Search results for 'Jackie Sanders' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  1
    Robyn Munford, Jackie Sanders, Brigit Mirfin Veitch & Jenny Conder (2008). Ethics and Research: Searching for Ethical Practice in Research. Ethics and Social Welfare 2 (1):50-66.
  2. John T. Sanders (1997). An Ontology of Affordances. Ecological Psychology 9 (1):97-112.
    I argue that the most promising approach to understanding J.J. Gibson's "affordances" takes affordances themselves as ontological primitives, instead of treating them as dispositional properties of more primitive things, events, surfaces, or substances. These latter are best treated as coalescences of affordances present in the environment (or "coalescences of use-potential," as in Sanders (1994) and Hilditch (1995)). On this view, even the ecological approach's stress on the complementary organism/environment pair is seen as expressing a particular affordance relation between the (...)
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  3.  8
    Sam Sanders & Keita Yokoyama (2012). The Dirac Delta Function in Two Settings of Reverse Mathematics. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (1-2):99-121.
    The program of Reverse Mathematics (Simpson 2009) has provided us with the insight that most theorems of ordinary mathematics are either equivalent to one of a select few logical principles, or provable in a weak base theory. In this paper, we study the properties of the Dirac delta function (Dirac 1927; Schwartz 1951) in two settings of Reverse Mathematics. In particular, we consider the Dirac Delta Theorem, which formalizes the well-known property ${\int_\mathbb{R}f(x)\delta(x)\,dx=f(0)}$ of the Dirac delta function. We show that (...)
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  4.  24
    Andy F. Sanders (1999). Polanyians on Realism. Tradition and Discovery 26 (3):6-14.
    This introduction to a special Tradition and Discovery issue on Polanyi’s realism summarizes, and comments on the views of Jha, Gulick, Mullins, Cannon, Puddefoot, Meek and Sanders. All agree that Polanyi advocated a scientific realism hanging on the theses that reality is independent of human conceptualizations and that it is partially and fallibly knowable. Major differences concern its scope. All agree that it is comprehensive, pertaining not only to common sense and science but to intrinsic and ultimate values, and (...)
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  5.  7
    Sam Sanders (2013). Reverse-Engineering Reverse Mathematics. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 164 (5):528-541.
    An important open problem in Reverse Mathematics is the reduction of the first-order strength of the base theory from IΣ1IΣ1 to IΔ0+expIΔ0+exp. The system ERNA, a version of Nonstandard Analysis based on the system IΔ0+expIΔ0+exp, provides a partial solution to this problem. Indeed, weak Königʼs lemma and many of its equivalent formulations from Reverse Mathematics can be ‘pushed down’ into ERNA, while preserving the equivalences, but at the price of replacing equality with ‘≈’, i.e. infinitesimal proximity . The logical principle (...)
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  6.  9
    John T. Sanders, Katie Terezakis & Anna Bostock (eds.) (2010). Soul and Form. Cup.
    György Lukacs was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, writer, and literary critic who shaped mainstream European Communist thought. _Soul and Form_ was his first book, published in 1910, and it established his reputation, treating questions of linguistic expressivity and literary style in the works of Plato, Kierkegaard, Novalis, Sterne, and others. By isolating the formal techniques these thinkers developed, Lukács laid the groundwork for his later work in Marxist aesthetics, a field that introduced the historical and political implications of text. For (...)
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  7. Holly Canup, Adria Gravely, Debbie May & Mandy Sanders (2004). Program Development and Evaluation Plan. Philosophy 5:7.
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  8. Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders (2004). On the Morality of Artificial Agents. Minds and Machines 14 (3):349-379.
    Artificial agents (AAs), particularly but not only those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations. For they can be conceived of as moral patients (as entities that can be acted upon for good or evil) and also as moral agents (as entities that can perform actions, again for good or evil). In this paper, we clarify the concept of agent and go on to separate the concerns of morality and responsibility of agents (most (...)
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  9. John T. Sanders (1994). Merleau-Ponty on Meaning, Materiality, and Structure. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 25 (1):96-100.
    Against David Schenck's interpretation, I argue that it is not absolutely clear that Merleau-Ponty ever meant to replace what Schenck refers to as the "unity of meanings" interpretation of "structure" with a "material meanings" interpretation. A particular problem-setting -- for example, an attempt to understand the "truth in naturalism" or the "truth in dualism" -- may very well require a particular mode of expression. I argue that the mode of expression chosen by Merleau-Ponty for these purposes, while unfortunate in some (...)
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  10. Elizabeth C. Hirschman & Clinton R. Sanders (1996). Guest Editors' Introduction: Involvement with Animals as Consumer Experience. Society and Animals 4 (2):111-119.
