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  1. Jaakko Hintikka, Analyzing (and Synthesizing) Analysis.
    Equally surprisingly, Descartes’s paranoid belief was shared by several contemporary mathematicians, among them Isaac Barrow, John Wallis and Edmund Halley. (Huxley 1959, pp. 354-355.) In the light of our fuller knowledge of history it is easy to smile at Descartes. It has even been argued by Netz that analysis was in fact for ancient Greek geometers a method of presenting their results (see Netz 2000). But in a deeper sense Descartes perceived something interesting in the historical record. We are looking (...)
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  2. Jaakko Hintikka, Continuum Hypothesis as a Model-Theoretical Problem.
    Jaakko Hintikka 1. How to Study Set Theory The continuum hypothesis (CH) is crucial in the core area of set theory, viz. in the theory of the hierarchies of infinite cardinal and infinite ordinal numbers. It is crucial in that it would, if true, help to relate the two hierarchies to each other. It says that the second infinite cardinal number, which is known to be the cardinality of the first uncountable ordinal, equals the cardinality 2 o of the continuum. (...)
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  3. Jaakko Hintikka, If Logic Meets Paraconsistent Logic.
    particular alternative logic could be relevant to another one? The most important part of a response to this question is to remind the reader of the fact that independence friendly (IF) logic is not an alternative or “nonclassical” logic. (See here especially Hintikka, “There is only one logic”, forthcoming.) It is not calculated to capture some particular kind of reasoning that cannot be handled in the “classical” logic that should rather be called the received or conventional logic. No particular epithet (...)
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  4. Jaakko Hintikka, Past, Present and Future of Set Theory.
    What one can say about the past, present and future of set theory depends on what one expects or at least hopes set theory will accomplish. In order to gauge the early expectations, I begin with a quote from the inaugural lecture in 1903 of my mathematical grandfather, the internationally known Finnish mathematician Ernst Lindelöf. The subject of his lecture was – guess what – Cantor’s set theory. In his conclusion, Lindelöf says of Cantor’s results: For mathematics they have lent (...)
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  5. Jaakko Hintikka, Philosophical Research: Problems and Proposals.
    The world of philosophy can perhaps be seen as a microcosm of the world at large. In the course of the last few decades, the world has seen the collapse of the communist system of Russia, a major crisis of the free market economy in the USA, Europe and Japan, and massive economic changes in China. One perspective on contemporary philosophical research is reached by asking what crises the major philosophical traditions, if not literally “systems”, are likewise undergoing and what (...)
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  6. Jaakko Hintikka, What the Bald Man Can Tell Us.
    By speaking of the bald man, I am of course referring to the most clear-cut of the paradoxes of vagueness, the sorites paradox. Or, strictly speaking, I am referring to one of the dramatizations of this paradox. This case is nevertheless fully representative of the general issues involved. (For the sorites paradox in general, see e.g. Keefe and Smith 1987 or Sainsbury 1995, ch.2.) The allegedly paradoxical argument is well known. It might be formulated as follows.
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  7. Jaakko Hintikka (forthcoming). Cogito ergo sum, comme inférence et comme performance. Revue de Métaphysique Et de Morale.
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  8. Jaakko Hintikka & J. -M. Roy (forthcoming). Husserl: La Dimension Phénoménologique. Les Études Philosophiques.
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  9. Bill E. Lawson, Peter H. Hare, James Moor, Leslie Francis, Andrew Reck, Jaakko Hintikka, Stefan Bernard Baumrin, Leonard M. Fleck, Louisa Moon & Betsy Newell Decyk (forthcoming). Reports of APA Committees. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association.
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  10. George R. Lucas, Jaakko Hintikka, Myles Brand, Anne Waters, Xinyan Jiang, Bernard Boxill, James Moor, Michael Corrado, Stefan Bernard Baumrin & Claudia Card (forthcoming). Reports of APA Committees: Committee on Career Opportunities. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association.
