, it is only by appeal to abduction that constructive empiricism can be saved from issuing in a bald scepticism. We show that Psillos’ criticisms are misguided, and that they are mostly based on misinterpretations of van Fraassen’s arguments. Furthermore, we argue that Psillos’ arguments for his claim that constructive empiricism itself (...)
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  27. James Ladyman (2004). Discussion – Empiricism Versus Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 121 (2):133 - 145.
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  28.  10
    Nora Berenstain & James Ladyman (2012). Ontic Structural Realism and Modality. In Elaine Landry & Dean Rickles (eds.), Structural Realism: Structure, Object, and Causality. Springer
    There is good reason to believe that scientific realism requires a commitment to the objective modal structure of the physical world. Causality, equilibrium, laws of nature, and probability all feature prominently in scientific theory and explanation, and each one is a modal notion. If we are committed to the content of our best scientific theories, we must accept the modal nature of the physical world. But what does the scientific realist’s commitment to physical modality require? We consider whether scientific realism (...)
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  29.  37
    James Ladyman & Stuart Presnell (2015). Identity in Homotopy Type Theory, Part I: The Justification of Path Induction. Philosophia Mathematica 23 (3):386-406.
    Homotopy Type Theory is a proposed new language and foundation for mathematics, combining algebraic topology with logic. An important rule for the treatment of identity in HoTT is path induction, which is commonly explained by appeal to the homotopy interpretation of the theory's types, tokens, and identities as spaces, points, and paths. However, if HoTT is to be an autonomous foundation then such an interpretation cannot play a fundamental role. In this paper we give a derivation of path induction, motivated (...)
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  30. James Ladyman (2004). Constructive Empiricism and Modal Metaphysics: A Reply to Monton and Van Fraassen. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):755-765.
    , I argued that Bas van Fraassen's constructive empiricism was undermined in various ways by his antirealism about modality. Here I offer some comments and responses to the reply to my arguments by Bradley Monton and van Fraassen [2003]. In particular, after making some minor points, I argue that Monton and van Fraassen have not done enough to show that the context dependence of counterfactuals renders their truth conditions non-objective, and I also argue that adopting modal realism does after all (...)
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  31.  21
    S. French & J. Ladyman (1997). Superconductivity and Structures: Revisiting the London Account. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 28 (3):363-393.
    Cartwright and her collaborators have elaborated a provocative view of science which emphasises the independence from theory &unknown;in methods and aims&unknown; of phenomenological model building. This thesis has been supported in a recent paper by an analysis of the London and London model of superconductivity. In the present work we begin with a critique of Cartwright's account of the relationship between theoretical and phenomenological models before elaborating an alternative picture within the framework of the partial structures version of the semantic (...)
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  32. James Ladyman (2008). Structural Realism and the Relationship Between the Special Sciences and Physics. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):744-755.
    The primacy of physics generates a philosophical problem that the naturalist must solve in order to be entitled to an egalitarian acceptance of the ontological commitments he or she inherits from the special sciences and fundamental physics. The problem is the generalized causal exclusion argument. If there is no genuine causation in the domains of the special sciences but only in fundamental physics then there are grounds for doubting the existence of macroscopic objects and properties, or at least the concreteness (...)
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  33.  71
    James Ladyman, Stuart Presnell, Anthony J. Short & Berry Groisman (2007). The Connection Between Logical and Thermodynamic Irreversibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (1):58-79.
    There has recently been a good deal of controversy about Landauer's Principle, which is often stated as follows: The erasure of one bit of information in a computational device is necessarily accompanied by a generation of kTln2 heat. This is often generalised to the claim that any logically irreversible operation cannot be implemented in a thermodynamically reversible way. John Norton (2005) and Owen Maroney (2005) both argue that Landauer's Principle has not been shown to hold in general, and Maroney offers (...)
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  34.  59
    James Ladyman (2001). Science Metaphysics and Structural Realism. Philosophica 67.
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  35. James Ladyman (2011). The Scientistic Stance: The Empirical and Materialist Stances Reconciled. Synthese 178 (1):87 - 98.
    van Fraassen (The empirical stance, 2002) contrasts the empirical stance with the materialist stance. The way he describes them makes both of them attractive, and while opposed they have something in common for both stances are scientific approaches to philosophy. The difference between them reflects their differing conceptions of science itself. Empiricists emphasise fallibilism, verifiability and falsifiability, and also to some extent scepticism and tolerance of novel hypotheses. Materialists regard the theoretical picture of the world as matter in motion as (...)
