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  1.  42
    J. R. Lucas (1995). Responsibility. Clarendon Press.
    Responsibility is a key concept in our moral, social, and political thinking, but it is not itself properly understood. J.R. Lucas here presents a lively, broad, and accessible discussion of responsibility in various areas of human life, from personal and sexual relations to politics.
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  2. J. R. Lucas (1969). Euclides Ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
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  3. J. R. Lucas (1990). Spacetime and Electromagnetism: An Essay on the Philosophy of the Special Theory of Relativity. Oxford University Press.
    That space and time should be integrated into a single entity, spacetime, is the great insight of Einstein's special theory of relativity, and leads us to regard spacetime as a fundamental context in which to make sense of the world around us. But it is not the only one. Causality is equally important and at least as far as the special theory goes, it cannot be subsumed under a fundamentally geometrical form of explanation. In fact, the agent of propagation (...)
     
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  4.  23
    J. R. Lucas, Wilberforce and Huxley: A Legendary Encounter.
    The legend of the encounter between Wilberforce and Huxley is well established. Almost every scientist knows, and every viewer of the BBC's recent programme on Darwin was shown,* how Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Oxford, attempted to pour scorn on Darwin's Origin of Species at a meeting of the British Association in Oxford on 30 June 1860, and had the tables turned on him by T. H. Huxley. In this memorable encounter Huxley's simple scientific sincerity humbled the prelatical insolence and clerical (...)
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  5. J. R. Lucas (1973). A Treatise on Time and Space. [London]Methuen.
     
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  6.  7
    J. R. Lucas (1984). Space, Time, and Causality: An Essay in Natural Philosophy. Clarendon Press.
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  7.  15
    J. R. Lucas (2000). The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics: An Essay on the Philosophy of Mathematics. Routledge.
    The Conceptual Roots of Mathematics is a comprehensive study of the foundation of mathematics. Lucas, one of the most distinguished Oxford scholars, covers a vast amount of ground in the philosophy of mathematics, showing us that it is actually at the heart of the study of epistemology and metaphysics.
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  8. J. R. Lucas, The Unity of Science Without Reductionism.
    The Unity of Science is often thought to be reductionist, but this is because we fail to distinguish questions from answers. The questions asked by different sciences are different---the biologist is interested in different topics from the physicist, and seeks different explanations---but the answers are not peculiar to each particular science, and can range over the whole of scientific knowledge. The biologist is interested in organisms--- concept unknown to physics---but explains physiological processes in terms of chemistry, not a mysterious vital (...)
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  9. Norwood R. Hanson, G. B. Keene, J. L. Ackrill, J. R. Lucas, Thomas McPherson, E. J. Lemmon, W. von Leyden, C. H. Whiteley, Renford Bambrough, A. C. MacIntyre, W. Gerber & M. Kneale (1958). New Books. [REVIEW] Mind 67 (266):272-288.
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  10.  21
    J. R. Lucas (1995). Prospects for Realism in Quantum Mechanics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9 (3):225 – 234.
    Abstract Quantum mechanics has seemed to defy all attempts to construe it realistically, but antirealism, like the many?worlds hypothesis, is even more difficult to accept. In order to give a realist construal of quantum mechanics, we need first to distinguish the objective and rational aspect of reality from the paradigmatic thing?like aspects of having determinate physical properties: quantum?mechanical entities may be real in the former sense though not in the latter. Anti?realist arguments are based on the difficulty of giving an (...)
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  11. J. R. Lucas (1980). On Justice =. Oxford University Press.
     
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  12.  55
    J. R. Lucas (1965). Against Equality. Philosophy 40 (154):296 - 307.
    Equality is the great political issue of our time. Liberty is forgotten: Fraternity never did engage our passions: the maintenance of Law and Order is at a discount: Natural Rights and Natural Justice are outmoded shibboleths. But Equality—there men have something to die for, kill for, agitate about, be miserable about. The demand for Equality obsesses all our political thought. We are not sure what it is—indeed, as I shall show later, we are necessarily not sure what it is—but we (...)