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  11. Jaakko Hintikka (2013). Philosophical Research and General Education. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 8 (2):240-246.
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  12. Jaakko Hintikka (2012). If Logic, Definitions and the Vicious Circle Principle. Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2):505-517.
    In a definition (∀ x )(( x є r )↔D[ x ]) of the set r, the definiens D[ x ] must not depend on the definiendum r . This implies that all quantifiers in D[ x ] are independent of r and of (∀ x ). This cannot be implemented in the traditional first-order logic, but can be expressed in IF logic. Violations of such independence requirements are what created the typical paradoxes of set theory. Poincaré’s Vicious Circle Principle (...)
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  13. Jaakko Hintikka (2012). Which Mathematical Logic is the Logic of Mathematics? Logica Universalis 6 (3-4):459-475.
    The main tool of the arithmetization and logization of analysis in the history of nineteenth century mathematics was an informal logic of quantifiers in the guise of the “epsilon–delta” technique. Mathematicians slowly worked out the problems encountered in using it, but logicians from Frege on did not understand it let alone formalize it, and instead used an unnecessarily poor logic of quantifiers, viz. the traditional, first-order logic. This logic does not e.g. allow the definition and study of mathematicians’ uniformity concepts (...)
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  14. Jaakko Hintikka (2011). Method of Analysis: A Paradigm of Mathematical Reasoning? History and Philosophy of Logic 33 (1):49 - 67.
    The ancient Greek method of analysis has a rational reconstruction in the form of the tableau method of logical proof. This reconstruction shows that the format of analysis was largely determined by the requirement that proofs could be formulated by reference to geometrical figures. In problematic analysis, it has to be assumed not only that the theorem to be proved is true, but also that it is known. This means using epistemic logic, where instantiations of variables are typically allowed only (...)
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  15. Jaakko Hintikka (2011). The Crash of the Philosophy of the Tractatus: The Testimony of Wittgenstein's Notebooks in October 1929. In. In Enzo De Pellegrin (ed.), Interactive Wittgenstein. Springer. 153--169.
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  16. Jaakko Hintikka (2011). What is the Axiomatic Method? Synthese 183 (1):69-85.
    The modern notion of the axiomatic method developed as a part of the conceptualization of mathematics starting in the nineteenth century. The basic idea of the method is the capture of a class of structures as the models of an axiomatic system. The mathematical study of such classes of structures is not exhausted by the derivation of theorems from the axioms but includes normally the metatheory of the axiom system. This conception of axiomatization satisfies the crucial requirement that the derivation (...)
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  17. Jaakko Hintikka (2010). CS Peirce's. The Monist 63 (3):304-315.
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  18. Jaakko Hintikka (2010). Does Logic Count?. In. In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. 265--274.
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  19. Jaakko Hintikka (2010). How Can a Phenomenologist Have a Philosophy of Mathematics? In Mirja Hartimo (ed.), Phenomenology and Mathematics. Springer. 91--105.
  20. Jaakko Hintikka (2009). A Proof of Nominalism: An Exercise in Successful Reduction in Logic. In A. Hieke & H. Leitgeb (eds.), Reduction - Abstraction - Analysis. Ontos.
  21. Jaakko Hintikka (2007). Socratic Epistemology: Explorations of Knowledge-Seeking by Questioning. Cambridge University Press.
    Most current work in epistemology deals with the evaluation and justification of information already acquired. In this book, Jaakko Hintikka instead discusses the more important problem of how knowledge is acquired in the first place. His model of information-seeking is the old Socratic method of questioning, which has been generalized and brought up-to-date through the logical theory of questions and answers that he has developed.
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  22. Jaakko Hintikka (2006). Truth, Negation and Other Basic Notions of Logic. In. In Johan van Benthem, Gerhard Heinzman, M. Rebushi & H. Visser (eds.), The Age of Alternative Logics. Springer. 195--219.
