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Jacques Schwartz [54]Jeffrey H. Schwartz [20]Joseph M. Schwartz [15]Joseph Schwartz [14]
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Profile: Jeremy Schwartz (Texas Tech University)
Profile: Jennifer Schwartz (DePaul University)
Profile: Jeff Schwartz (Michigan Technological University)
Profile: Jay Schwartz
Profile: James S.J. Schwartz (Wichita State University)
Profile: Jack H. Schwartz (Brooklyn College)
Profile: Justin Schwartz (None)
Profile: Jeffrey M. Schwartz
  1.  131 DLs
    Jeremy Schwartz (2010). Do Hypothetical Imperatives Require Categorical Imperatives? European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):84-107.
    Abstract: Recently, the idea that every hypothetical imperative must somehow be 'backed up' by a prior categorical imperative has gained a certain influence among Kant interpreters and ethicists influenced by Kant. Since instrumentalism is the position that holds that hypothetical imperatives can by themselves and without the aid of categorical imperatives explain all valid forms of practical reasoning, the influential idea amounts to a rejection of instrumentalism as internally incoherent. This paper argues against this prevailing view both as an interpretation (...)
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  2.  98 DLs
    Christopher Hom & Jeremy Schwartz (2013). Unity and the Frege–Geach Problem. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):15-24.
    The problem of the unity of the proposition asks what binds together the constituents of a proposition into a fully formed proposition that provides truth conditions for the assertoric sentence that expresses it, rather than merely a set of objects. Hanks’ solution is to reject the traditional distinction between content and force. If his theory is successful, then there is a plausible extension of it that readily solves the Frege–Geach problem for normative propositions. Unfortunately Hanks’ theory isn’t successful, but it (...)
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  3.  88 DLs
    Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp & Mario Beauregard (2005). Quantum Physics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Neurophysical Model of Mind–Brain Interaction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360:1309-1327.
    Neuropsychological research on the neural basis of behaviour generally posits that brain mechanisms will ultimately suffice to explain all psychologically described phenomena. This assumption stems from the idea that the brain is made up entirely of material particles and fields, and that all causal mechanisms relevant to neuroscience can therefore be formulated solely in terms of properties of these elements. Thus, terms having intrinsic mentalistic and/or experiential content (e.g. ‘feeling’, ‘knowing’ and ‘effort’) are not included as primary causal factors. This (...)
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  4.  74 DLs
    J. T. Schwartz, Algorithmic Entropy of Sets.
    In a previous paper a theory of program size formally identical to information theory was developed. The entropy of an individual finite object was defined to be the size in bits of the smallest program for calculating it. It was shown that this is − log2 of the probability that the object is obtained by means of a program whose successive bits are chosen by flipping an unbiased coin. Here a theory of the entropy of recursively enumerable sets of objects (...)
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  5.  70 DLs
    Jacob T. Schwartz, A Note on Monte Carlo Primality Tests and Algorithmic Information Theory.
    clusions are only probably correct. On the other hand, algorithmic information theory provides a precise mathematical definition of the notion of random or patternless sequence. In this paper we shall describe conditions under which if the sequence of coin tosses in the Solovay– Strassen and Miller–Rabin algorithms is replaced by a sequence of heads and tails that is of maximal algorithmic information content, i.e., has maximal algorithmic randomness, then one obtains an error-free test for primality. These results are only of (...)
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  6.  67 DLs
    Jeremy Schwartz & Christopher Hom (2014). Why the Negation Problem Is Not a Problem for Expressivism. Noûs 48 (2):n/a-n/a.
    The Negation Problem states that expressivism has insufficient structure to account for the various ways in which a moral sentence can be negated. We argue that the Negation Problem does not arise for expressivist accounts of all normative language but arises only for the specific examples on which expressivists usually focus. In support of this claim, we argue for the following three theses: 1) a problem that is structurally identical to the Negation Problem arises in non-normative cases, and this problem (...)
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  7.  61 DLs
    James Schwartz (2002). Population Genetics and Sociobiology: Conflicting Views of Evolution. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):224-240.
  8.  58 DLs
    James S. J. Schwartz (2011). Our Moral Obligation to Support Space Exploration. Environmental Ethics 33 (1):67-88.
    The moral obligation to support space exploration follows from our obligations to protect the environment and to survive as a species. It can be justified through three related arguments: one supporting space exploration as necessary for acquiring resources, and two illustrating the need for space technology in order to combat extraterrestrial threats such as meteorite impacts. Three sorts of objections have been raised against this obligation. The first are objections alleging that supporting space exploration is impractical. The second is the (...)
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  9.  58 DLs
    Joel S. Schwartz (1995). George John Romanes's Defense of Darwinism: The Correspondence of Charles Darwin and His Chief Disciple. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 28 (2):281 - 316.
