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  1. James Lenman, Michael A. Smith.
    The strength of the motivation it is rational to have in the light of an evaluative judgement covaries independently with both certitude and importance in ways which, Smith argues, his own cognitivist theory of evaluative judgement is well placed to explain. Not so for noncognitivism which identifies evaluations with desires (very broadly construed). Desires can vary in strength both relative to each other and over time: this does not seem like enough structure to accommodate all three structural features that evaluative (...)
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  2. James Lenman (2014). Deliberation, Schmeliberation: Enoch's Indispensability Argument. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 168 (3):835-842.
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  3. James Lenman (2013). Ethics Without Errors. Ratio 26 (4):391-409.
    I argue against the claim that we should adopt a moral error theory. The intelligibility of our moral practice need offer no questionable metaphysical hostages to fortune. The two most credible policy recommendations that might follow from moral error theory, abolitionism and prescriptive fictionalism, are not very credible.
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  4. James Lenman (2013). Russell , Gillian . Truth in Virtue of Meaning: A Defence of the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction . New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Pp. Xv+232. $65.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 123 (3):586-592.
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  5. James Lenman (2013). Science, Ethics and Observation. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:261-274.
    This paper examines the idea that ethics might be understood as a domain of straightforwardly empirical inquiry with reference to two of its defenders. Sam Harris has recently urged that ethics is simply the scientific study of welfare and how best to maximize it. That is of course to presuppose the truth of utilitarianism, something Harris considers too obvious to be sensibly contested. Richard Boyd's more nuanced and thoughtful position takes the truth of the ethical theory he favours to be (...)
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  6. James Lenman (2013). Slaves of the Passions. By Mark Schroeder. (Oxford UP, 2007. Pp. 224. Price US$85.00.). [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 63 (251):384-387.
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  7. Errnanno Bencivenga, Nadeem Hussein, Christine Korsgaard, James Lenman, Peter de Mameffe, James Nickel, David Plunkett, James Pryor, Andrews Reath & Michael Ridge (2012). Constructing Protagorean. In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  8. James Lenman (2012). Expressivism and Constructivism. In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  9. James Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (2012). Introduction. In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  10. James Lenman (2011). Pleasure, Desire and Practical Reason. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (2):143-149.
    This paper examines the role of stability in the constitution of pleasure and desire, its relevance to the intimate ways the two are related and to their role in the constitution of practical reason.
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  11. James Lenman (2010). Humean Constructivism in Moral Theory. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 5. Oup Oxford.
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  12. James Lenman (2010). 1. How to Share a Flat. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics. Oxford University Press. 5--175.
     
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  13. James Lenman, Reasons for Action: Justification Vs. Explanation. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Modern philosophical literature distinguishes between explanatory reasons and justifying reasons. The former are reasons we appeal to in attempting to explain actions and attitudes. The latter are reasons we appeal to in attempting to justify them.
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  14. James Lenman (2010). Uggles and Muggles: Wedgwood on Normative Thought and Justification. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 151 (3):469 - 477.
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  15. James Lenman (2009). Achieving Objectivity. Philosophical Perspectives 23 (1):293-304.
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  16. James Lenman (2009). Michael Smith and the Daleks: Reason, Morality, and Contingency. Utilitas 11 (02):164-.
    Smith has defended the rationalist's conceptual claim that moral requirements are categorical requirements of reason, arguing that no status short of this would make sense of our taking these requirements as seriously as we do. Against this I argue that Smith has failed to show either that our moral commitments would be undermined by possessing only an internal, contextual justification or that they need presuppose any expectation that rational agents must converge on their acceptance. His claim that this rationalistic understanding (...)
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  17. James Lenman (2009). Naturalism Without Tears. Ratio 22 (1):1-18.
    Parfit argues that naturalistic theories that seek to understand normative concepts either as simply descriptive of certain natural facts about our desires or as expressive of our desires commit us to a bleak normative nihilism whereby nothing matters. I here defend such naturalism, in particular its expressivist variety, against this charge. It is true that such views commit us to there being no reasons as Parfit understands them. But for Parfit to suppose that equivalent to there being no reasons leaves (...)