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  23. Jaakko Hintikka & Besim Karakadilar (2006). How to Prove the Consistency of Arithmetic. Acta Philosophica Fennica 78:1.
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  24. Risto Vilkko & Jaakko Hintikka (2006). Existence and Predication From Aristotle to Frege. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2):359–377.
    One of the characteristic features of contemporary logic is that it incorporates the Frege-Russell thesis according to which verbs for being are multiply ambiguous. This thesis was not accepted before the nineteenth century. In Aristotle existence could not serve alone as a predicate term. However, it could be a part of the force of the predicate term, depending on the context. For Kant existence could not even be a part of the force of the predicate term. Hence, after Kant, existence (...)
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  25. Ilpo Halonen & Jaakko Hintikka (2005). Toward a Theory of the Process of Explanation. Synthese 143 (1-2):5 - 61.
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  26. Jaakko Hintikka (2005). GH von Wright on Logic, Philosophy and Mathematics. Acta Philosophica Fennica 77:33.
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  27. Jaakko Hintikka (2005). Kurt Godel : an introduction. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4:451-457.
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  28. Jaakko Hintikka (2005). La Philosophie Finnoise Chez Elle Et à L'Étranger. Diogène 211 (3):48.
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  29. Jaakko Hintikka (2005). Omitting Data—Ethical or Strategic Problem? Synthese 145 (2):169 - 176.
    Omitting experimental data is often considered a violation of scientific integrity. If we consider experimental inquiry as a questioning process, omitting data is seen to be merely an example of tentatively rejecting (‘bracketing’) some of nature’s answers. Such bracketing is not only occasionally permissible; sometimes it is mandated by optimal interrogative strategies. When to omit data is therefore a strategic rather than ethical question. These points are illustrated by reference to Millikan’s oil drop experiment.
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  30. Jaakko Hintikka (2005). On Tarski's Assumptions. Synthese 142 (3):353 - 369.
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  31. Jaakko Hintikka (2005). What Platonism ? Reflections on the thought of Kurt Godel. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4:535-552.
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  32. Jaakko Hintikka & Ilpo Halonen (2005). Explanation: Retrospective Reflections. Synthese 143 (1-2):207 - 222.
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  33. Jaakko Hintikka (2004). A Fallacious Fallacy? Synthese 140 (1-2):25 - 35.
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  34. Jaakko Hintikka (2004). Independence-Friendly Logic and Axiomatic Set Theory. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 126 (1-3):313-333.
    In order to be able to express all possible patterns of dependence and independence between variables, we have to replace the traditional first-order logic by independence-friendly (IF) logic. Our natural concept of truth for a quantificational sentence S says that all the Skolem functions for S exist. This conception of truth for a sufficiently rich IF first-order language can be expressed in the same language. In a first-order axiomatic set theory, one can apparently express this same concept in set-theoretical terms, (...)
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  35. Jaakko Hintikka (2004). Logical Vs. Nonlogical Concepts: An Untenable Dualism?. In. In S. Rahman J. Symons (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Kluwer Academic Publisher. 51--56.
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  36. Jaakko Hintikka (2004). What is the True Algebra of Logic. In Vincent F. Hendricks (ed.), First-Order Logic Revisited. Logos. 117--128.
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  37. Jaakko Hintikka (2003). Contemporary Philosophy and the Problem of Truth. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 80 (1):89-106.
    Finland is internationally known as one of the leading centers of twentieth century analytic philosophy. This volume offers for the first time an overall survey of the Finnish analytic school. The rise of this trend is illustrated by original articles of Edward Westermarck, Eino Kaila, Georg Henrik von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka. Contributions of Finnish philosophers are then systematically discussed in the fields of logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, history of philosophy, ethics and social philosophy. Metaphilosophical reflections on (...)
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  38. Jaakko Hintikka (2003). Squaring the Vienna Circle with Up-to-Date Logic and Epistemology. In. In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer. 149--165.