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  11. John T. Sanders (1993). Merleau-Ponty, Gibson and the Materiality of Meaning. Man and World 26 (3):287-302.
    While there are numerous differences between the approaches taken by Maurice Merleau-Ponty and James J. Gibson, the basic motivation of the two thinkers, as well as the internal logic of their respective views, is extraordinarily close. Both were guided throughout their lives by an attempt to overcome the dualism of subject and object, and both devoted considerable attention to their "Gestaltist" predecessors. There can be no doubt but that it is largely because of this common cause that the subsequent development (...)
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  12. Clinton R. Sanders & Elizabeth C. Hirschman (1996). Guest Editors' Introduction: Involvement with Animals as Consumer Experience. Society and Animals 4 (2):111-119.
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  13.  41
    Suzanne C. Wagner & G. Lawrence Sanders (2001). Considerations in Ethical Decision-Making and Software Piracy. Journal of Business Ethics 29 (1-2):161 - 167.
    Individuals are faced with the many opportunities to pirate. The decision to pirate or not may be related to an individual''s attitudes toward other ethical issues. A person''s ethical and moral predispositions and the judgments that they use to make decisions may be consistent across various ethical dilemmas and may indicate their likelihood to pirate software. This paper investigates the relationship between religion and a theoretical ethical decision making process that an individual uses when evaluating ethical or unethical situations. An (...)
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  14. John T. Sanders (1988). Why the Numbers Should Sometimes Count. Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (1):3-14.
    John Taurek has argued that, where choices must be made between alternatives that affect different numbers of people, the numbers are not, by themselves, morally relevant. This is because we "must" take "losses-to" the persons into account (and these don't sum), but "must not" consider "losses-of" persons (because we must not treat persons like objects). I argue that the numbers are always ethically relevant, and that they may sometimes be the decisive consideration.
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  15. Andy F. Sanders (2002). God, Contemporary Science and Metaphysics. Tradition and Discovery 29 (3):28-31.
    This paper is a response read at a joint session of the Polanyi Society and the Religion and Science Group at the AAR Annual Meeting in Denver, November 16, 2001. Though a paradigm example of the conversation between systematic theology and contemporary science, Philip Clayton’s God and Contemporary Science is questioned for taking the natural sciences too seriously: it endangers the autonomy of theology and by implicitly advocating a grand metaphysics, it creates an unbridgeable gap with ordinary religious meaning, and (...)
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  16. John T. Sanders (1993). Honor Among Thieves. Professional Ethics 2 (3/4):83-103.
    As complicated an affair as it may be to give a fully acceptable general characterization of professional codes of ethics that will capture every nuance, one theme that has attracted widespread attention portrays them as contrivances whose primary function is to secure certain obligations of professionals to clients, or to the external community. In contrast to such an "externalist" characterization of professional codes, it has occasionally been contended that, first and foremost, they should be understood as internal conventions, adopted among (...)
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  17. John T. Sanders (1987). Justice and the Initial Acquisition of Property. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 10 (2):367-99.
    There is a great deal that might be said about justice in property claims. The strategy that I shall employ focuses attention upon the initial acquisition of property -- the most sensitive and most interesting area of property theory. Every theory that discusses property claims favorably assumes that there is some justification for transforming previously unowned resources into property. It is often this assumption which has seemed, to one extent or another, to be vulnerable to attack by critics of particular (...)
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  18.  26
    Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders (2001). Artificial Evil and the Foundation of Computer Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 3 (1):55-66.
    Moral reasoning traditionally distinguishes two types of evil:moral (ME) and natural (NE). The standard view is that ME is theproduct of human agency and so includes phenomena such as war,torture and psychological cruelty; that NE is the product ofnonhuman agency, and so includes natural disasters such asearthquakes, floods, disease and famine; and finally, that morecomplex cases are appropriately analysed as a combination of MEand NE. Recently, as a result of developments in autonomousagents in cyberspace, a new class of interesting and (...)
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  19. John T. Sanders (1977). The Free Market Model Versus Government: A Reply to Nozick. Journal of Libertarian Studies 1 (1):35-44.
    In Anarchy, State and Utopia, Robert Nozick argues, first, that free-market anarchism is unstable -that it will inevitably lead back to the state; and, second, that without a certain "redistributive" proviso, the model is unjust. If either of these things is the case, the model defeats itself, for its justification purports to be that it provides a morally acceptable alternative to government (and therefore to the state). I argue, against Nozick's contention, that his "dominant protection agency" neither meets his monopoly (...)
