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Jeremy Snyder [29]James G. Snyder [10]Joel Snyder [10]Jeremy C. Snyder [6]
James V. Snyder [5]Janet Snyder [5]Joel S. Snyder [4]Jane McIntosh Snyder [3]

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See also:
Profile: Jeremy Christopher Snyder (Simon Fraser University)
Profile: Joel Snyder (University of Chicago)
Profile: James Snyder
Profile: James Snyder (Marist College)
Profile: James Snyder (Mercyhurst College)
  1. Jeremy Snyder (2010). Exploitation and Sweatshop Labor: Perspectives and Issues. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):187-213.
    In this review, I survey theoretical accounts of exploitation in business, chiefly through the example of low wage or sweatshop labor. This labor is associated with wages that fall below a living wage standard and include long working hours. Labor of this kind is often described as self-evidently exploitative and immoral (Van Natta 1995). But for those who defend sweatshop labor as the first rung on a ladder toward greater economic development, the charge that sweatshop labor is self-evidently exploitative fails (...)
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  2.  8
    Jeremy Snyder, Cari L. Miller & Glenda Gray (2011). Relative Versus Absolute Standards for Everyday Risk in Adolescent HIV Prevention Trials: Expanding the Debate. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):5 - 13.
    The concept of minimal risk has been used to regulate and limit participation by adolescents in clinical trials. It can be understood as setting an absolute standard of what risks are considered minimal or it can be interpreted as relative to the actual risks faced by members of the host community for the trial. While commentators have almost universally opposed a relative interpretation of the environmental risks faced by potential adolescent trial participants, we argue that the ethical concerns against the (...)
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  3. Christina M. Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Erin E. Hannon & Joel S. Snyder (2015). Finding the Music of Speech: Musical Knowledge Influences Pitch Processing in Speech. Cognition 143:135-140.
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  4. Jeremy Snyder (2009). What's the Matter with Price Gouging? Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):275-293.
    When prices for basic commodities increase following a disaster, these price increases are often condemned as ‘price gouging’. In this paper, I discuss what moral wrongs, if any, are most reasonably ascribed to accusations of price gouging. This discussion keeps in mind both practical and moral defenses of price increase following disasters. I first examine existing antigouging legislation for commonalities in their definitions of gouging and then present arguments in favor of the permissibility of gouging, focusing on the economic benefits (...)
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  5. Jeremy Snyder (2009). Efficiency, Equity, and Price Gouging: A Response to Zwolinski. Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):303-306.
    In this response, I reiterate my argument that price gouging undercuts the goal of equity in access to essential goods whereas Zwolinski emphasizes the importance of the efficient provision of essential goods above all other goals. I agree that the efficient provision of essential goods is important as I argue for the goal of equitable access to sufficient of the goods essential to living a minimally flourishing human life. However, efficiency is a means to this goal rather than the end (...)
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  6.  90
    Fabrizio Cariani, Marc Pauly & Josh Snyder (2008). Decision Framing in Judgment Aggregation. Synthese 163 (1):1 - 24.
    Judgment aggregation problems are language dependent in that they may be framed in different yet equivalent ways. We formalize this dependence via the notion of translation invariance, adopted from the philosophy of science, and we argue for the normative desirability of translation invariance. We characterize the class of translation invariant aggregation functions in the canonical judgment aggregation model, which requires collective judgments to be complete. Since there are reasonable translation invariant aggregation functions, our result can be viewed as a possibility (...)
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  7.  10
    Jeremy Snyder (2013). Predatory Pricing. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell
  8.  70
    J. Snyder, V. A. Crooks & R. Johnston (2012). Perceptions of the Ethics of Medical Tourism: Comparing Patient and Academic Perspectives. Public Health Ethics 5 (1):38-46.
    Medical tourism is a practice, whereby individuals travel across national borders with the intention of receiving medical care. Medical tourists are motivated to travel abroad by a number of factors, including the affordability of care abroad, access to treatments not available at home, and wait times for care at home. In this article, we share the findings of interviews conducted with 32 Canadian medical tourists with the aim of developing a better understanding of medical tourism, the ethical issues it raises (...)
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  9. Jeremy C. Snyder (2008). Needs Exploitation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):389-405.
    Sweatshop labor is often cited as an example of the worst and most pervasive form of exploitation today, yet understanding what is meant by the charge has proven surprisingly difficult for philosophers. I develop an account of what I call “Needs Exploitation,” grounded in a specification of the duty of beneficence. In the case of sweatshop labor, I argue that employers face a duty to extend to employees a wage sufficient to meet their basic needs. This duty is limited by (...)