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  18. James Lenman (2009). Review of Allan Gibbard, Reconciling Our Aims: In Search of Bases for Ethics. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (9).
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  19. James Lenman, The Politics of the Self: Stability, Normativity and the Lives We Can Live with Living.
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  20. James Lenman (2008). Actions, Motives and Causes. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):353–362.
    In this book Alfred Mele [Motivation and Agency, 2003 OUP] seeks to elaborate and defend a neo-Davidsonian understanding of human agency which is fundamentally causalist: intentional actions are, he thinks, caused and caused in such a way that a causal explanation of them is available in terms of the desires and intentions of the agent.
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  21. James Lenman (2008). Against Moral Fictionalism. Philosophical Books 49 (1):23-32.
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  22. James Lenman (2008). Contractualism and Risk Imposition. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):99-122.
    The article investigates the resources of contractualist moral theory to make sense of the ethics of risk imposition. In some ways, contractualism seems well placed to explain how it can be reasonable to accept exposure to risk of harms whose direct imposition would not be acceptable. However, there are difficulties getting clear about what directness comes to here, especially given the difficulty of adequately motivating traditional views that assign ethical significance to what the agent intends as opposed to merely foreseeing. (...)
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  23. James Lenman (2008). Review: Actions, Motives and Causes. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 58 (231):353 - 362.
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  24. James Lenman (2008). Review of Terence Cuneo,, The Normative Web: An Argument for Moral Realism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (6).
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  25. James Lenman (2007). Expressivism and Epistemology: What is Moral Inquiry? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 81 (1):63–81.
  26. James Lenman (2007). Review of Terry Horgan, Mark Timmons (Eds.), Metaethics After Moore. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (3).
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  27. James Lenman (2007). What Is Moral Inquiry? Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 81:63 - 81.
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  28. James Lenman (2006). Compatibilism and Contractualism: The Possibility of Moral Responsibility. Ethics 117 (1):7-31.
  29. James Lenman (2006). How to Live, What to Do: A Critical Study of Allan Gibbard, Thinking How to Live. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (3):359-369.
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  30. James Lenman, Tamar Schapiro, Daniel Statman, Harry Brighouse, Adam Swift & John Martin Fischer (2006). 10. Kwong‐Loi Shun and David Wong, Eds., Confucian Ethics: A Comparative Study of Self, Autonomy, and Community Kwong‐Loi Shun and David Wong, Eds., Confucian Ethics: A Comparative Study of Self, Autonomy, and Community (Pp. 156-160). [REVIEW] Ethics 117 (1).
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  31. James Lenman (2005). The Saucer of Mud, The Kudzu Vine and the Uxorious Cheetah: Against Neo-Aristotelian Naturalism in Metaethics. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 1 (2):37-50.
    Let me say something, to begin with, about wanting weird stuff. Stuff like saucers of mud. The example, famously, is from Anscombe’s Intention (Anscombe Anscombe 957)) where she is, in effect, defending a version of the old scholastic maxim, Omne appetitum appetitur sub specie boni. If your Latin is rusty like mine, what that says is just that every appetite – for better congruence with modern discussions, let’s say every desire – desires under the aspect of the good, or in (...)
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  32. Margaret A. Boden, Richard B. Brandt, Peter Caldwell, Fred Feldman, John Martin Fischer, Richard Hare, David Hume, W. D. Joske, Immanuel Kant, Frederick Kaufman, James Lenman, John Leslie, Steven Luper-Foy, Michaelis Michael, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, Derek Parfit, George Pitcher, Stephen E. Rosenbaum, David Schmidtz, Arthur Schopenhauer, David B. Suits, Richard Taylor & Bernard Williams (2004). Life, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  33. Simon Kirchin & James Lenman (2003). Ethics. Philosophical Books 44 (2):179-183.