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  20. Lynn M. Sanders (1997). Against Deliberation. Political Theory 25 (3):347-376.
  21.  83
    Andy F. Sanders (1991). Tacit Knowing--Between Modernism and Postmodernism. Tradition and Discovery 18 (2):15-21.
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  22. John T. Sanders (1998). Knowledge and Description: Bohr's Epistemology. In Jan Such & Malgorzata Szczesniak (eds.), Z epistemologii wiedzy naukowej. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Instytutu Filozofii
    In this paper, I try to explain the philosophical problems that Niels Bohr felt had been exposed by the discovery of the "quantum of action," and by the emergence of the quantum theory that arose in large part as a result of his efforts. I won't have space to make the case adequately here, but my own view is that we have not yet fully digested the message brought to us by Bohr's "Copenhagen Interpretation" of Quantum Mechanics, and I suspect (...)
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  23. Andy F. Sanders (1999). Science, Religion and Polanyi's Comprehensive Realism. Tradition and Discovery 26 (3):84-93.
    In this essay, I argue that Polanyi developed a realism which ranges over the sciences and the humanities as well as over values. I argue that his comprehensive realism had best be understood as relative to veracious inquirers participating in communal traditions of inquiry and that this leads to a theological realism according to which the divine realities are interpreted contextually, i.e., in terms of a particular religious form of life, rather than in terms of the grand metaphysics of classical (...)
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  24. John T. Sanders, From Perception to Metaphysics: Reflections on Berkeley and Merleau-Ponty.
    George Berkeley's apparently strange view – that nothing exists without a mind except for minds themselves – is notorious. Also well known, and equally perplexing at a superficial level, is his insistence that his doctrine is no more than what is consistent with common sense. It was every bit as crucial for Berkeley that it be demonstrated that the colors are really in the tulip, as that there is nothing that is neither a mind nor something perceived by a mind. (...)
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  25. John T. Sanders (1999). Affordances: An Ecological Approach to First Philosophy. In Gail Weiss & Honi Fern Haber (eds.), Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture. Routledge 121--42.
    Interest in "embodiment", and over how one may best express the implications of embodiment, is no parochial question, of interest only to a small number of effete philosophers. It confronts perceptual psychologists, developmental psychologists, and psychotherapists, of course. It may not be surprising, either, that it has become an important issue to some students of history and sociology, and to linguists, literary theorists and aestheticians. But that's not all. As physicists -- working within the very bastion of "objective" analysis -- (...)
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  26. Jane M. Smith & John T. Sanders (2009). 'Von der Armut Am Geiste': A Dialogue by the Young Lukács. In Katie Terezakis (ed.), Engaging Agnes Heller: A Critical Companion. Lexington Books
    Translation of "Von der Armut am Geiste; ein Dialog des jungen Lukács," by Ágnes Heller. This translation originally appeared in The Philosophical Forum, Spring-Summer 1972.
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  27.  3
    Richard A. Burns & Rebecca E. Sanders (1987). Concurrent Counting of Two and Three Events in a Serial Anticipation Paradigm. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (6):479-481.
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  28. John T. Sanders (1985). Experience, Memory and Intelligence. The Monist 68 (4):507-521.
    What characterizes most technical or theoretical accounts of memory is their reliance upon an internal storage model. Psychologists and neurophysiologists have suggested neural traces (either dynamic or static) as the mechanism for this storage, and designers of artificial intelligence have relied upon the same general model, instantiated magnetically or electronically instead of neurally, to do the same job. Both psychology and artificial intelligence design have heretofore relied, without much question, upon the idea that memory is to be understood as a (...)
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  29. John T. Sanders (1996). The State of Statelessness. In John T. Sanders & Jan Narveson (eds.), For and Against the State: New Philosophical Readings. Rowman and Littlefield
    My objective in this paper is to address a handful of issues that typically get raised in discussions of philosophical anarchism. Some of these issues arise in discussions among partisans of anarchism, and some are more likely to be raised in efforts to defend the state against its opponents. My hope is to focus the argument in such a way as to make clearer the main issues that are at stake from the point of view of at least one version (...)
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  30. D. B. Miracle, W. S. Sanders & O. N. Senkov (2003). The Influence of Efficient Atomic Packing on the Constitution of Metallic Glasses. Philosophical Magazine 83 (20):2409-2428.
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  31. Wade L. Robison & John T. Sanders (1993). The Myths of Academia: Open Inquiry and Funded Research. Journal of College and University Law 19 (3):227-50.