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  13.  48
    J. R. Lucas, .
    There was once a leak from Hebdomadal Council. The Assessor told her husband, who told my wife, who told me that Monday afternoon had been spent discussing what Lucas would say if various courses of action were adopted, leading to the conclusion that it would be best to do nothing. I was flattered, but a bit surprised. The tide of philosophical scepticism had ebbed, and it was generally allowed that a reasonable way of discovering what someone would say was to (...)
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  14.  7
    J. R. Lucas (2009). A Mind of One's Own. Philosophy 68 (266):457-.
    Whatever good or ill it did to Guy Fawkes, his resuscitation at the hands of Bernard Williams has, by any utilitarian reckoning, been a Good Thing. A casual glance at the literature that has accumulated over the past thirty five years leaves no doubt that the topic has been reduplicated many times over, to the great enjoyment of undergraduates, who have been able to write science fiction under the guise of essays in the Philosophy of Mind, and of dons, who (...)
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  15.  73
    J. R. Lucas, Chapter 9a What is Logic?
    Thus far the logic out of which mathematics has developed has been First-order Predicate Calculus with Identity, that is the logic of the sentential functors, ¬, →, ∧, ∨, etc., together with identity and the existential and universal quotifiers restricted to quotify- ing only over individuals, and not anything else, such as qualities or quotities themselves. Some philosophers—among them Quine— have held that this, First-order Logic, as it is often called, con- stitutes the whole of logic. But that is a (...)
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  16.  6
    J. P. Day & J. R. Lucas (1973). The Concept of Probability. Philosophical Quarterly 23 (90):83.
  17.  60
    J. R. Lucas, An Engagement with Plato's Republic.
    Plato was politically incorrect---gloriously incorrect: hard to ignore and difficult to refute. Read An Engagement with Plato's Republic to argue with him or against him, for contemporary orthodoxies or against them. ``Plato was the first feminist. Women were the same as men, only not so good.''.
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  18.  3
    Robin LePoidevin & J. R. Lucas (1991). The Future. Philosophical Quarterly 41 (164):333.
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  19.  8
    J. R. Lucas, IΣOnomia.
    Equality is one of the great issues of our age, but few people stop to wonder at its being an issue in politics at all. Yet it is surprising that a concept which has its natural habitat in the mathematical sciences should have taken root in our thinking about how we should be governed. We do not naturally think of society in terms of group theory, or rings or fields, and have long been aware of the difficulties in establishing any (...)
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  20.  47
    J. R. Lucas, The Huxley-Wilberforce Debate Revisited.
    According to the legend, Bishop Wilberforce at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Oxford on Saturday, June 30th, 1860, turned to Thomas Huxley, and asked him ``Is it on your grandfather's or your grandmother's side that you claim descent from a monkey''; whereupon Huxley delivered a devastating rebuke, thereby establishing the primacy of scientific truth over ecclesiastical obscurantism. Although the legend is historically untrue in almost every detail, its persistence suggests that it may nonetheless (...)
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  21.  11
    J. R. Lucas (1968). Satan Stultified. The Monist 52 (1):145-158.
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  22.  47
    J. R. Lucas, Reason and Reality.
    At the end of each chapter there are places to click on which will take you to the next chapter, to the contents, or to this (the Home) page. In the Contents clicking on a chapter number will take you to that chapter.
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  23.  1
    Jaakko Hintikka, Imre Lakatos, J. R. Lucas, R. Carnap, M. B. Hesse & J. Hintikka (1975). Induction by Enumeration and Induction by Elimination. Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):448-449.
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  24.  3
    J. R. Lucas (1968). Or Else. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 69:207 - 222.
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  25. J. R. Lucas, The Responsibilities of a Businessman.
