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Profile: Julian Reiss (Durham University)
Profile: John O. Reiss (Humboldt State University)
  1.  68
    Julian Reiss (2012). The Explanation Paradox. Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):43-62.
    This paper examines mathematical models in economics and observes that three mutually inconsistent hypotheses concerning models and explanation are widely held: (1) economic models are false; (2) economic models are nevertheless explanatory; and (3) only true accounts explain. Commentators have typically resolved the paradox by rejecting either one of these hypotheses. I will argue that none of the proposed resolutions work and conclude that therefore the paradox is genuine and likely to stay.
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  2. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (2009). The Philosophy of Simulation: Hot New Issues or Same Old Stew? Synthese 169 (3):593 - 613.
    Computer simulations are an exciting tool that plays important roles in many scientific disciplines. This has attracted the attention of a number of philosophers of science. The main tenor in this literature is that computer simulations not only constitute interesting and powerful new science , but that they also raise a host of new philosophical issues. The protagonists in this debate claim no less than that simulations call into question our philosophical understanding of scientific ontology, the epistemology and semantics of (...)
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  3. Julian Reiss (2013). Philosophy of Economics: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge.
    Philosophy of Economics: A Contemporary Introduction is the first systematic textbook in the philosophy of economics. It introduces the epistemological, metaphysical and ethical problems that arise in economics, and presents detailed discussions of the solutions that have been offered. Throughout, philosophical issues are illustrated by and analysed in the context of concrete cases drawn from contemporary economics, the history of economic ideas, and actual economic events. This demonstrates the relevance of philosophy of economics both for the science of economics and (...)
     
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  4.  95
    Julian Reiss (2009). Causation in the Social Sciences: Evidence, Inference, and Purpose. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):20-40.
    All univocal analyses of causation face counterexamples. An attractive response to this situation is to become a pluralist about causal relationships. "Causal pluralism" is itself, however, a pluralistic notion. In this article, I argue in favor of pluralism about concepts of cause in the social sciences. The article will show that evidence for, inference from, and the purpose of causal claims are very closely linked. Key Words: causation • pluralism • evidence • methodology.
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  5.  3
    Julian Reiss (2014). What's Wrong With Our Theories of Evidence? Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 29 (2):283.
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  6.  5
    Julian Reiss (2016). Suppes’ Probabilistic Theory of Causality and Causal Inference in Economics. Journal of Economic Methodology 23 (3):289-304.
    This paper examines Patrick Suppes’ probabilistic theory of causality understood as a theory of causal inference, and draws some lessons for empirical economics and contemporary debates in the foundations of econometrics. It argues that a standard method of empirical economics, multiple regression, is inadequate for most but the simplest applications, that the Bayes’ nets approach, which can be understood as a generalisation of Suppes’ theory, constitutes a considerable improvement but is still subject to important limitations, and that the currently fashionable (...)
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  7.  12
    Julian Reiss (2015). A Pragmatist Theory of Evidence. Philosophy of Science 82 (3):341-362.
    Two approaches to evidential reasoning compete in the biomedical and social sciences: the experimental and the pragmatist. Whereas experimentalism has received considerable philosophical analysis and support since the times of Bacon and Mill, pragmatism about evidence has been neither articulated nor defended. The overall aim is to fill this gap and develop a theory that articulates the latter. The main ideas of the theory will be illustrated and supported by a case study on the smoking/lung cancer controversy in the 1950s.
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  8. David Etlin, Maarten Van Dyck, Phil Dowe, Julian Reiss, Thomas Ac Reydon, Sabina Leonelli, Marshall Abrams, William Bechtel, Joshua Filler & Yoichi Ishida (2009). 10. The Problem of Noncounterfactual Conditionals The Problem of Noncounterfactual Conditionals (Pp. 676-688). Philosophy of Science 76 (5).
     
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  9. Julian Reiss (2011). Third Time's a Charm: Causation, Science, and Wittgensteinian Pluralism. In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. OUP Oxford
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  10.  15
    Julian Reiss (2010). In Favour of a Millian Proposal to Reform Biomedical Research. Synthese 177 (3):427 - 447.
    One way to make philosophy of science more socially relevant is to attend to specific scientific practises that affect society to a great extent. One such practise is biomedical research. This paper looks at contemporary U.S. biomedical research in particular and argues that it suffers from important epistemic, moral and socioeconomic failings. It then discusses and criticises existing approaches to improve on the status quo, most prominently by Thomas Pogge (a political philosopher), Joseph Stiglitz (a Nobel-prize winning economist) and James (...)