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  34. James Lenman (2003). Jeanette Kennett, Agency and Responsibility: A Common-Sense Moral Psychology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2001, Pp. Viii + 229. [REVIEW] Utilitas 15 (03):380.
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  35. James Lenman (2003). Disciplined Syntacticism and Moral Expressivism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):32–57.
    Moral Expressivists typically concede that, in some minimal sense, moral sentences are truth-apt but claim that in some more robust sense they are not. The Immodest Disciplined Syntacticist, a species of minimalist about truth, raises a doubt as to whether this contrast can be made out. I here address this challenge by motivating and describing a distinction between reducibly and irreducibly truth-apt sentences. In the light of this distinction the Disciplined Syntacticist must either adopt a more modest version of his (...)
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  36. James Lenman (2003). Moral Deviants and Amoral Saints: A Dilemma for Moral Externalism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):223-240.
  37. James Lenman (2003). Noncognitivism and Wishfulness. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 6 (3):265-274.
    It has recently been argued by Cian Dorr that if noncognitivism is true, inferences to factual conclusions from premises at least one of which is moral must be condemned as irrational. For, given a noncognitivist understanding of what it is to accept such premises, such reasoning would be wishful thinking: irrationally revising our views about the world to make them cohere with our desires and feelings. This he takes to be a reductio of noncognitivism. I argue that no compelling case (...)
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  38. James Lenman (2002). On Becoming Extinct. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83 (3):253–269.
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  39. James Lenman (2002). On the Alleged Shallowness of Compatibilism: A Critical Study of Saul Smilansky: Free Will and Illusion. Iyyun 51 (January):63-79.
    The millionaire’s idle, talentless and self-centered daughter inherits a large sum of money that she does not really deserve. The victim of kidnapping rots in a cell in 1980s Beirut in a captivity that springs not from any wrong he has done but from his ill-fortune in being in the wrong place at the wrong time. The hard-working, brilliant and self-denying Nobel Prize-winning scientist receives a large cheque for his extraordinarily productive labours. The murderer spends decades in jail for the (...)
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  40. James Lenman (2001). On Becoming Redundant or What Computers Shouldn't Do. Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (1):1–11.
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  41. James Lenman (2000). Consequentialism and Cluelessness. Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (4):342–370.
  42. James Lenman (2000). Contracting Responsibility. In. In A. van den Beld (ed.), Moral Responsibility and Ontology. Kluwer. 171--182.
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  43. James Lenman (2000). Preferences in Their Place. Environmental Values 9 (4):431 - 451.
    In at least some of their forms, Cost-Benefit techniques for the evaluation of environmental projects and policies treat the preferences of citizens as the sole determinants of the value of outcomes. There are two salient ways in which this supposition might be defended. The first is metaethical and appeals to considerations about how we must understand talk of environmental and other values. The second is political and appeals to considerations about democratic legitimacy and the proper aims of public policy. Metaethical (...)
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  44. James Lenman (1999). 'The Amoralist and the Externalist. Philosophia 27:451.
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  45. James Lenman (1999). The Externalist and the Amoralist. Philosophia 27 (3-4):441-457.
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  46. James Lenman (1998). Review of Korsgaard's Creating the Kingdom of Ends (1996, CUP). [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (4):487-8.
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  47. James Lenman (1998). Christine M. Korsgaard: Creating the Kingdom of Ends. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (4):487-488.
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  48. James Lenman (1998). Michael Smith: The Moral Problem. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (1):125-126.
  49. James Lenman (1996). Belief, Desire and Motivation: An Essay in Quasi-Hydraulics. American Philosophical Quarterly 33 (3):291-301.
    My concern here is with the Humean claim that no purely cognitive state could, in combination with appropriate other beliefs, but with nothing else, originate a process of rational motivation. The starting point of such motivation must always include some other element: a desire. Let's call this claim, following David McNaughton the belief-desire theory, or BDT for short. The theory is widely believed but intensely controversial. I argue here that it is true.
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  50. James Lenman (1995). Immortality: A Letter. Cogito 9 (2):164-169.
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