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  10.  16
    J. Snyder, V. A. Crooks, K. Adams, P. Kingsbury & R. Johnston (2011). The 'Patient's Physician One-Step Removed': The Evolving Roles of Medical Tourism Facilitators. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (9):530-534.
    Background: Medical tourism involves patients travelling internationally to receive medical services. This practice raises a range of ethical issues, including potential harms to the patient's home and destination country and risks to the patient's own health. Medical tourists often engage the services of a facilitator who may book travel and accommodation and link the patient with a hospital abroad. Facilitators have the potential to exacerbate or mitigate the ethical concerns associated with medical tourism, but their roles are poorly understood. -/- (...)
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  11.  21
    Luc Bovens, Branden Fitelson, Stephan Hartmann & Josh Snyder (2002). Too Odd (Not) to Be True? A Reply to Olsson. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):539-563.
    Corroborating Testimony, Probability and Surprise’, Erik J. Olsson ascribes to L. Jonathan Cohen the claims that if two witnesses provide us with the same information, then the less probable the information is, the more confident we may be that the information is true (C), and the stronger the information is corroborated (C*). We question whether Cohen intends anything like claims (C) and (C*). Furthermore, he discusses the concurrence of witness reports within a context of independent witnesses, whereas the witnesses in (...)
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  12.  21
    Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A. Crooks, Rory Johnston & Shafik Dharamsi (2013). “Do Your Homework…and Then Hope for the Best”: The Challenges That Medical Tourism Poses to Canadian Family Physicians' Support of Patients' Informed Decision-Making. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):37.
    Medical tourism—the practice where patients travel internationally to privately access medical care—may limit patients’ regular physicians’ abilities to contribute to the informed decision-making process. We address this issue by examining ways in which Canadian family doctors’ typical involvement in patients’ informed decision-making is challenged when their patients engage in medical tourism.
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  13.  17
    Jeremy Snyder (2009). Is Health Worker Migration a Case of Poaching? American Journal of Bioethics 9 (3):3-7.
    Many nations in the developing world invest scarce funding into training health workers. When these workers migrate to richer countries, particularly when this migration occurs before the source community can recoup the costs of training, the destination community realizes a net gain in resources by obtaining the workers' skills without having to pay for their training. This effect of health worker migration has frequently been condemned as 'poaching' or a case of theft. I assess the charge that the rich nations (...)
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  14.  32
    Joel Snyder & Neil Walsh Allen (1975). Photography, Vision, and Representation. Critical Inquiry 2 (1):143-169.
    Is there anything peculiarly "photographic" about photography—something which sets it apart from all other ways of making pictures? If there is, how important is it to our understanding of photographs? Are photographs so unlike other sorts of pictures as to require unique methods of interpretation and standards of evaluation? These questions may sound artificial, made up especially for the purpose of theorizing. But they have in fact been asked and answered not only by critics and photographers but by laymen. Furthermore, (...)
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  15.  16
    Kali Penney, Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A. Crooks & Rory Johnston (2011). Risk Communication and Informed Consent in the Medical Tourism Industry: A Thematic Content Analysis of Canadian Broker Websites. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):17-.
    Background: Medical tourism, thought of as patients seeking non-emergency medical care outside of their home countries, is a growing industry worldwide. Canadians are amongst those engaging in medical tourism, and many are helped in the process of accessing care abroad by medical tourism brokers - agents who specialize in making international medical care arrangements for patients. As a key source of information for these patients, brokers are likely to play an important role in communicating the risks and benefits of undergoing (...)
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  16.  2
    Jeremy C. Snyder (2008). Needs Exploitation. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (4):389-405.
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  17.  23
    Jeremy Snyder, Valorie Crooks, Rory Johnston & Paul Kingsbury (2013). Beyond Sun, Sand, and Stitches: Assigning Responsibility for the Harms of Medical Tourism. Bioethics 27 (5):233-242.
    Medical tourism (MT) can be conceptualized as the intentional pursuit of non-emergency surgical interventions by patients outside their nation of residence. Despite increasing popular interest in MT, the ethical issues associated with the practice have thus far been under-examined. MT has been associated with a range of both positive and negative effects for medical tourists' home and host countries, and for the medical tourists themselves. Absent from previous explorations of MT is a clear argument of how responsibility for the harms (...)
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  18.  30
    Jeremy Snyder (2012). Exploitations and Their Complications: The Necessity of Identifying the Multiple Forms of Exploitation in Pharmaceutical Trials. Bioethics 26 (5):251-258.