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  10.  48 DLs
    Joel Schwartz (1985). Liberalism and the Jewish Connection: A Study of Spinoza and the Young Marx. Political Theory 13 (1):58-84.
  11.  40 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1995). What's Wrong with Exploitation? Noûs 29 (2):158-188.
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  12.  39 DLs
    Justin K. Schwartz (1995). In Defence of Exploitation. Economics and Philosophy 11 (2):275--307.
    Roemer's attempt to undermine the normative reasons that Marxists have thought exploitation important (domination, alienation, and inequality) is vitiated by several crucial errors. First, Roemer ignores the dimension of freedom which is Marx's main concern and replaces it with an interest in justice, which Marx rejected. This leads him to misconstrue the nature of exploitation as Marx understands it. Second, his procedure for disconnecting these evils from exploitation, or denying their importance, involves the methodological assumption that exploitation must strictly imply (...)
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  13.  38 DLs
    J. Schwartz (1992). Propositional Attitude Psychology as an Ideal Type. Topoi 11 (1):5-26.
  14.  36 DLs
    Jihène Serkhane, Jean-Luc Schwartz & Pierre Bessiere (2005). Building a Talking Baby Robot: A Contribution to the Study of Speech Acquisition and Evolution. Interaction Studies 6 (2):253-286.
  15.  34 DLs
    J. Schwartz (1992). Who's Afraid of Multiple Realizability?: Functionalism, Reductionism, and Connectionism. In J. Dinsmore (ed.), The Symbolic and Connectionist Paradigms: Closing the Gap. Lawrence Erlbaum
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  16.  29 DLs
    Joseph M. Schwartz (2004). Misreading Islamist Terrorism: The "War Against Terrorism" and Just-War Theory. Metaphilosophy 35 (3):273-302.
    : The Bush administration's military war on terrorism is a blunt, ineffective, and unjust response to the threat posed to innocent civilians by terrorism. Decentralized terrorist networks can only be effectively fought by international cooperation among police and intelligence agencies representing diverse nation‐states, including ones with predominantly Islamic populations. The Bush administration's allegations of a global Islamist terrorist threat to the national interests of the United States misread the decentralized and complex nature of Islamist politics. Undoubtedly there exists a “combat (...)
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  17.  29 DLs
    Jean-Luc Schwartz, Frédéric Berthommier & Christophe Savariaux (2004). Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification. Cognition 93 (2):69-78.
    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances sensitivity to acoustic information, decreasing the auditory detection threshold of speech embedded in noise [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109 (2001) 2272; J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108 (2000) 1197]. However, detection is different from comprehension, and it remains (...)
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  18.  23 DLs
    J. Schwartz (1991). Reduction, Elimination, and the Mental. Philosophy of Science 58 (June):203-20.
    The antireductionist arguments of many philosophers (e.g., Baker, Fodor and Davidson) are motivated by a worry that successful reduction would eliminate rather than conserve the mental. This worry derives from a misunderstanding of the empiricist account of reduction, which, although it does not underwrite "cognitive suicide", should be rejected for its positivist baggage. Philosophy of psychology needs more detailed attention to issues in natural science which serve as analogies for reduction of the mental. I consider a range of central cases, (...)
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  19.  23 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1993). Functional Explanation and Metaphysical Individualism. Philosophy of Science 60 (2):278-301.
    G. A. Cohen defends and Jon Elster criticizes Marxist use of functional explanation. But Elster's mechanical conception of explanation is, contrary to Elster's claims, a better basis for vindication of functional explanation than Cohen's nomological conception, which cannot provide an adequate account of functional explanation. Elster also objects that functional explanation commits us to metaphysically bizarre collective subjects, but his argument requires an implausible reading of methodological individualism which involves an unattractive eliminativism about social phenomena.
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  20.  21 DLs
    Jeffrey H. Schwartz (2006). Decisions, Decisions: Why Thomas Hunt Morgan Was Not the "Father" of Evo-Devo. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):918-929.
    Although the construction of neo-Darwinism grew out of Thomas Hunt Morgan's melding of Darwinism and Mendelism, his evidence did not soley support a model of gradual change. To the contrary, he was confronted with observations that could have led him to a more "evo-devo" understanding of the emergence of novel features. Indeed, since Morgan was an embryologist before he became a fruit-fly geneticist, one would have predicted that the combination of these two lines of research would have resulted in early (...)
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  21.  20 DLs
    Jack Schwartz (forthcoming). Oversight of Human Subject Research: The Role of the States. National Bioethics Advisory Commission 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 700, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-7979 Telephone: 301-402-4242• Fax: 301-480-6900• Website: Www. Bioethics. Gov.
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  22.  16 DLs
    Henry P. Stapp & Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Appendix to Schwartz's Paper in J. Consc. Studies.