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  11.  65
    Julian Reiss (2007). Do We Need Mechanisms in the Social Sciences? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):163-184.
    A recent movement in the social sciences and philosophy of the social sciences focuses on mechanisms as a central analytical unit. Starting from a pluralist perspective on the aims of the social sciences, I argue that there are a number of important aims to which knowledge about mechanisms—whatever their virtues relative to other aims—contributes very little at best and that investigating mechanisms is therefore a methodological strategy with fairly limited applicability. Key Words: social science • mechanisms • explanation • critical (...)
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  12.  28
    Julian Reiss & Philip Kitcher (2010). Biomedical Research, Neglected Diseases, and Well-Ordered Science. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 24 (3):263-282.
    In this paper we make a proposal for reforming biomedical research that is aimed to align re-search more closely with the so-called fair-share principle according to which the proportions of global resources as-signed to different diseases should agree with the ratios of human suffering associated with those diseases.
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  13. Julian Reiss (2007). Error in Economics: Towards a More Evidence–Based Methodology. Routledge.
    What is the correct concept behind measures of inflation? Does money cause business activity or is it the other way around? Shall we stimulate growth by raising aggregate demand or rather by lowering taxes and thereby providing incentives to produce? Policy-relevant questions such as these are of immediate and obvious importance to the welfare of societies. The standard approach in dealing with them is to build a model, based on economic theory, answer the question for the model world and then (...)
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  14. Julian Reiss (2009). Counterfactuals, Thought Experiments, and Singular Causal Analysis in History. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):712-723.
    Thought experiments are ubiquitous in science and especially prominent in domains in which experimental and observational evidence is scarce. One such domain is the causal analysis of singular events in history. A long‐standing tradition that goes back to Max Weber addresses the issue by means of ‘what‐if’ counterfactuals. In this paper I give a descriptive account of this widely used method and argue that historians following it examine difference makers rather than causes in the philosopher’s sense. While difference making is (...)
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  15.  15
    Julian Reiss (2013). The Explanation Paradox Redux. Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (3):280 - 292.
    I respond to some challenges raised by my critics. In particular, I argue in favour of six claims. First, against Alexandrova and Northcott, I point out that to deny the explanatoriness of economic models by assuming an ontic (specifically, causal) conception of explanation is to beg the question. Second, against defences of causal realism (by Hausman, Mäki, Rol and Grüne-Yanoff) I point out that they have provided no criterion to distinguish those claims a model makes that can be interpreted realistically (...)
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  16. John O. Reiss, Ann C. Burke, Charles Archer, Miquel De Renzi, Hern an Dopazo, Arantza Etxeberrıa, Emily A. Gale, J. Richard Hinchliffe, Chris S. Rose & Diego Rasskin-Gutman (2008). Pere Alberch: Originator of EvoDevo. Biological Theory 3:4.
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  17.  3
    Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (2009). The Philosophy of Simulation: Hot New Issues or Same Old Stew? Synthese 169 (3):593-613.
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  18.  23
    Julian Reiss (2012). Idealization and the Aims of Economics: Three Cheers for Instrumentalism. Economics and Philosophy 28 (3):363-383.
    This paper aims to provide characterizations of realism and instrumentalism that are philosophically interesting and applicable to economics; and to defend instrumentalism against realism as a methodological stance in economics. Starting point is the observation that, which, or so I argue, is difficult to square with the realist's aim of truth, even if the latter is understood as or. The three cheers in favour of instrumentalism are: Once we have usefulness, truth is redundant. There is something disturbing about causal structure. (...)
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  19.  22
    Julian Reiss (2012). Causation in the Sciences: An Inferentialist Account. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (4):769-777.
    I present an alternative account of causation in the biomedical and social sciences according to which the meaning of causal claims is given by their inferential relations to other claims. Specifically, I will argue that causal claims are inferentially related to certain evidential claims as well as claims about explanation, prediction, intervention and responsibility. I explain in some detail what it means for a claim to be inferentially related to another and finally derive some implication of the proposed account for (...)
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  20.  10
    Julian Reiss, Explanation.