    Human subject trials of pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries have been associated with the moral wrong of exploitation on two grounds. First, these trials may include a placebo control arm even when proven treatments for a condition are in use in other parts of the world. Second, the trial researchers or sponsors may fail to make a successful treatment developed through the trial available to either the trial participants or the host community following the trial.Many commentators have argued (...)
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  19.  53
    Jeremy Snyder (2009). Easy Rescues and Organ Transplantation. HEC Forum 21 (1):27-53.
    Many people in desperate need of an organ will die on waiting lists for transplantation or face increased morbidity because of their wait. This circumstance is particularly troubling since many viable organs for transplantation go unused when individuals fail to participate in their local organ donation system. In this paper, I consider whether participating in organ transplantation should be considered a form of a rescue of others from the great harms caused by a shortage in transplantable organs. Specifically, I consider (...)
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  20.  2
    Jeremy Snyder & Valorie A. Crooks (forthcoming). Can We Care for Aging Persons Without Worsening Global Inequities? The Case of Long-Term Care Worker Migration From the Anglophone Caribbean. Public Health Ethics:phw031.
    The international migration of health workers, including long-term care workers for aging populations, contributes to a shortage of these workers in many parts of the world. In the Anglophone Caribbean, LCW shortages and the migration of nurses to take on LCW positions abroad threaten the health of local populations and widen global inequities in health. Many responses have been proposed to address the international migration of health workers generally, including making it more difficult for these workers to emigrate and increasing (...)
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  21.  14
    Jeremy Snyder (2009). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Is Health Worker Migration a Case of Poaching?”. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (3):W1 – W2.
    I would like to thank all of the respondents to my article both for their expansions on the theme of health worker migration and for their criticisms of my argument against the use of the term ’poaching’ in the context of international health worker migration. In this response, I will clarify my argument in light of the worries raised primarily by Tache and Schillinger and Ari Zivotofsky and Naomi Zivotofsky.
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  22.  8
    Jeremy Snyder & Valorie A. Crooks (2012). New Ethical Perspectives on Medical Tourism in the Developing World. Developing World Bioethics 12 (1):iii-vi.
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  23.  28
    Jeremy Snyder (2009). Efficiency, Equity, and Price Gouging. Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):303-306.
    In this response, I reiterate my argument that price gouging undercuts the goal of equity in access to essential goods whereas Zwolinski emphasizes the importance of the efficient provision of essential goods above all other goals. I agree that the efficient provision of essential goods is important as I argue for the goal of equitable access to sufficient of the goods essential to living a minimally flourishing human life. However, efficiency is a means to this goal rather than the end (...)
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  24.  13
    Stephan Hartmann, Luc Bovens, Branden Fitelson & Josh Snyder (2002). Too Odd (Not) to Be True: A Reply to Olsson. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):539-563.
    In ‘Corroborating Testimony, Probability and Surprise’, Erik J. Olsson ascribes to L. Jonathan Cohen the claims that if two witnesses provide us with the same information, then the less probable the information is, the more confident we may be that the information is true (C), and the stronger the information is corroborated (C*). We question whether Cohen intends anything like claims (C) and (C*). Furthermore, he discusses the concurrence of witness reports within a context of independent witnesses, whereas the witnesses (...)
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  25.  21
    Krystyna Adams, Jeremy Snyder, Valorie A. Crooks & Rory Johnston (2013). Promoting Social Responsibility Amongst Health Care Users: Medical Tourists' Perspectives on an Information Sheet Regarding Ethical Concerns in Medical Tourism. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8 (1):19.
    Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from (...)
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  26.  9
    Jonathan M. Berkowitz & Jack W. Snyder (1998). Racism and Sexism in Medically Assisted Conception. Bioethics 12 (1):25–44.
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  27.  22
    Joel Snyder & Ted Cohen (1980). Reflexions on "Las Meninas": Paradox Lost. Critical Inquiry 7 (2):429-447.
    Surely [John R.] Searle must rely on a stable, formal conception of the point of view. He sets Las Meninas on a par with the antimony of the liar and the paradoxes of set theory. But nothing is an antimony or a paradox just because it seems so or just because it is confusing or difficult, even if it seems so to everyone. To deserve such a description, a thing must be, so to speak, intrinsically intractable, not merely resistant when (...)
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  28.  20
    Jeremy Snyder (2010). Multiple Forms of Exploitation in International Research: The Need for Multiple Standards of Fairness. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):40-41.