    Both professors and institutions of higher education benefit from a vision of academic life that is grounded more firmly in myth than in history. According to the myth created by that traditional vision, scholars pursue research wherever their drive to knowledge takes them, and colleges and universities transmit the fruits of that research to contemporary and future generations as the accumulated wisdom of the ages. Yet the economic and social forces operating on colleges and universities as institutions, as well as (...)
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  32.  7
    Harry Collins & Gary Sanders (2007). They Give You the Keys and Say 'Drive It!' Managers, Referred Expertise, and Other Expertises. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (4):621-641.
    On the face of it, the directors of new large scientific projects have an impossible task. They have to make technical decisions about sciences in which they have never made a research contribution—sciences in which they have no contributory expertise. Furthermore, these decisions must be accepted and respected by the scientists who are making research contributions. The problem is discussed in two interviews conducted with two directors of large scientific projects. The paradox is resolved for the managers by their use (...)
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  33. John T. Sanders (1992). On ‘Cuteness’. British Journal of Aesthetics 32 (2):162-165.
    For John Morreall, cuteness is an abstract general attribute of infants that causes adults to want to care for them (or which is the reason, or at least important reason, for such solicitousness). I shall try to show, in what follows, that this is, if not an altogether fallacious way of explaining the matter, at least an extremely misleading one. As it stands, in particular, it is too easy to infer from Morreall's line of reasoning 1) that infants in general (...)
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  34. John T. Sanders, Cuteness as a Product of Natural Selection.
    This is a more detailed version of my "On 'Cuteness'", which appeared in the British Journal of Aesthetics in April 1992. For John Morreall, cuteness is an abstract general attribute of infants that causes adults to want to care for them (or which is the reason, or at least important reason, for such solicitousness). I shall try to show, in what follows, that this is, if not an altogether fallacious way of explaining the matter, at least an extremely misleading one. (...)
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  35.  96
    Y. Ben-Aryeh, A. Mann & B. C. Sanders (1999). Empirical State Determination of Entangled Two-Level Systems and Its Relation to Information Theory. Foundations of Physics 29 (12):1963-1975.
    Theoretical methods for empirical state determination of entangled two-level systems are analyzed in relation to information theory. We show that hidden variable theories would lead to a Shannon index of correlation between the entangled subsystems which is larger than that predicted by quantum mechanics. Canonical representations which have maximal correlations are treated by the use of Schmidt and Hilbert-Schmidt decomposition of the entangled states, including especially the Bohm singlet state and the GHZ entangled states. We show that quantum mechanics does (...)
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  36. John T. Sanders (1996). Stanislaw Leśniewski's Logical Systems. Axiomathes 7 (3):407-415.
    Stanislaw Lesniewski’s interests were, for the most part, more philosophical than mathematical. Prior to taking his doctorate at Jan Kazimierz University in Lvov, Lesniewski had spent time at several continental universities, apparently becoming relatively attached to the philosophy of one of his teachers, Hans Comelius, to the chapters of John Stuart Mill’s System of Logic that dealt specifically with semantics, and, in general, to studies of general grammar and philosophy of language. In these several early interests are already to be (...)
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  37. John T. Sanders (1996). An Ecological Approach to Cognitive Science. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 1996 (Spring).
    Cognitive science is ready for a major reconceptualization. This is not at all because efforts by its practitioners have failed, but rather because so much progress has been made. The need for reconceptualization arises from the fact that this progress has come at greater cost than necessary, largely because of more or less philosophical (at least metatheoretical) straightjackets still worn - whether wittingly or not - by those doing the work. These bonds are extremely hard to break. Even some of (...)
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  38.  5
    Ed Sanders (2014). Envy and Jealousy in Classical Athens: A Socio-Psychological Approach. OUP Usa.
    Envy and Jealousy in Classical Athens examines the sensation, expression, and literary representation of envy and jealousy in Classical Athens.
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  39. John T. Sanders (1994). How Ethical Is Investigative Testing? Employment Testing Law and Policy Reporter 3 (2):17-23, 35.
    Analyzing three key cases that arose in 1993, I argue that the practice of sending in "testers" -- persons posing as job applicants -- to ferret out workplace discrimination is easier to defend from an ethical standpoint in an agency's investigation stems from an actual complaint. By contrast, defendants may rightfully challenge the legitimacy of the procedures used for "test" subjects when an investigation is based solely on the general goals of an antidiscrimination agency.
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  40.  14
    Clark Pinnock, Richard Rice, John Sanders, William Hasker & David Basinger (1994). The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.
    Written by five scholars whose expertise extends across the disciplines of biblical, historical, systematic, and philosophical theology, this is a careful and ...
