Search results for 'JW Garson' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. JW Garson (1999). Review. Connectionism and the Philosophy of Psychology. T Horgan, J Tienson. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (2):319-323.score: 240.0
  2. Ernest Pore & James Garson (1983). Pronouns and Quantifier-Scope in English. Journal of Philosophical Logic 12 (3):327 - 358.score: 60.0
    This paper is truly a joint effort and it could not have been written without the contribution of both authors. Garson, though, deserves credit (or blame) for first seeing the need for two kinds of quantifier scope, and also for devising essentials of the positive theory.
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  3. Justin Garson (2014). The Biological Mind: A Philosophical Introduction. Routledge.score: 60.0
    For some, biology explains all there is to know about the mind. Yet many big questions remain: is the mind shaped by genes or the environment? If mental traits are the result of adaptations built up over thousands of years, as evolutionary psychologists claim, how can such claims be tested? If the mind is a machine, as biologists argue, how does it allow for something as complex as human consciousness? The Biological Mind: A Philosophical Introduction explores these questions and more, (...)
     
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  4. James W. Garson (2005). Unifying Quantified Modal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (5/6):621 - 649.score: 30.0
    Quantified modal logic (QML) has reputation for complexity. Completeness results for the various systems appear piecemeal. Different tactics are used for different systems, and success of a given method seems sensitive to many factors, including the specific combination of choices made for the quantifiers, terms, identity, and the strength of the underlying propositional modal logic. The lack of a unified framework in which to view QMLs and their completeness properties puts pressure on those who develop, apply, and teach QML to (...)
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  5. Justin Garson (2003). The Introduction of Information Into Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):926-936.score: 30.0
    The first use of the term “information” to describe the content of nervous impulse occurs in Edgar Adrian's The Basis of Sensation (1928). What concept of information does Adrian appeal to, and how can it be situated in relation to contemporary philosophical accounts of the notion of information in biology? The answer requires an explication of Adrian's use and an evaluation of its situation in relation to contemporary accounts of semantic information. I suggest that Adrian's concept of information can be (...)
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  6. James W. Garson (2010). Expressive Power and Incompleteness of Propositional Logics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (2):159-171.score: 30.0
    Natural deduction systems were motivated by the desire to define the meaning of each connective by specifying how it is introduced and eliminated from inference. In one sense, this attempt fails, for it is well known that propositional logic rules (however formulated) underdetermine the classical truth tables. Natural deduction rules are too weak to enforce the intended readings of the connectives; they allow non-standard models. Two reactions to this phenomenon appear in the literature. One is to try to restore the (...)
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  7. G. Piccinini & J. Garson (2014). Functions Must Be Performed at Appropriate Rates in Appropriate Situations. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (1):1-20.score: 30.0
    We sketch a novel and improved version of Boorse’s biostatistical theory of functions. Roughly, our theory maintains that (i) functions are non-negligible contributions to survival or inclusive fitness (when a trait contributes to survival or inclusive fitness); (ii) situations appropriate for the performance of a function are typical situations in which a trait contributes to survival or inclusive fitness; (iii) appropriate rates of functioning are rates that make adequate contributions to survival or inclusive fitness (in situations appropriate for the performance (...)
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  8. James W. Garson (2001). (Dis)Solving the Binding Problem. Philosophical Psychology 14 (4):381 – 392.score: 30.0
    The binding problem is to explain how information processed by different sensory systems is brought together to unify perception. The problem has two sides. First, we want to explain phenomenal binding: the fact that we experience a single world rather than separate perceptual fields for each sensory modality. Second, we must solve a functional problem: to explain how a neural net like the brain links instances to types. I argue that phenomenal binding and functional binding require very different treatments. The (...)
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  9. James W. Garson (1994). Cognition Without Classical Architecture. Synthese 100 (2):291-306.score: 30.0
    Fodor and Pylyshyn (1988) argue that any successful model of cognition must use classical architecture; it must depend upon rule-based processing sensitive to constituent structure. This claim is central to their defense of classical AI against the recent enthusiasm for connectionism. Connectionist nets, they contend, may serve as theories of the implementation of cognition, but never as proper theories of psychology. Connectionist models are doomed to describing the brain at the wrong level, leaving the classical view to account for the (...)