    The data emerging from the clinical and brain studies described above suggest that, in the case of OCD, there are two pertinent brain mechanisms that are distinguishable both in terms of neuro dynamics and in terms of the conscious experiences that accompany them. These mechanisms can be characterized, on anatomical and perhaps evolutionary grounds, as a lower level and a higher level mechanism. The clinical treatment has, when successful, an activating effect on the higher level mechanism, and a suppressive effect (...)
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  23.  15 DLs
    Debbie E. McGhee & Jordan L. K. Schwartz, Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test.
    in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., liower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect + pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3..
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  24.  15 DLs
    Christian Abry, Marc Sato, Jean-Luc Schwartz, Hélène Loevenbruck & Marie-Agnès Cathiard (2003). Attention-Based Maintenance of Speech Forms in Memory: The Case of Verbal Transformations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):728-729.
    One of the fundamental questions raised by Ruchkin, Grafman, Cameron, and Berndt's (Ruchkin et al.'s) interpretation of no distinct specialized neural networks for short-term storage buffers and long-term memory systems, is that of the link between perception and memory processes. In this framework, we take the opportunity in this commentary to discuss a specific working memory task involving percept formation, temporary retention, auditory imagery, and the attention-based maintenance of information, that is, the verbal transformation effect.
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  25.  15 DLs
    Jeffrey Schwartz (2009). Reflections on Systematics and Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Acta Biotheoretica 57 (1-2):295-305.
    I attempt to raise questions regarding elements of systematics—primarily in the realm of phylogenetic reconstruction—in order to provoke discussion on the current state of affairs in this discipline, and also evolutionary biology in general: e.g., conceptions of homology and homoplasy, hypothesis testing, the nature of and objections to Hennigian “phylogenetic systematics”, and the schism between Darwinian descendants of the “modern evolutionary synthesis” and their supposed antagonists, cladists and punctuationalists.
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  26.  12 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1995). If Market Socialism is So Great, Why Doesn't It Exist? Radical Philosophy Review of Books 1995 (11-12):6-16.
  27.  11 DLs
    Jeffrey H. Schwartz (2004). Trying to Make Chimpanzees Into Humans. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (2):271 - 277.
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  28.  11 DLs
    James S. J. Schwartz (forthcoming). Mathematical Structuralism, Modal Nominalism, and the Coherence Principle. Philosophia Mathematica:nkv013.
    According to Stewart Shapiro's coherence principle, structures exist whenever they can be coherently described. I argue that Shapiro's attempts to justify this principle are circular, as he relies on criticisms of modal nominalism which presuppose the coherence principle. I argue further that when the coherence principle is not presupposed, his reasoning more strongly supports modal nominalism than ante rem structuralism.
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  29.  11 DLs
    Evan DeRenzo, Henry Silverman, Diane Hoffmann, Jack Schwartz & Janicemarie Vinicky (2001). Maryland's Ethics Committee Legislation — a Leading Edge Model or a Step Into the Abyss? HEC Forum 13 (1):49-58.
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  30.  10 DLs
    Jason L. Schwartz (2013). Evidence and Ethics in Mandatory Vaccination Policies. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (9):46-48.
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  31.  10 DLs
    Henry P. Stapp & Jeffrey M. Schwartz, The Implications of Psychological Treatment Effects on Cerebral Function for the Physics of Mind-Brain Interaction.
    The data emerging from the clinical and brain studies described above suggest that, in the case of OCD, there are two pertinent brain mechanisms that are distinguishable both in terms of neuro-dynamics and in terms of the conscious experiences that accompany them. These mechanisms can be characterized, on anatomical and perhaps evolutionary grounds, as a lower-level and a higher-level mechanism. The clinical treatment has, when successful, an activating effect on the higher-level mechanism, and a suppressive effect on the lower-level one.
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  32.  10 DLs
    Jerome Schwartz (1992). Humanism in Crisis: The Decline of the French Renaissance (Review). Philosophy and Literature 16 (1):229-231.
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  33.  10 DLs
    Joseph M. Schwartz (2007). From Domestic to Global Solidarity: The Dialectic of the Particular and Universal in the Building of Social Solidarity. Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1):131–147.
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  34.  9 DLs
    Joseph Schwartz (1988). Editors Page. Renascence 40 (3):158-158.
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  35.  9 DLs
    Jeffrey H. Schwartz & Bruno Maresca (2006). Do Molecular Clocks Run at All? A Critique of Molecular Systematics. Biological Theory 1 (4):357-371.
    Although molecular systematists may use the terminology of cladism, claiming that the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships is based on shared derived states , the latter is not the case. Rather, molecular systematics is based on the assumption, first clearly articulated by Zuckerkandl and Pauling , that degree of overall similarity reflects degree of relatedness. This assumption derives from interpreting molecular similarity between taxa in the context of a Darwinian model of continual and gradual change. Review of the history of molecular (...)