    MANY thinkers deny the possibility of businessmen having responsibilities or ethical obligations. A businessman has no alternative, in view of the competition of the market-place, to do anything other than buy at the cheapest and sell at the dearest price he can. In any case, it would be irrational-if, indeed, it were possible-not to do so. Admittedly, there is a framework of law within which he has to operate, but that is all, and so long as he keeps the law (...)
     
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  26.  11
    J. R. Lucas (1987). The Worm and the Juggernaut. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 6 (2):51-59.
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  27.  6
    J. R. Lucas (1989). Foreknowledge and the Vulnerability of God. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 25:119-128.
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  28.  38
    J. R. Lucas, The Ontological Argument.
    The ontological argument has run for a long time, regularly refuted, regularly re-appearing in a new form. Something can be learnt from its longevity. Its proponents must be on to something, or it would not have survived its many refutations. But equally, it must have been much misformulated, or it would not have seemed evidently fallacious to its many critics. Perhaps it does express a deep philosophical intimation. Certainly it has been taken to prove more than it really can establish. (...)
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  29.  36
    J. R. Lucas, Jesus Barabbas.
    But still, I had heard it. It must have been in the New English Bible and the New English E 'o)# f&# Bible is sound on scholarship, so there must be good manuscript authority for s..
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  30.  23
    J. R. Lucas, Restoration of Man: A Lecture Given in Durham on Thursday October 22nd, 1992.
    In Epiphany Term, 1942, C.S. Lewis delivered the Riddell Memorial Lectures in the Physics Lecture Theatre, King's College, Newcastle, which was then a constituent college of the University of Durham. The Riddell Memorial Lectures were founded in 1928 in memory of Sir John Buchanan Riddell of Hepple, onetime High Sheriff of Northumberland, who had died in 1924. His son, Sir Walter, was, like his father, a devout Christian, active throughout his life in public affairs. He was Fellow, and subsequently Principal, (...)
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  31.  33
    J. R. Lucas (1958). On Not Worshipping Facts. Philosophical Quarterly 8 (31):144-156.
    My sights in this paper are trained on facts. Most people think that they know what facts are; that while their friends often, and themselves occasionally, are ignorant of the facts, at least they know what sort of things facts are---they can recognise a fact when they see it. Facts, in the popular philosophy of today, are good, simple souls; there is no guile in them, nor any room for subjective bias, and once we have made ourselves acquainted with them, (...)
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  32.  16
    J. R. Lucas (1963). The Philosophy of the Reasonable Man. Philosophical Quarterly 13 (51):97-106.
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  33.  18
    J. R. Lucas, The Polity of Academe.
    Henry Rosovsky, a former dean at Harvard, sings a paeon of praise to American Highest Education. 1 He cites from The Asian Wall Street Journal a list of the ten top universities, which puts Harvard first, followed by a place called Cambridge/Oxford, a number of American universities, Tokyo, the Sorbonne, Cornell and Michigan. Tokyo and the Sorbonne are, he thinks, mentioned among the top ten only as a consequence of excessive Oriental courtesy.
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  34.  13
    J. R. Lucas (1984). Lucas, Godel and Astaire: A Rejoinder. Philosophical Quarterly 34 (137):507-508.
  35.  26
    J. R. Lucas, Criticisms and Discussions of the Gödelian Argument.
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  36.  24
    J. R. Lucas, Chapter 10 Points of View.
    x10.1 Locality Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation was always open to the complaint that it involved \Action at a Distance", contrary to the Principle of Locality. But it was very well established empirically, and had to be accepted. Similarly in contemporary quantum me- chanics we seem to have correlations between measurements that defy the Principle of Locality, but have to be accepted none the less.1 Although locality is a characteristic mark of causal con- nexion, it is not, as Hume supposed,2 (...)
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  37.  17
    J. R. Lucas, Fellow of Merton College.
    It is meet and right that pride and humility should be the two human characteristics on which University sermons have to be preached. Left to myself, although I might have picked on my modesty as something I should share with you, I should have given the preeminence to other among my sins than pride. My greed, my sloth, my avarice or, in this salacious age my lust, are subjects on which I could tell you much that might interest you. Pride (...)
