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  1. Benjamin Baird, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel Jf Fishman, Michael D. Mrazek & Jonathan W. Schooler (2013). Unnoticed Intrusions: Dissociations of Meta-Consciousness in Thought Suppression. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (3):1003-1012.
    The current research investigates the interaction between thought suppression and individuals’ explicit awareness of their thoughts. Participants in three experiments attempted to suppress thoughts of a prior romantic relationship and their success at doing so was measured using a combination of self-catching and experience-sampling. In addition to thoughts that individuals spontaneously noticed, individuals were frequently caught engaging in thoughts of their previous partner at experience-sampling probes. Furthermore, probe-caught thoughts were: associated with stronger decoupling of attention from the environment, more likely (...)
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  2. Felicity Callard, Jonathan Smallwood, Johannes Golchert & Daniel S. Margulies (2013). The Era of the Wandering Mind? Twenty-First Century Research on Self-Generated Mental Activity. Frontiers in Psychology 4:891.
    The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs). To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003–2012 (i) to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii) to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii) to visualize co-citation communities (...)
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  3. Michael S. Franklin, Michael D. Mrazek, Craig L. Anderson, Jonathan Smallwood, Alan Kingstone & Jonathan Schooler (2013). The Silver Lining of a Mind in the Clouds: Interesting Musings Are Associated with Positive Mood While Mind-Wandering. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    The negative effects of mind-wandering on performance and mood have been widely documented. In a recent well-cited study, Killingsworth and Gilbert (2010) conducted a large experience sampling study revealing that all off-task episodes, regardless of content, have equal to or lower happiness ratings, than on-task episodes. We present data from a similarly implemented experience sampling study with additional mind-wandering content categories. Our results largely conform to those of the Killingsworth and Gilbert (2010) study, with mind-wandering generally being associated with a (...)
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  4. Florence Jm Ruby, Jonathan Smallwood, Jerome Sackur & Tania Singer (2013). Is Self-Generated Thought a Means of Social Problem Solving? Frontiers in Psychology 4:962.
    Appropriate social problem solving constitutes a critical skill for individuals and may rely on processes important for self-generated thought (SGT). The aim of the current study was to investigate the link between SGT and social problem solving. Using the Means-End Problem Solving task (MEPS), we assessed participants’ abilities to resolve daily social problems in terms of overall efficiency and number of relevant means they provided to reach the given solution. We also asked participants to perform non-demanding choice reaction time task (...)
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  5. Jonathan Smallwood, Florence Jm Ruby & Tania Singer (2013). Letting Go of the Present: Mind-Wandering is Associated with Reduced Delay Discounting. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):1-7.
    The capacity to self-generate mental content that is unrelated to the current environment is a fundamental characteristic of the mind, and the current experiment explored how this experience is related to the decisions that people make in daily life. We examined how task-unrelated thought varies with the length of time participants are willing to wait for an economic reward, as measured using an inter-temporal discounting task. When participants performed a task requiring minimal attention, the greater the amount of time spent (...)
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  6. Benjamin Baird, Jonathan Smallwood & Jonathan W. Schooler (2011). Back to the Future: Autobiographical Planning and the Functionality of Mind-Wandering. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1604-1611.
    Given that as much as half of human thought arises in a stimulus independent fashion, it would seem unlikely that such thoughts would play no functional role in our lives. However, evidence linking the mind-wandering state to performance decrement has led to the notion that mind-wandering primarily represents a form of cognitive failure. Based on previous work showing a prospective bias to mind-wandering, the current study explores the hypothesis that one potential function of spontaneous thought is to plan and anticipate (...)
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  7. Jonathan W. Schooler, Jonathan Smallwood, Kalina Christoff, Todd C. Handy, Erik D. Reichle & Michael A. Sayette (2011). Meta-Awareness, Perceptual Decoupling and the Wandering Mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (7):319-326.
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  8. Jonathan Smallwood & Rory C. O'Connor (2011). Imprisoned by the Past: Unhappy Moods Lead to a Retrospective Bias to Mind Wandering. Cognition and Emotion 25 (8):1481-1490.
  9. Jonathan Smallwood, Jonathan W. Schooler, David J. Turk, Sheila J. Cunningham, Phebe Burns & C. Neil Macrae (2011). Self-Reflection and the Temporal Focus of the Wandering Mind. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1120-1126.
    Current accounts suggest that self-referential thought serves a pivotal function in the human ability to simulate the future during mind-wandering. Using experience sampling, this hypothesis was tested in two studies that explored the extent to which self-reflection impacts both retrospection and prospection during mind-wandering. Study 1 demonstrated that a brief period of self-reflection yielded a prospective bias during mind-wandering such that participants’ engaged more frequently in spontaneous future than past thought. In Study 2, individual differences in the strength of self-referential (...)
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  10. Jonathan Smallwood, Louise Nind & Rory C. O'Connor (2009). When is Your Head At? An Exploration of the Factors Associated with the Temporal Focus of the Wandering Mind. Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):118-125.
    Two experiments employed experience sampling to examine the factors associated with a prospective and retrospective focus during mind wandering. Experiment One explored the contribution of working memory and indicated that participants generally prospect when the task does not require continuous monitoring. Experiment Two demonstrated that in the context of reading, interest in what was read suppressed both past and future-related task-unrelated-thought. Moreover, in disinterested individuals the temporal focus during mind wandering depended on the amount of experience with the topic matter—less (...)
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  11. Jonathan Smallwood & Jonathan W. Schooler (2009). Mind-Wandering. In Bayne Tim, Cleeremans Axel & Wilken Patrick (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford University Press. 443--445.