    Explaining socio-economic phenomena is one important aim of economics. There is very little agreement, however, on what precisely constitutes an adequate economic explanation. Starting from the very influential but defective ‘deductive-nomological model’ of explanation, this article describes and criticizes the major contemporary competitors for such an account (the probabilistic–causal, the mechanistic–causal and the unificationist models) and argues that none of them can by itself capture all aspects of a good explanation. When seeking to explain a socio-economic phenomenon it should therefore (...)
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  21.  19
    Julian Reiss (2014). What’s Wrong With Our Theories of Evidence? Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 29 (2):283-306.
    This paper surveys and critically assesses existing theories of evidence with respect to four desiderata. A good theory of evidence should be both a theory of evidential support , and of warrant , it should apply to the non-ideal cases in which scientists typically find themselves, and it should be ‘descriptively adequate’, i.e., able to adequately represent typical episodes of evidentiary reasoning. The theories surveyed here—Bayesianism, hypotheticodeductivism,satisfaction theories, error statistics as well as Achinstein’s and Cartwright’s theories—are all found wanting in (...)
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  22.  30
    Julian Reiss (2005). Causal Instrumental Variables and Interventions. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):964-976.
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  23.  15
    Julian Reiss (2011). Theory, Generalisations From Cases and Methodological Maxims in Evidence-Based Economics: Responses to the Reviews by DiNardo, Guala and Kincaid. Journal of Economic Methodology 18 (01):93-96.
  24.  38
    Julian Reiss (2013). Contextualising Causation Part I. Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1066-1075.
    This is the first instalment of a two-part paper on the counterfactual theory of causation. It is well known that this theory is ridden with counterexamples. Specifically, the following four features of the theory suffer from problems: it understands causation as a relation between events; counterfactual dependence is understood using a metric of similarity among possible worlds; it defines a non-discriminatory concept of causation; and it understands causation as transitive. A number of philosophers have recently proposed that causation is contrastive (...)
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  25. Julian Reiss (2012). Counterfactuals. In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press
  26.  39
    Julian Reiss (2009). Rejoinder Error in Economics. Towards a More Evidence-Based Methodology , Julian Reiss, Routledge, 2007, XXIV + 246 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 25 (2):210-215.
  27. Julian Reiss (2005). La contingencia de las teorías de causación y explicación: comentarios sobre Paul Humphreys. Enrahonar: Quaderns de Filosofía 37:35-44.
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  28.  38
    Julian Reiss, Miriam Solomon & David Teira (2011). Mechanisms, Continental Approaches, Trials, and Evolutionary Medicine: New Work in the Philosophy of Medicine. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (1):1-4.
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  29.  13
    John O. Reiss, Ann C. Burke, Charles Archer, Miquel de Renzi, Hernán Dopazo, Arantza Etxeberría, Emily A. Gale, J. Richard Hinchliffe, Laura Nuño de la Rosa, Chris S. Rose, Diego Rasskin-Gutman & Gerd B. Müller (2008). Pere Alberch: Originator of EvoDevo. Biological Theory 3 (4):351-356.
    In September 2008, 10 years after the untimely death of Pere Alberch (1954–1998), the 20th Altenberg Workshop in Theoretical Biology gathered a group of Pere’s students, col- laborators, and colleagues (Figure 1) to celebrate his contribu- tions to the origins of EvoDevo. Hosted by the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research (KLI) outside Vienna, the group met for two days of discussion. The meeting was organized in tandem with a congress held in May 2008 at the Cavanilles Institute (...)
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  30.  27
    Julian Reiss (2004). The Methodology of Empirical Macroeconomics by Kevin D. Hoover. Cambridge University Press 2001, XII + 186 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):226-233.
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  31.  2
    Julian Reiss (2004). Book Review. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 20 (1):226-233.
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  32. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (forthcoming). A Critical Look at the Philosophy of Simulation. Synthese.
     
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  33.  15
    Julian Reiss (2013). Contextualising Causation Part II. Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1076-1090.
    In recent years, a number of philosophers have attempted to fix paradoxes of the counterfactual account of causation by making causation contrastive. In this framework, causation is understood to be not a two-place relationship between a cause and an effect but a three or four-place relationship between a cause, an effect and a contrast on the side of the cause, the effect or both. I argue that contrasting helps resolving certain paradoxes only if an account of admissibility of the chosen (...)
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  34.  33
    Julian Reiss (2010). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science, Daniel P. Steel. Oxford University Press, 2007. Xi + 241 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 26 (3):382-390.