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  36.  9 DLs
    Jeffrey M. Schwartz (1999). A Role for Volition and Attention in the Generation of New Brain Circuitry. Toward a Neurobiology of Mental Force. Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (8-9):8-9.
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a commonly occurring neuropsychiatric condition characterized by bothersome intrusive thoughts and urges that frequently lead to repetitive dysfunctional behaviours such as excessive handwashing. There are well-documented alterations in cerebral function which appear to be closely related to the manifestation of these symptoms. Controlled studies of cognitive-behavioural therapy techniques utilizing the active refocusing of attention away from the intrusive phenomena of OCD and onto adaptive alternative activities have demonstrated both significant improvements in clinical symptoms and systematic changes in (...)
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  37.  9 DLs
    Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Henry P. Stapp & Mario Beauregard (2004). The Volitional Influence of the Mind on the Brain, with Special Reference to Emotional Self-Regulation. In Mario Beauregard (ed.), Consciousness, Emotional Self-Regulation and the Brain. John Benjamins 195-238.
  38.  8 DLs
    James S. J. Schwartz (2013). On the Moral Permissibility of Terraforming. Ethics and the Environment 18 (2):1-31.
    Terraforming is a process of planetary engineering by which the extant environment of a planetary body is transformed into an environment capable of supporting human inhabitants. The question I would like to consider in this paper is whether there is any reason to believe that the terraforming of another planet—for instance, the terraforming of Mars—is morally problematic. Topics related to the human exploration of space are not often discussed in philosophical circles. Nevertheless, there exists a growing body of philosophical literature (...)
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  39.  8 DLs
    Christian Abry, Louis-Jean Boë, Rafael Laboissière & Jean-Luc Schwartz (1998). A New Puzzle for the Evolution of Speech? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):512-513.
    We agree with MacNeilage's claim that speech stems from a volitional vocalization pathway between the cingulate and the supplementary motor area (SMA). We add the vocal self- monitoring system as the first recruitment of the Broca-Wernicke circuit. SMA control for “frames” is supported by wrong consonant-vowel recurring utterance aphasia and an imaging study of quasi-reiterant speech. The role of Broca's area is questioned in the emergence of “content,” because a primary motor mapping, embodying peripheral constraints, seems sufficient. Finally, we reject (...)
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  40.  8 DLs
    Joel S. Schwartz (1990). Darwin, Wallace, and Huxley, and "Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation". Journal of the History of Biology 23 (1):127 - 153.
    Publication of the Vestiges and the rather primitive theory of evolution it expounded thus played a significant role in the careers of Darwin and Wallace. In addition, in spite of his poor opinion of the Vestiges, it presented Huxley with a convenient topic for critical discussion and the opportunity to focus more attention on the subject of evolution. The dynamic interactions among these leading figures of nineteenth-century natural science helped spur the development of more sophisticated models of evolution.Darwin had a (...)
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  41.  8 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1996). Marxism, Morality, and Social Justice. Radical Philosophy Review of Books 14 (14):2-8.
  42.  7 DLs
    Jerome Schwartz (2000). Reflections on Montaigne's Ethical Thinking. Philosophy and Literature 24 (1):154-164.
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  43.  6 DLs
    Joel S. Schwartz (1984). Darwin, Wallace, and the "Descent of Man". Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):271 - 289.
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  44.  6 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1993). The Paradox of Ideology. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):543 - 574.
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  45.  5 DLs
    Joel S. Schwartz (1999). Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley, Science Correspondents: The Popularization and Dissemination of Nineteenth Century Natural Science. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):343 - 383.
    Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley helped popularize science by writing for general interest publications when science was becoming increasingly professionalized. A non-professional, Chambers used his family-owned Chambers' Edinburgh Journal to report on scientific discoveries, giving his audience access to ideas that were only available to scientists who regularly attended professional meetings or read published transactions of such forums. He had no formal training in the sciences and little interest in advancing the professional status of scientists; his course of action (...)
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  46.  5 DLs
    Jeffrey H. Schwartz (2001). Adaption and Evolution. [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 23 (3/4):505 - 517.
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  47.  5 DLs
    Joseph Schwartz (1979). Forecast. Renascence 32 (1):2-2.
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  48.  4 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1992). From Libertarianism to Egalitarianism. Social Theory and Practice 18 (3):259-288.
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  49.  4 DLs
    Justin Schwartz (1991). Philosophy of Science Association. In Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science. MIT Press 58--2.
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  50.  4 DLs
    Jeffrey H. Schwartz (2002). What is Evolution and Can We Decipher It? [REVIEW] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 24 (1):91 - 108.
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