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  41. John T. Sanders (2002). Projects and Property. In David Schmidtz (ed.), Robert Nozick. Cambridge University Press
    I try in this essay to accomplish two things. First I offer some first thoughts toward a clarification of the ethical foundations of private property rights that avoids pitfalls common to more strictly Lockean theories, and is thus better prepared to address arguments posed by critics of standard private property arrangements. Second, I'll address one critical argument that has become pretty common over the years. While versions of the argument can be traced back at least to Pierre Joseph Proudhon, I'll (...)
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  42. Albert Lewin, Oscar Wilde, George Sanders, Hurd Hatfield & Donna Reed (2001). The Picture of Dorian Gray.
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  43. John T. Sanders (1983). Political Authority. The Monist 66 (4):545-556.
    I begin this essay with a notion of "authority" that makes a sharp distinction between authority and power, and grant that such authority is not only legitimate, but perhaps even necessary in human affairs. I then trace the devaluation of this idea through varying degrees of institutionalization, culminating in its political cooptation. I argue, finally, that what goes by the name of political authority is the very antithesis of the legitimate and necessary element that we began with.
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  44. John T. Sanders (2006). Benjamin Franklin and the League of the Haudenosaunee. In St Petersburg Center for the History of Ideas (ed.), The Philosophical Age, Almanac 32: Benjamin Franklin and Russia, to the Tercentenary of His Birth. St. Petersburg Center for the History of Ideas
    Benjamin Franklin's social and political thought was shaped by contacts with and knowledge of ancient aboriginal traditions. Indeed, a strong case can be made that key features of the social structure eventually outlined in the United States Constitution arose not from European sources, and not full-grown from the foreheads of European-American "founding fathers", but from aboriginal sources, communicated to the authors of the Constitution to a significant extent through Franklin. A brief sketch of the main argument to this effect is (...)
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  45.  38
    Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders (2002). Mapping the Foundationalist Debate in Computer Ethics. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (1):1-9.
    The paper provides a critical review of thedebate on the foundations of Computer Ethics(CE). Starting from a discussion of Moor'sclassic interpretation of the need for CEcaused by a policy and conceptual vacuum, fivepositions in the literature are identified anddiscussed: the ``no resolution approach'',according to which CE can have no foundation;the professional approach, according to whichCE is solely a professional ethics; the radicalapproach, according to which CE deals withabsolutely unique issues, in need of a uniqueapproach; the conservative approach, accordingto which CE (...)
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  46. John T. Sanders, Dynamical Systems and Scientific Method.
    Progress in the last few decades in what is widely known as “Chaos Theory” has plainly advanced understanding in the several sciences it has been applied to. But the manner in which such progress has been achieved raises important questions about scientific method and, indeed, about the very objectives and character of science. In this presentation, I hope to engage my audience in a discussion of several of these important new topics.
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  47. John T. Sanders & Wade L. Robison (1992). Research Funding and the Value-Dependence of Science. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 11 (1):33-50.
    An understanding of the ethical problems that have arisen in the funding of scientific research at universities requires some attention to doctrines that have traditionally been held about science itself. Such doctrines, we hope to show, are themselves central to many of these ethical problems. It is often thought that the questions examined by scientists, and the theories that guide scientific research, are chosen for uniquely scientific reasons, independently of extra-scientific questions of value or merit. We shall argue that this (...)
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  48.  2
    Daniel J. Mayor, Richard Sanders, Sarah L. C. Giering & Thomas R. Anderson (2014). Microbial Gardening in the Ocean's Twilight Zone: Detritivorous Metazoans Benefit From Fragmenting, Rather Than Ingesting, Sinking Detritus. Bioessays 36 (12):1132-1137.
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  49.  94
    John T. Sanders (1993). Assessing Responsibility. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 12 (4):73-86.
    In the midst of even the most tragic circumstances attending the aftermath of disaster, and co-existing with a host of complex emotions, arises a practical consideration: how might similar tragedies be prevented in the future? The complexity of such situations must not be neglected. More than mere prevention must usually be taken into consideration. But the practical question is of considerable importance. In what follows, I will offer some reasons for being concerned that efforts to fix the problem -- efforts, (...)
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  50.  94
    John T. Sanders (2007). Contracting Justice. In Malcolm Murray (ed.), Liberty, Games, and Contracts: Jan Narveson and the Defence of Libertarianism. Ashgate
    In The Libertarian Idea, Jan Narveson explains his interpretation of social contract theory this way: "The general idea of this theory is that the principles of morality are (or should be) those principles for directing everyone's conduct which it is reasonable for everyone to accept. They are the rules that everyone has good reason for wanting everyone to act on, and thus to internalize in himself or herself, and thus to reinforce in the case of everyone." It is plain, here, (...)
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