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  35.  5
    Julian Reiss (2004). Evidence-Based Economics: Issues and Some Preliminary Answers. Analyse & Kritik 26 (2):346-363.
    This paper presents an outline of a methodology of ?evidence-based economics?. The question whether an economic statement is evidence-based must be answered on three different levels. The first level concerns measurement: it asks whether claims made about economic quantities such as inflation, unemployment, growth or poverty are justified by the data and measurement procedures. The second level concerns induction: it asks whether claims made about the relations between economic quantities , are justified by the inference procedures. The third level concerns (...)
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  36.  3
    Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (2011). The Philosophy of Simulation: Hot New Issues or Same Old Stew? Synthese 180 (1):77-77.
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  37.  3
    Julian Reiss (2015). Two Approaches to Reasoning From Evidence or What Econometrics Can Learn From Biomedical Research. Journal of Economic Methodology 22 (3):373-390.
    This paper looks at an appeal to the authority of biomedical research that has recently been used by empirical economists to motivate and justify their methods. I argue that those who make this appeal mistake the nature of biomedical research. Randomised trials, which are said to have revolutionised biomedical research, are a central methodology, but according to only one paradigm. There is another paradigm at work in biomedical research, the inferentialist paradigm, in which randomised trials play no special role. I (...)
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  38. Nancy Cartwright & J. Reiss, Uncertainty in Econometrics: Evaluating Policy Counterfactuals.
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  39.  27
    Julian Reiss, David Teira & Jesús Zamora Bonilla (2008). What's New in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences?: Guest Editors' Introduction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (3):311-313.
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  40.  13
    Phyllis Illari, Julian Reiss & Federica Russo (2012). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (4):758-760.
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  41.  2
    Julian Reiss (2012). Causation in the Sciences: An Inferentialist Account. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (4):769-777.
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  42.  3
    Julian Reiss (2010). No Title Available: Reviews. Economics and Philosophy 26 (3):382-390.
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  43.  5
    Julian Reiss (2009). Editorial and Interview with Kevin Korb. The Reasoner 3 (2):1-3.
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  44.  5
    Julian Reiss (2012). Contrefactuels, expériences de pensée, et conception singulariste de la relation causale en histoire. Labyrinthe 39:113-127.
    L’analyse singulariste de la relation causale Dans l’un de ses textes les plus souvent lus, « Possibilité objective et causalité adéquate en histoire », Max Weber introduit ainsi la procédure de base de l’analyse singulariste des relations causales : L’attribution des effets aux causes prend place à travers un processus de pensée qui inclut une série d’abstractions. La première et la plus décisive a lieu quand nous concevons que l’une ou plusieurs des composantes causales sont modifiées dans ..
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  45.  8
    Julian Reiss (2001). Natural Economic Quantities and Their Measurement. Journal of Economic Methodology 8 (2):287-311.
    This paper discusses and develops an important distinction drawn by Jevons, viz . that between natural and fictitious quantities. This distinction provides a basis for a theory of economic concept formation that aims at picking out families of models that are phenomenally adequate, explanatory and exact simultaneously. Essentially, the theory demands of an economic quantity to be natural that (1) it is explained by a causal model, (2) it is measurable and (3) the measurement procedure is justified. The proposed theory (...)
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  46.  7
    Julian Reiss (2004). Critical Realism and the Mainstream. Journal of Economic Methodology 11 (3):321-327.
  47.  8
    John Reiss (2012). Footnotes to the Synthesis? Metascience 21 (1):163-166.
    Footnotes to the Synthesis? Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-4 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9569-6 Authors John O. Reiss, Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University, 1 Harpst St., Arcata, CA 95521, USA Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  48. E. Alberdi, J. C. Becher, K. Gilhooly, J. Hunter, R. Logie, A. Lyon, N. McIntosh & J. Reiss (2001). Expertise and the Interpretation of Computerized Physiological Data: Implications Problems by Experts and Novices. Cognitive Science 5:121-152.
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  49. Hsiang-Ke Chao, Julian Reiss & Szu-Ting Chen (eds.) (forthcoming). Philosophy of Science in Practice: Nancy Cartwright and the Nature of Scientific Reasoning.
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  50. H.-K. Chao, J. Reiss & S.-T. Chen (eds.) (forthcoming). Philosophy of Science in Practice: Nancy Cartwright and the Nature of Scientific Reasoning. Springer.
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