    Ballantyne correctly notes the need for clarification as to the standard of fairness that should guide nonexploitative international research on human subjects. When accounts of exploitation are applied to pharmaceutical development (as well as other areas), there is too often an uncritical acceptance that exploitation involves a form of unfairness. Moreover, these authors typically fail to produce an account of fairness by which exploitation should be identified. Ballantyne should be applauded for her attempt to inject greater clarity into these debates. (...)
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  29.  6
    Jeremy Snyder, Cari L. Miller & Glenda Gray (2011). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Relative Versus Absolute Standards for Everyday Risk in Adolescent HIV Prevention Trials: Expanding the Debate”. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):W1 - W3.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page W1-W3, June 2011.
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  30.  8
    Jeremy Snyder & Valorie A. Crooks (2010). Medical Tourism and Bariatric Surgery: More Moral Challenges. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):28-30.
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  31.  7
    Michael A. DeVita & James V. Snyder (1993). Development of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Policy for the Care of Terminally Ill Patients Who May Become Organ Donors After Death Following the Removal of Life Support. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 3 (2):131-143.
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  32.  15
    Joel Snyder (1985). Las Meninas and the Mirror of the Prince. Critical Inquiry 11 (4):539-572.
    It is ironic that, with few exceptions, the now vast body of critical literature about Diego Velázquez’s Las Meninas fails to link knowledge to understanding—fails to relate the encyclopedic knowledge we have acquired of its numerous details to a convincing understanding of the painting as a whole. Las Meninas is imposing and monumental; yet a large portion of the literature devoted to it considers only its elements: aspects of its nominal subjects, their biographies, and their roles in the household of (...)
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  33.  4
    Jeremy Snyder, Rory Johnston, Valorie A. Crooks, Jeff Morgan & Krystyna Adams (forthcoming). How Medical Tourism Enables Preferential Access to Care: Four Patterns From the Canadian Context. Health Care Analysis:1-13.
    Medical tourism is the practice of traveling across international borders with the intention of accessing medical care, paid for out-of-pocket. This practice has implications for preferential access to medical care for Canadians both through inbound and outbound medical tourism. In this paper, we identify four patterns of medical tourism with implications for preferential access to care by Canadians: Inbound medical tourism to Canada’s public hospitals; Inbound medical tourism to a First Nations reserve; Canadian patients opting to go abroad for medical (...)
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  34.  61
    James G. Snyder (2008). The Theory of Materia Prima in Marsilio Ficino's Platonic Theology. Vivarium 46 (2):192-221.
    This paper is an examination of the theory of materia prima of the fifteenth century Platonist Marsilio Ficino. It limits its discussion of Ficino's theory to the ontological and epistemic status of prime matter in his Platonic Theology. Ficino holds a "robust" theory of prime matter that makes two fundamental assertions: First, prime matter exists independent of form, and second, it is, at least in principle, intelligible. Ficino's theory of prime matter is framed in this paper with a discussion of (...)
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  35.  1
    Joel S. Snyder, Caspar M. Schwiedrzik, A. Davi Vitela & Lucia Melloni (2015). How Previous Experience Shapes Perception in Different Sensory Modalities. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
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  36.  23
    Joel Snyder (1983). Photography and Ontology. Grazer Philosophische Studien 19:21-34.
    Numerous writers on photography and motion pictures have claimed that photographically originated pictures are essentially different from handmade pictures. Arguments made on behalf of the essential difference of photographs from other kinds of pictures generally depend upon one or another of two models of the photographic process: the visual model claims that photographs are closely allied to vision and show what we would have seen from the standpoint of the camera at the time of exposure; the mechanical or automatic model (...)
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  37.  27
    John J. Snyder (1987). Review: Evans, The Metaphysics of Transcendental Subjectivity: Descartes, Kant and W. Sellars. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 64 (3):211-212.
  38.  3
    Michael A. DeVita, James V. Snyder & Ake Grenvik (1993). History of Organ Donation by Patients with Cardiac Death. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 3 (2):113-129.
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  39.  7
    Joel S. Snyder, Breanne D. Yerkes & Michael A. Pitts (2015). Testing Domain-General Theories of Perceptual Awareness with Auditory Brain Responses. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (6):295-297.
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  40.  2
    Joel Snyder (1980). Picturing Vision. Critical Inquiry 6 (3):499-526.
    I find it more than merely suggestive that we call many different kinds of pictures "realistic." As a category label, "realistic" is remarkably elastic. We cheerfully place into the category pictures that are made in strict accordance with the rules of linear perspective, pictures that are at slight variance with those rules but that nonetheless look perfectly "correct" , and pictures made in flagrant contravention of perspective geometry . We accept as realistic pictures that are made in strict accordance with (...)