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  39. Jaakko Hintikka (2003). The notion of intuition in Husserl. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 2:57-79.
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  40. Jaakko Hintikka (2003). What Does the Wittgensteinian Inexpressible Express? The Harvard Review of Philosophy 11 (1):9-17.
    My propositions are elucidatory in this way: he who understands them eventually recognizes them as senseless [unsinnig], when he has climbed out through them, on them, over them… He must surmount these propositions; then he sees the world rightly. (Tractatus 6.54) These statements must be taken seriously and therefore must be interpreted as literally possible. They have nevertheless been experienced by some philosophers as posing a major interpretational problem. For if Wittgenstein’s words are taken literally, we seem to have a (...)
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  41. Jaakko Hintikka & John Symons (2003). Systems of Visual Identification in Neuroscience: Lessons From Epistemic Logic. Philosophy of Science 70 (1):89-104.
    The following analysis shows how developments in epistemic logic can play a nontrivial role in cognitive neuroscience. We argue that the striking correspondence between two modes of identification, as distinguished in the epistemic context, and two cognitive systems distinguished by neuroscientific investigation of the visual system (the "where" and "what" systems) is not coincidental, and that it can play a clarificatory role at the most fundamental levels of neuroscientific theory.
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  42. Noretta Koertge, Janet A. Kourany, Ronald N. Giere, Peter Gildenhuys, Thomas A. C. Reydon, Stéphanie Ruphy, Samir Okasha, Jaakko Hintikka & John Symons (2003). 10. Simulated Experiments: Methodology for a Virtual World Simulated Experiments: Methodology for a Virtual World (Pp. 105-125). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 70 (1).
     
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  43. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Comment on Eklund and Kolak. Synthese 131 (3):389 - 393.
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  44. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Hyperclassical Logic (A.K.A. IF Logic) and its Implications for Logical Theory. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (3):404-423.
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  45. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Hyperclassical Logic (Aka Independence-Friendly Logic) and its General Significance. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8:404-423.
     
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  46. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Negation in Logic and in Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):585-600.
    In game-theoretical semantics, perfectlyclassical rules yield a strong negation thatviolates tertium non datur when informationalindependence is allowed. Contradictorynegation can be introduced only by a metalogicalstipulation, not by game rules. Accordingly, it mayoccur (without further stipulations) onlysentence-initially. The resulting logic (extendedindependence-friendly logic) explains several regularitiesin natural languages, e.g., why contradictory negation is abarrier to anaphase. In natural language, contradictory negationsometimes occurs nevertheless witin the scope of aquantifier. Such sentences require a secondary interpretationresembling the so-called substitutionalinterpretation of quantifiers.This interpretation is sometimes impossible,and (...)
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  47. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Problems of Philosophy. Problem #32: Difference Modal Notions in the History of Thought. Synthese 130 (1):173 -.
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  48. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Quantum Logic as a Fragment of Independence-Friendly Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (3):197-209.
    The working assumption of this paper is that noncommuting variables are irreducibly interdependent. The logic of such dependence relations is the author's independence-friendly (IF) logic, extended by adding to it sentence-initial contradictory negation ¬ over and above the dual (strong) negation ∼. Then in a Hilbert space ∼ turns out to express orthocomplementation. This can be extended to any logical space, which makes it possible to define the dimension of a logical space. The received Birkhoff and von Neumann "quantum logic" (...)
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  49. Joseph Margolis, Tom Rockmore, Lisa Dolling, Jaakko Hintikka, Anton Alterman, Stephen Toulmin, Michel Paty, John Stachel, Gregg Horowitz, Michael Kelly, Tom Huhn, Barbara Savedoff, Saul Fisher, Sybil Schwarzenbach, John Pittman, Raphael Sassower & MaryAnn Cutter (2002). Constructivism and Practice: Toward a Historical Epistemology. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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