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  12. Jonathan Smallwood, Rory C. O'Connor, Megan V. Sudbery & Marc Obonsawin (2007). Mind-Wandering and Dysphoria. Cognition and Emotion 21 (4):816-842.
  13. J. Smallwood, L. Riby, D. Heim & J. Davies (2006). Encoding During the Attentional Lapse: Accuracy of Encoding During the Semantic Sustained Attention to Response Task. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):218-231.
    An experiment investigated the relationship between the ability to encode verbal stimuli during an attentional lapse. The task employed a variation on the sustained attention to response task which involved the detection of an infrequent target against a background of words. As a manipulation, participants were either instructed to encode the stimuli or were merely exposed to the stimuli. Retrieval was measured using process dissociation. Irrespective of the instructions given to the participants during the task, participants were more likely to (...)
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  14. Jonathan Smallwood, Leigh Riby, Derek Heim, John B. Davies, Julia Fisher, Elliot Hirshman, Thomas Henthorn, Jason Arndt, Anthony Passannante & Susan Pockett (2005). Shaun Gallagher, Jesper Brøsted Sørensen. Experimenting with Phenomenology. Consciousness and Cognition 14:645-646.
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  15. Rory O'Connor, Daryl O'Connor, Susan O'Connor, Jonathan Smallwood & Jeremy Miles (2004). Hopelessness, Stress, and Perfectionism: The Moderating Effects of Future Thinking. Cognition and Emotion 18 (8):1099-1120.
  16. J. Smallwood, J. B. Davies, D. Heim, F. Finnigan, M. Sudberry & Obonsawin M. O'Connor R. (2004). Subjective Experience and the Attentional Lapse: Task Engagement and Disengagement During Sustained Attention. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):657-90.
    Three experiments investigated the relationship between subjective experience and attentional lapses during sustained attention. These experiments employed two measures of subjective experience to examine how differences in awareness correspond to variations in both task performance and psycho-physiological measures . This series of experiments examine these phenomena during the Sustained Attention to Response Task . The results suggest we can dissociate between two components of subjective experience during sustained attention: task unrelated thought which corresponds to an absent minded disengagement from the (...)
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  17. J. Smallwood, R. OconnoR, M. Sudberry, C. Haskell & C. Ballantyne (2004). The Consequences of Encoding Information on the Maintenance of Internally Generated Images and Thoughts: The Role of Meaning Complexes. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):789-820.
    Three experiments investigated the hypothesis that internally generated images and thoughts were driven by meaning complexes, a construct which reflects a synthesis of semantic meaning and personal salience . Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the mutual inhibition between encoding words and non-words on: the frequency that thoughts and images unrelated to the task were experienced and on the intensity of images generated from long-term memory and maintained under dual task conditions, which whilst familiar were not of particular personal salience . (...)
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  18. Jonathan Smallwood (2004). Brief Report Self-Reference, Ambiguity, and Dysphoria. Cognition and Emotion 18 (7):999-1007.
  19. Jonathan Smallwood, John B. Davies, Derek Heim, Frances Finnigan, Megan Sudberry, Rory O'Connor & Marc Obonsawin (2004). Subjective Experience and the Attentional Lapse: Task Engagement and Disengagement During Sustained Attention. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):657-690.
    Three experiments investigated the relationship between subjective experience and attentional lapses during sustained attention. These experiments employed two measures of subjective experience to examine how differences in awareness correspond to variations in both task performance and psycho-physiological measures . This series of experiments examine these phenomena during the Sustained Attention to Response Task . The results suggest we can dissociate between two components of subjective experience during sustained attention: task unrelated thought which corresponds to an absent minded disengagement from the (...)
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  20. J. P. Maxwell, R. S. W. Masters, F. F. Eves, R. P. Behrendt, Jonathan M. Smallwood, Simona F. Baracaia, Michelle Lowe & Marc Obonsawin (2003). Barbara H. Basden, David R. Basden, and Matthew J. Wright. Part-List Reexposure and Release Of. Consciousness and Cognition 12:320.
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  21. J. Smallwood (2003). Task Unrelated Thought: The Role of Distributed Processing. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (2):169-189.
    Task unrelated thought refers to thought directed away from the current situation; for example, a day dream. Encapsulated models of cognition propose that qualitative changes in consciousness, i.e., the production of TUT, can be explained in terms of changes in the quantity of resources deployed for task completion. In contrast, distributed models of cognition emphasize the importance of holistic processes in the generation and maintenance of task focus and are consistent with the effects of higher order variables such as schemata. (...)
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  22. J. M. Smallwood, S. F. Baracaia, M. Lowe & M. Obonsawin (2003). Task Unrelated Thought Whilst Encoding Information. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):452-484.
    Task unrelated thought (TUT) refers to thought directed away from the current situation, for example a daydream. Three experiments were conducted on healthy participants, with two broad aims. First, to contrast distributed and encapsulated views of cognition by comparing the encoding of categorical and random lists of words (Experiments One and Two). Second, to examine the consequences of experiencing TUT during study on the subsequent retrieval of information (Experiments One, Two, and Three). Experiments One and Two demonstrated lower levels of (...)
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  23. Jonathan Smallwood, Marc Obonsawin, Derek Heim, Arne Dietrich, Bjorn Merker, Richard A. Bryant, David Mallard, Talis Bachmann, Iiris Luiga & Endel Poder (2003). 1053-8100/02/$-See Front Matter© 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All Rights Reserved. Consciousness and Cognition 12:145.
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  24. Jonathan Smallwood, Marc Obonsawin, Derek Heim & Robert West (2002). P. Andrew Leynes, Richard L. Marsh, Jason L. Hicks, Joseph D. Allen, and Christopher B. Mayhorn. Consciousness and Cognition 11:478-479.
     
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