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  41.  44
    Jeremy C. Snyder (2007). Kidney for Sale by Owner: Human Organs, Transplantation, and the Market – by Mark J. Cherry. Developing World Bioethics 7 (3):168–170.
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  42.  30
    James G. Snyder (2009). The Cambridge Companion to Renaissance Philosophy. Vivarium 47 (1):140-142.
  43.  5
    Carly Hohm & Jeremy Snyder (2015). “It Was the Best Decision of My Life”: A Thematic Content Analysis of Former Medical Tourists’ Patient Testimonials. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):8.
    Medical tourism is international travel with the intention of receiving medical care. Medical tourists travel for many reasons, including cost savings, limited domestic access to specific treatments, and interest in accessing unproven interventions. Medical tourism poses new health and safety risks to patients, including dangers associated with travel following surgery, difficulty assessing the quality of care abroad, and complications in continuity of care. Online resources are important to the decision-making of potential medical tourists and the websites of medical tourism facilitation (...)
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  44.  26
    Jeremy Snyder, Valorie Crooks & Leigh Turner (2011). Issues and Challenges in Research on the Ethics of Medical Tourism: Reflections From a Conference. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):3-6.
    The authors co-organized (Snyder and Crooks) and gave a keynote presentation at (Turner) a conference on ethical issues in medical tourism. Medical tourism involves travel across international borders with the intention of receiving medical care. This care is typically paid for out-of-pocket and is motivated by an interest in cost savings and/or avoiding wait times for care in the patient’s home country. This practice raises numerous ethical concerns, including potentially exacerbating health inequities in destination and source countries and disrupting continuity (...)
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  45.  2
    Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder & John Calvert (2015). Canadian Research Ethics Board Members’ Attitudes Toward Benefits From Clinical Trials. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-7.
    BackgroundWhile ethicists have for many years called for human subject trial participants and, in some cases, local community members to benefit from participation in pharmaceutical and other intervention-based therapies, little is known about how these discussions are impacting the practice of research ethics boards that grant ethical approval to many of these studies.MethodsTelephone interviews were conducted with 23 REB members from across Canada, a major funder country for human subject research internationally. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. After (...)
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  46.  3
    Kori Cook, Jeremy Snyder & John Calvert (2016). Attitudes Toward Post‐Trial Access to Medical Interventions: A Review of Academic Literature, Legislation, and International Guidelines. [REVIEW] Developing World Bioethics 16 (2):70-79.
    There is currently no international consensus around post-trial obligations toward research participants, community members, and host countries. This literature review investigates arguments and attitudes toward post-trial access. The literature review found that academic discussions focused on the rights of research participants, but offered few practical recommendations for addressing or improving current practices. Similarly, there are few regulations or legislation pertaining to post-trial access. If regulatory changes are necessary, we need to understand the current arguments, legislation, and attitudes towards post-trial access (...)
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  47.  8
    Lamar Pierce & Jason A. Snyder (2015). Unethical Demand and Employee Turnover. Journal of Business Ethics 131 (4):853-869.
    This paper argues that consumer demand for unethical behavior such as fraud can impact employee turnover through market and psychological forces. Widespread conditions of unethical demand can improve career prospects for employees of unethical firms through higher income and stability associated with firm financial health. Similarly, unethical employees enjoy increased tenure from the financial and psychological rewards of prosocial behavior toward customers demanding corrupt or unethical behavior. We specifically examine the well-documented unethical demand for fraud in the vehicle emissions testing (...)
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  48.  11
    Jeremy Snyder (2013). Exploitation and Demeaning Choices. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (4):345-360.
    Scholarship aiming to describe the wrongness of exploitation, especially when it is voluntary and mutually beneficial, has increased greatly in recent years. In this paper, I expand the scope of this discussion by highlighting a set of additional ethical concerns associated with many cases of mutually voluntary and beneficial exploitation. Specifically, I argue that the phenomenon of persons desperately seeking out and gratefully accepting exploitative interactions raises special moral concerns. The element of voluntariness is key to understanding how and why (...)
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  49.  2
    Michael A. DeVita, Rade Vukmir, James V. Snyder & Cheryl Graziano (1995). Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Reply to Campbell and Weber. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 5 (1):43-49.
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  50.  7
    Janet Snyder (2012). Monica L. Wright, Weaving Narrative: Clothing in Twelfth-Century French Romance. (Penn State Romance Studies.) University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. Pp. Xi, 192. $60. ISBN: 9780271035659. [REVIEW] Speculum 87 (2):627-628.
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