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  10. Justin Garson (2011). Selected Effects and Causal Role Functions in the Brain: The Case for an Etiological Approach to Neuroscience. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):547-565.score: 30.0
    Despite the voluminous literature on biological functions produced over the last 40 years, few philosophers have studied the concept of function as it is used in neuroscience. Recently, Craver (forthcoming; also see Craver 2001) defended the causal role theory against the selected effects theory as the most appropriate theory of function for neuroscience. The following argues that though neuroscientists do study causal role functions, the scope of that theory is not as universal as claimed. Despite the strong prima facie superiority (...)
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  11. James W. Garson (1995). Chaos and Free Will. Philosophical Psychology 8 (4):365-74.score: 30.0
    This paper explores the possibility that chaos theory might be helpful in explaining free will. I will argue that chaos has little to offer if we construe its role as to resolve the apparent conflict between determinism and freedom. However, I contend that the fundamental problem of freedom is to find a way to preserve intuitions about rational action in a physical brain. New work on dynamic computation provides a framework for viewing free choice as a process that is sensitive (...)
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  12. James W. Garson (2006). Review of Ernest Lepore, Kirk Ludwig, Donald Davidson: Meaning, Truth, Language, and Reality. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (2).score: 30.0
    Over the last forty years, Donald Davidson has been one of the most influential, but least accessible voices in philosophy. There are several reasons why it is hard to come to grips with his work. First, his language is dense, even by the standards of analytic philosophy; while at the same time his thought is highly organic, so that it is difficult to make sense of one idea without an understanding of his whole program. Davidson never attempted to write a (...)
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  13. James W. Garson (2003). Simulation and Connectionism: What is the Connection? Philosophical Psychology 16 (4):499-515.score: 30.0
    Simulation has emerged as an increasingly popular account of folk psychological (FP) talents at mind-reading: predicting and explaining human mental states. Where its rival (the theory-theory) postulates that these abilities are explained by mastery of laws describing the connections between beliefs, desires, and action, simulation theory proposes that we mind-read by "putting ourselves in another's shoes." This paper concerns connectionist architecture and the debate between simulation theory (ST) and the theory-theory (TT). It is only natural to associate TT with classical (...)
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  14. Justin Garson, Broken Mechanisms: Function, Pathology, and Natural Selection.score: 30.0
    The following describes one distinct sense of ‘mechanism’ which is prevalent in biology and biomedicine and which has important epistemic benefits. According to this sense, mechanisms are defined by the functions they facilitate. This construal has two important implications. Firstly, mechanisms that facilitate functions are capable of breaking. Secondly, on this construal, there are rigid constraints on the sorts of phenomena ‘for which’ there can be a mechanism. In this sense, there are no ‘mechanisms for’ pathology, and natural selection is (...)
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  15. James W. Garson (1998). Chaotic Emergence and the Language of Thought. Philosophical Psychology 11 (3):303-315.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the merits of the idea that dynamical systems theory (also known as chaos theory) provides a model of the mind that can vindicate the language of thought (LOT). I investigate the nature of emergent structure in dynamical systems to assess its compatibility with causally efficacious syntactic structure in the brain. I will argue that anyone who is committed to the idea that the brain's functioning depends on emergent features of dynamical systems should (...)
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  16. James W. Garson (2006). Modal Logic for Philosophers. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    Designed for use by philosophy students, this book provides an accessible, yet technically sound treatment of modal logic and its philosophical applications. Every effort has been made to simplify the presentation by using diagrams in place of more complex mathematical apparatus. These and other innovations provide philosophers with easy access to a rich variety of topics in modal logic, including a full coverage of quantified modal logic, non-rigid designators, definite descriptions, and the de-re de-dictio distinction. Discussion of philosophical issues concerning (...)
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  17. James W. Garson (2009). Modal Logic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
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  18. Justin Garson, Linton Wang & Sahotra Sarkar (2003). How Development May Direct Evolution. Biology and Philosophy 18 (2):353-370.score: 30.0
    A framework is presented in which the role ofdevelopmental rules in phenotypic evolution canbe studied for some simple situations. Usingtwo different implicit models of development,characterized by different developmental mapsfrom genotypes to phenotypes, it is shown bysimulation that developmental rules and driftcan result in directional phenotypic evolutionwithout selection. For both models thesimulations show that the critical parameterthat drives the final phenotypic distributionis the cardinality of the set of genotypes thatmap to each phenotype. Details of thedevelopmental map do not matter. If phenotypesare (...)