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  36. James Ladyman (2012). Science, Metaphysics and Method. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):31-51.
    While there are many examples of metaphysical theorising being heuristically and intellectually important in the span class =' Hi '> progress span > of scientific knowledge, many people wonder how span class =' Hi '> metaphysics span > not closely informed and inspired by empirical science could lead to rival or even supplementary knowledge about the world. This paper assesses the merits of a popular defence of the a priori methodology of span class =' Hi '> metaphysics span > that (...)
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  37.  17
    James Ladyman & Stuart Presnell, Does Homotopy Type Theory Provide a Foundation for Mathematics?
    Homotopy Type Theory is a putative new foundation for mathematics grounded in constructive intensional type theory, that offers an alternative to the foundations provided by ZFC set theory and category theory. This paper explains and motivates an account of how to define, justify and think about HoTT in a way that is self-contained, and argues that it can serve as an autonomous foundation for mathematics. We first consider various questions that a foundation for mathematics might be expected to answer, and (...)
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  38.  16
    James Ladyman & Stuart Presnell, A Primer on Homotopy Type Theory Part 1: The Formal Type Theory.
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  39.  16
    James Ladyman & Stuart Presnell, Identity in HoTT, Part I.
    Homotopy type theory is a new branch of mathematics that connects algebraic topology with logic and computer science, and which has been proposed as a new language and conceptual framework for math- ematical practice. Much of the power of HoTT lies in the correspondence between the formal type theory and ideas from homotopy theory, in par- ticular the interpretation of types, tokens, and equalities as spaces, points, and paths. Fundamental to the use of identity and equality in HoTT is the (...)
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  40.  89
    James Ladyman (2005). Wouldn't It Be Lovely: Explanation and Scientific Realism. [REVIEW] Metascience 14 (3):331-361.
  41. James Ladyman, Stuart Presnell & Anthony J. Short (2008). The Use of the Information-Theoretic Entropy in Thermodynamics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (2):315-324.
    When considering controversial thermodynamic scenarios such as Maxwell's demon, it is often necessary to consider probabilistic mixtures of states. This raises the question of how, if at all, to assign entropy to them. The information-theoretic entropy is often used in such cases; however, no general proof of the soundness of doing so has been given, and indeed some arguments against doing so have been presented. We offer a general proof of the applicability of the information-theoretic entropy to probabilistic mixtures of (...)
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  42. J. Ladyman (1999). Review. A Novel Defense of Scientific Realism. Jarrett Leplin. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):181-188.
  43. James Ladyman (2012). Understanding Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and (...)
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  44.  75
    James Ladyman (2007). Does Physics Answer Metaphysical Questions? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 82 (61):179-201.
    According to logical positivism, so the story goes, metaphysical questions are meaningless, since they do not admit of empirical confirmation or refutation. However, the logical positivists did not in fact reject as meaningless all questions about for example, the structure of space and time. Rather, key figures such as Reichenbach and Schlick believed that scientific theories often presupposed a conceptual framework that was not itself empirically testable, but which was required for the theory as a whole to be empirically testable. (...)
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  45.  40
    P. Kyle Stanford, Paul Humphreys, Katherine Hawley, James Ladyman & Don Ross (2010). Protecting Rainforest Realism. Metascience 19 (2):161-185.
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  46. Steven French & James Ladyman (2003). Between Platonism and Phenomenalism: Reply to Cao. Synthese 136 (1):73-78.
     
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  47.  56
    James Ladyman & Katie Robertson (2013). Landauer Defended: Reply to Norton. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (3):263-271.
    Ladyman, Presnell, and Short proposed a model of the implementation of logical operations by physical processes in order to clarify the exact statement of Landauer's Principle, and then offered a new proof of the latter based on the construction of a thermodynamic cycle, arguing that if Landauer's Principle were false it would be possible to harness a machine that violated it to produce a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. In a recent paper in this journal, John Norton directly (...)
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  48.  77
    J. Ladyman (1996). Review. Herman CDG De Regt. Representing the World by Scientific Theories: The Case for Scientific Realism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (3):487-490.
  49.  18
    James Ladyman, Igor Douven, Leon Horsten & Bas van Fraassen (1997). A Defence of Van Fraassen's Critique of Abductive Inference: Reply to Psillos. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (188):305 - 321.
  50. Don Ross, James Ladyman & David Spurrett (2007). In Defence of Scientism. In James Ladyman (ed.), Every Thing Must Go: Metaphysics Naturalized. Oxford University Press
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