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  38. J. R. Lucas (1996). Minds, Machines, and Gödel: A Retrospect. In P. J. R. Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Etica E Politica. Clarendon Press 1.
    In this paper Lucas comes back to Gödelian argument against Mecanism to clarify some points. First of all, he explains his use of Gödel’s theorem instead of Turing’s theorem, showing how Gödel’ theorem, but not Turing’s theorem, raises questions concerning truth and reasoning that bear on the nature of mind and how Turing’s theorem suggests that there is something that cannot be done by any computers but not that it can be done by human minds. He considers moreover how Gödel’s (...)
     
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  39.  5
    J. R. Lucas (1959). Moralists and Gamesmen. Philosophy 34 (128):1 - 11.
    Professor Braithwaite’s inaugural lecture, here published in book form,1 is a trial run at a Platonic definition of the concept of dianemetic justice; or, as he himself would put it, a rational reconstruction of the concept “sensible-prudent-and-fair”. Aristotle left it that dianemetic justice was an equality and a matter of ratios. A just distribution of őoα µεριστ? τoς κoινωνoσι τς πoλιτείαѕ2 was one in which each had an equitable share, no one having either more or less than he should. Professor (...)
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  40.  8
    J. R. Lucas (1977). Against Equality Again. Philosophy 52 (201):255 - 280.
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  41.  3
    J. R. Lucas & Alexander Passerin D'Entreves (1968). The Notion of the State: An Introduction to Political Theory. Philosophical Quarterly 18 (72):281.
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  42.  4
    Janet Radcliffe Richards & J. R. Lucas (1985). Discrimination. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86:307 - 324.
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  43.  6
    J. R. Lucas, Tables.
    The Norrington Table is scotched, but not killed. It still appears each year in a national daily, having been compiled by an enterprising graduate with more need for money than time. Some people argue that this shows the futility of trying to suppress the table. But that is not so. In a free society it is open to anyone to obtain information and publish his results. There are many things that people might like to know about colleges. Of greater interest (...)
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  44.  14
    J. R. Lucas (1987). The Worm and the Juggernaut: Justice and the Public Interest. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 6 (2):51 - 59.
    In Britain I have had many occasions to speak at public Inquiries, nearly always against some proposal to build a new road in some locality I live in or like. I have often had thoughts about how very bad the British system is, and how much better these question are considered and decided elsewhere, and in thinking about the matter have been led to ponder the nature of the decision being reached, and the proper principles which ought to govern the (...)
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  45.  6
    J. R. Lucas (1973). Because You Are a Woman. Philosophy 48 (184):161 - 171.
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  46.  1
    Alan R. White, A. J. P. Kenny, H. C. Longuet-Higgins, J. R. Lucas & C. H. Waddington (1972). The Nature of Mind. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  47.  13
    J. R. Lucas, Philosophical.
    Plato began it. After thinking about the nature of argument he concluded that the correct way of reasoning was the axiomatic way, and formulated the programme of axiomatization that Eudoxus and Euclid subsequently carried out. Since then the axiomatic method has been firmly established, not only as the method for mathematics, but as a paradigm to which all other disciplines should strive to be assimilated; and in this present century not only has axiomatization been carried through as completely as it (...)
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  48.  1
    J. R. Lucas (1984). Mathematical Tennis. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 85:63 - 72.
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  49.  15
    J. R. Lucas, Chapter 2 the Development of Normative Reason.
    x2.1 Non-contradiction One can think wrong. The fact that after much thought one has reached a conclusion is no guarantee that the conclusion reached is right. Only a very opinionated man would refuse to concede the possibility of error, and once the admission of fallibility is made, the problem of justifying one's beliefs becomes acute. So we formulate our reasons as best we can. But even when formulated, they may fail to convince. Only if people are willing to be reasonable (...)
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  50.  13
    J. R. Lucas (1966). Not `Therefore' but `But'. Philosophical Quarterly 16 (65):289-307.
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