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  19. James W. Garson (1996). Cognition Poised at the Edge of Chaos: A Complex Alternative to a Symbolic Mind. Philosophical Psychology 9 (3):301-22.score: 30.0
    This paper explores a line of argument against the classical paradigm in cognitive science that is based upon properties of non-linear dynamical systems, especially in their chaotic and near-chaotic behavior. Systems of this kind are capable of generating information-rich macro behavior that could be useful to cognition. I argue that a brain operating at the edge of chaos could generate high-complexity cognition in this way. If this hypothesis is correct, then the symbolic processing methodology in cognitive science faces serious obstacles. (...)
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  20. James W. Garson (1994). No Representations Without Rules: The Prospects for a Compromise Between Paradigms in Cognitive Science. Mind and Language 9 (1):25-37.score: 30.0
  21. James W. Garson (2001). Natural Semantics: Why Natural Deduction is Intuitionistic. Theoria 67 (2):114-139.score: 30.0
    In this paper investigates how natural deduction rules define connective meaning by presenting a new method for reading semantical conditions from rules called natural semantics. Natural semantics explains why the natural deduction rules are profoundly intuitionistic. Rules for conjunction, implication, disjunction and equivalence all express intuitionistic rather than classical truth conditions. Furthermore, standard rules for negation violate essential conservation requirements for having a natural semantics. The standard rules simply do not assign a meaning to the negation sign. Intuitionistic negation fares (...)
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  22. Justin Garson (2012). Function, Selection, and Construction in the Brain. Synthese 189 (3):451-481.score: 30.0
    A common misunderstanding of the selected effects theory of function is that natural selection operating over an evolutionary time scale is the only functionbestowing process in the natural world. This construal of the selected effects theory conflicts with the existence and ubiquity of neurobiological functions that are evolutionary novel, such as structures underlying reading ability. This conflict has suggested to some that, while the selected effects theory may be relevant to some areas of evolutionary biology, its relevance to neuroscience is (...)
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  23. James W. Garson (1998). A Commentary on "Cortical Activity and the Explanatory Gap". Consciousness and Cognition 7 (2):169-172.score: 30.0
  24. James Garson, Connectionism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
  25. Nicholas Rescher & James Garson (1968). Topological Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 33 (4):537-548.score: 30.0
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  26. Justin Garson (2013). The Functional Sense of Mechanism. Philosophy of Science 80 (3):317-333.score: 30.0
  27. James W. Garson (1969). Here and Now. The Monist 53 (3):469-477.score: 30.0
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  28. James W. Garson (1997). Syntax in a Dynamic Brain. Synthese 110 (3):343-55.score: 30.0
    Proponents of the language of thought (LOT) thesis are realists when it comes to syntactically structured representations, and must defend their view against instrumentalists, who would claim that syntactic structures may be useful in describing cognition, but have no more causal powers in governing cognition than do the equations of physics in guiding the planets. This paper explores what it will take to provide an argument for LOT that can defend its conclusion from instrumentalism. I illustrate a difficulty in this (...)
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  29. R. W. Garson (1971). Theocritean Elements in Virgil's Eclogues. Classical Quarterly 21 (01):188-.score: 30.0
    Much of the early scholarship on Virgilian borrowings from Theocritus offered mere lists of parallel passages and, where criticism was attempted at all, the Eclogues often attracted such uncomplimentary labels as ‘cento’ or ‘pastiche’. In more recent scholarship the tendency to concentrate on insoluble problems and arithmetical correspondences lingers and, while some critical works of the sixties are characterized by a welcome upsurge in sensitivity, one occasionally suspects that Virgil has had attributed to him concepts which are two millennia ahead (...)
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  30. James W. Garson (1978). Investigations in Modal and Tense Logics with Applications to Problems in Philosophy and Linguistics. International Studies in Philosophy 10:190-192.score: 30.0
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  31. James W. Garson (1973). Indefinite Topological Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):102 - 118.score: 30.0
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  32. Nicholas Rescher & James W. Garson (1967). A Note on Chronological Logic. Theoria 33 (1):39-44.score: 30.0
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  33. James W. Garson (1998). Why Dynamical Implementation Matters. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):641-642.score: 30.0
    Another objection to the dynamical hypothesis is explored. To resolve it completely, one must focus more directly on an area not emphasized in van Gelder's discussion: the contributions of dynamical systems theory to understanding how cognition is neutrally implemented.
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  34. James W. Garson (1980). The Unaxiomatizability of a Quantified Intensional Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 9 (1):59 - 72.score: 30.0
  35. James W. Garson (1974). The Substitution Interpretation in Topological Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 3 (1/2):109 - 132.score: 30.0
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  36. James W. Garson (1973). The Completeness of an Intensional Logic: Definite Topological Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 14 (2):175-184.score: 30.0
  37. R. W. Garson (1969). Homeric Echoes in Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica. Classical Quarterly 19 (02):362-.score: 30.0
    The purpose of this article is to illustrate through representative examples the principal ways in which Valerius Flaccus borrowed from Homer. Earlier articles1 examined Valerius' attitude towards Apollonius and his debt to Virgil. While not nearly as numerous as the Virgilian echoes, those from Homer are unmistakable, deliberate, sometimes erudite, or with a subtle twist. A convenient classification of them may be into verbal usages, situations, similes. Although the last merges with the previous category, it deserves separate treatment, being greatest (...)
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  38. James W. Garson (1978). Imperatives and Their Logics. New Scholasticism 52 (4):595-598.score: 30.0
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  39. James Garson (1989). Modularity and Relevant Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 30 (2):207-223.score: 30.0
    A practical system of reasoning must be both correct and efficient. An efficient system which contains a large body of information can not search for the proof of a conclusion from all information available. Efficiency requires that deduction of the conclusion be carried out in a modular way using only a relatively small and quickly identified subset of the total information. One might assume that data modularity is incompatible with correctness, where a system is correct for a logic L iff (...)
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  40. James W. Garson (1979). The Substitution Interpretation and the Expressive Power of Intensional Logics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (4):858-864.score: 30.0
  41. James W. Garson & Paul Mellema (1980). Computer-Assisted Instruction in Logic. Teaching Philosophy 3 (4):453-478.score: 30.0
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  42. R. W. Garson (1968). Metrical Statistics of Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica. Classical Quarterly 18 (02):376-.score: 30.0
    The appearance of a new and modern Teubner text of Valerius Flaccus, eliminating much consecrated chaff, is greatly to be welcomed. Its editor, E. Courtney of King's College, University of London, kindly lent me his text in typescript several years ago, so that my metrical statistics might be published at about the same time.
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  43. R. W. Garson (1963). The Hylas Episode in Valerius' Argonavtica. Classical Quarterly 13 (02):260-.score: 30.0
    Valerius Flacgus has few readers and still fewer admirers, even among classical specialists. Most of us, if we want to refresh our memories of Hylas, will turn to Theocritus' thirteenth Idyll or perhaps to Propertius' statuesque version . Apollonius Rhodius is read mainly in his third book, so that his Hylas story at the end of the first is ignored, and Valerius Flaccus is hardly read at all. In the year 1894 W. C. Summers in A Study of the Argonautica (...)
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  44. James W. Garson (1990). Categorical Semantics. In J. Dunn & A. Gupta (eds.), Truth or Consequences. Kluwer 155--175.score: 30.0
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  45. James Garson (1988). Heuristics for Proof Finding in Formal Logic. Teaching Philosophy 11 (1):41-53.score: 30.0
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  46. James W. Garson (1991). Leonard Angel, How to Build a Conscious Machine Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 11 (1):8-10.score: 30.0
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  47. James W. Garson (1993). Must We Solve the Binding Problem in Neural Hardware? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):459.score: 30.0
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  48. R. W. Garson (1965). Some Critical Observations on Valerius Flaccus' Argonavtica. II. Classical Quarterly 15 (01):104-.score: 30.0
    The critics have not been generous towards Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica as a whole, but their praise of his Medea episode, whether moderate or immoderate, has been fairly unanimous. W. C. Summers writes: ‘Valerius manages to treat the same theme with originality and power; in psychological probability his version seems to me superior to anything that has reached us from antiquity’. And J. M. K. Martin: ‘Where he displayed the most distinct originality, where he parted company with the Alexandrian poet with (...)
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  49. R. W. Garson (1970). Valerius Flaccus the Poet. Classical Quarterly 20 (01):181-.score: 30.0
    Details of poetical expression have received only incidental mention in my earlier articles on Valerius Flaccus. The purpose now is to fill this gap by outlining what has struck me most forcibly about Valerius' use of language and metre. This is offered not as a final assessment, were such a thing ever possible, but rather as a supplement or epilogue to what has already been published, with the emphasis on aspects unnoticed or not elaborated by others.
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